Massachusetts Bay Colony
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Massachusetts Bay Colony, one of the original English settlements in present-day Massachusetts, settled in 1630 by a group of about 1,000 Puritan refugees from England under Gov. John Winthrop and Deputy Gov. Thomas Dudley. In 1629 the Massachusetts Bay Company had obtained from King Charles I a charter empowering the company to trade and colonize in New England between the Charles and Merrimack rivers. The grant was similar to that of the Virginia Company in 1609, the patentees being joint proprietors with rights of ownership and government. The intention of the crown was evidently to create merely a commercial company with what, in modern parlance, would be called stockholders, officers, and directors. By a shrewd and legally questionable move, however, the patentees decided to transfer the management and the charter itself to Massachusetts. By this move, they not only paved the way for local management, but they established the assumption that the charter for a commercial company was in reality a political constitution for a new government with only indefinable dependence upon the imperial one in England. Among the communities that the Puritans established were Boston, Charlestown, Dorchester, Medford, Watertown, Roxbury, and Lynn.
When was the Massachusetts Bay Colony founded, and how long did it last?
In 1629 King Charles I of England granted the Massachusetts Bay Company a charter to trade in and colonize the part of New England that lay approximately between the Charles and Merrimack Rivers, and settlement began in 1630. Boston was made the capital in 1632. The charter was revoked in 1684, and two years later all the New England colonies were united into the Dominion of New England. A new charter was issued in 1691 that joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Plymouth Colony, and the Maine Colony as the Province of Massachusetts Bay and placed it under a royal governor.
What was the purpose of the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
The Puritans who settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony intended to set up a society that would accord with what they believed to be God’s wishes. Only those who could testify to a “work of grace” in their lives were permitted to choose the governor and the members of the lawmaking council, and those whose religious beliefs did not conform to the Puritans' were expelled. The self-governing, self-reliant colony was first governed by John Winthrop and organized under principles laid out by John Cotton. The colonists made their living through farming, fishing, and trade.
What is the importance of the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
By moving the Massachusetts Bay Company’s General Court from England to America, the Puritans converted it from an instrument of the company to a legislative and administrative assembly free from royal oversight. The General Court was made into a bicameral assembly in 1644. In addition, Puritans believed that churchgoers should read the Bible for themselves, and thus the education of children was required. The first public school in North America, the Boston Latin School, was established in Boston in 1635, and Harvard University was founded in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1636.
Massachusetts Bay Colony Facts: The Beginning
Massachusetts was established by the Puritans in 1629. The Puritans wanted to purify the church of England, however, after years of persecution, they opted to found a new colony and start fresh.
The Puritans were much different from the Pilgrims. The Pilgrims wanted complete separation from England, while the Puritans wanted to purify the church.
The Pilgrims were simple men and women who were not well-educated, the Puritans were well-educated men and some were influential.
They also differed theologically. These differences were clear in their founding. Plymouth Colony was successful but only succeeded throughout tremendous hardship. Massachusetts Bay was well-organized which led to the population exploding and absorbing Plymouth as its own.
The man often credited as the founder of Massachusetts Bay Colony was John Winthrop. Winthrop was a well-learned man who had acquired a substantial amount of wealth. He and other wealthy Puritans secured the land from King Charles. He served as Governor four different times and was one of the strongest and most successful pioneers of Colonial America.
The exodus of Puritans from England began once the Massachusetts Bay Company received a royal charter from King Charles I. This caused congregations to pick up their possessions and leave for the New World away from the persecution of England.
Early Massachusetts Settlers
Watertown and Newton, Massachusetts, merit special note in the long-ago transit of the Billick-Jackson ancestors. While the early migrants settled in and passed through numerous New England hamlets —Cambridge, Northborough, Marlborough, Concord— a significant portion of the earliest arrivees resided, at least for a time, in Watertown and Newton, an area some six miles west of modern-day central Boston, on the north and south bank, respectively, of the Charles River.
Three ancestors mentioned below are included on the Watertown Founders Monument that commemorates the hamlet’s 116 original settlers: William Hagar II, William Sibley Shattuck and Isaac Mixer they are three of Bonnie’s 1,024 8 th great-grandfathers.
Greenaway (and its many spelling variants) is a quite common English surname derived from the Anglo-Saxon words grene (“green”) and weg (“way” or “road”) signaling one who lived by the grassy path. It appears in over 200,000 Ancestry.com historical documents. Confidently sorting out the earliest possible familial relationship is impossible.
Probably the earliest certain Jackson ancestor is Essex, England native John Greenaway (1515-1559), Bonnie’s 11 th great-grandfather. It was his grandson the Puritan emigrant, Jonathan Greenaway (ca. 1563-1659), who brought the family to North America. He, his wife Mary, and four or five of their daughters were among the 140 passengers on the ship Mary and John when it departed Plymouth on March 20, 1630. The voyage is described as an uneventful, albeit lengthy one, arriving at Nantasket on May 30. One modern historian/genealogist characterizes the journey thus:
“… we might imagine that the ship, carrying 45 crew members and 140 passengers, plus some cows, goats, pigs, and chickens was somewhat cramped! Chests of clothing, dishes, bedding, furniture, building supplies, tools, seeds for planting, food for the voyage, and water had to be brought along. People were packed into little family quarters separated by cloth partitions. It might be very cold and wet or very hot. Many people would be seasick and vomiting. Animals and people would have to do their daily “business” and diarrhea was probably common.”
Jonathan was a Millwright from Mildenhall, Wiltshire, and became one of the Pioneer Settlers of Dorchester, Massachusetts. “Millwright” at this time meant a skilled mechanic who probably erected and maintained water-driven mills. He was prosperous and literate. Two of his daughters were not on the 1630 voyage but joined the family within a few years.
Jonathan’s fourth daughter, Katherine Greenaway (1622-1680), wed William Daniel (1625-1678) (see “Daniels,” on the Inland Migration), terminating the Greenaway name in the Jackson line.
Little is known of the early Hager/Hagar patriarchs, save that they hailed from the hamlet of Great Chishill about eleven miles south of Cambridge. One reason I include the Hagers here is that their immediate ancestors illustrate the many intermarriages between the early Colonial settler families. It’s worth noting that by around 1680, the city of Watertown, Massachusetts consisted of only a few hundred families and the total population of the Colony is estimated at around 39,000.
The first of the Hagar clan to settle in North America was Bonnie Jackson’s 8 th great-grandfather, William Hager, Sr. (1594-1675) who arrived in the Massachusetts Colony in 1645 with his son, William Hager, II (1625-1684). William, Jr., married recent Watertown immigrant, Mary Bemis (1624-1695). The Hagers appear to have been a prosperous family: William’s will enumerates eight separate properties totaling over 100 acres.
The couple had ten children, including two sets of twins. Their third daughter, Sarah Hagar (1651-1722), married Nathaniel Whitney (1646-1732) they are Bonnie’s 7 th great-grandparents. And Sarah and Nathaniel’s daughter, Hannah Whitney (1687-1768), married into the Billings family. This lineage is resumed with “The Billings,” below. The Noyes and Haynes lines merged with the marriage of John Haynes and Dorothy Noyes, whose descendants are chronicled shortly (Noyes, just below, on this page).
Another of William and Mary’s children, Samuel Hagar (1647-1705), married Sarah Mixer (1657-1745) (see The Mixers page) they are Bonnie’s 7 th great-aunt and uncle.
A good deal is known about the Shattuck settlers in America from a lengthy 1855 treatise about the family.
William Sibley Shattuck (ca. 1622-1672), Bonnie’s 8 th great-grandfather, was probably born in Somerset, England in the early 1620s and migrated to America in 1642. Some genealogists conjecture that his father, Samuel, may have perished during the passage to America or shortly after their arrival. Early Watertown estate inventories show William as the owner of some four acres of property. Around 1642, he married Susanna (1620-1686) whose parentage and surname are unknown. The couple had nine (perhaps ten) children. William was a weaver and farmer and held several town offices. Three separate times he was the surveyor of highways, an important and prestigious post in Colonial times. William Shattuck died in 1672 and is buried in the old Mount Auburn Cemetery, a famous early internment spot located about four miles west of Boston and now a National Historic Landmark.
Their son, William Shattuck, Jr. (1652-1732), married Susanna Randall (1662-1723), the daughter of immigrant parents, Stephen Randall (ca. 1629-1708) and Susanna Barron (ca. 1632-1673), who had arrived in the Colony in 1634 and 1640, respectively.
William Jr. and Susanna’s daughter, Joanna Shattuck (1678-1770), has a bit of enigmatic biography with some ambiguous, incomplete and occasionally erroneous relationships. I think the best analysis shows she wed, first, Isaac Holden (1675-1711), a Watertown neighbor, around 1702. With Isaac, she had three children. Then, I suspect she divorced him around 1710-1711. By 1713 she remarried to John Kenrick (1675-1753), by whom she bore another five children. I have found no primary documents proving the dissolution between Joanna and Isaac Holden but given the birth dates of the various children and the fact that Isaac seems to have lived many years beyond the date of Joanna’s marriage to Mr. Kenrick, divorce seems a likely scenario. Joanna and John Kenrick are Bonnie Jackson’s 6 th great-grandparents. The Kenrick lineage is outlined below: Kenrick & Jackson, below.
Joanna and John Kenrick’s eldest daughter, Joanna Kenrick (1715-1759), wed Jedediah Tucker (1712-1811) in November of 1737, ending the Shattuck surname in the Jackson family tree. The story of the Tucker family begins on The Tuckers of Massachusetts page.
Divorce among the Puritans
Divorce was not uncommon among Puritan settlers. It was, in fact, one of their main areas of dispute with the Catholic Church and the Church of England. The Puritans saw marriage as a civil contract, not as a religious tie.
“The Puritans recognized many grounds for divorce that were consistent with their conception of marriage. The statutes of Connecticut allowed divorce for adultery, fraudulent contract, willful desertion and total neglect for three years, and “providential absence” for seven years. Massachusetts granted divorces in the seventeenth century for adultery, desertion, cruelty, and “failure to provide.” Physical violence was also recognized as a ground for divorce. Husbands and wives were forbidden to strike one another in Massachusetts there was no such thing as “moderate correction” in the laws of this colony. The courts often intervened in cases of wife-beating, and sometimes of husband-beating too.”
A remote Jackson relative, Elizabeth Luxford (1617-1668), is sometimes cited as one of the very earliest examples of the Puritan colonists’ liberal view of divorce. I won’s recount the whole story here, but her husband James was found guilty of several transgressions and Elizabeth was granted a divorce as well as possession of all the Luxford property. In addition he paid a fine, sat in the stock for an hour, and was banished from the Massachusetts Colony. Mr. Luxford was apparently quite a scoundrel. He was later found guilty of “forgery, lying, and other foul offences and other crimes,” and was sentenced to whipping and had his ears cut off! 
Isaac Mixer, Sr.
Another of the Watertown founders was Isaac Mixer, Sr. (1579-1642). The few known biographical notes about the senior Mixer are included below in the section about the Mixers.
Kenrick & Jackson
The Jackson family tree may have ancestors in an ancient line of Welsh nobles, beginning with one Cynwrig ap Rhiwallon (995-1075), with roots in Denbighshire, Wales. One 14 th -century relative is said to have been a knight in service of The Black Prince (Edward Woodstock, son of King Edward III of England) in two key battles of the Hundred Years War with France, Crécy (1346) and Poitiers (1356).
The “Cynwrig” name morphed over time into variations of Kenrick and Kendrick with most descendants residing in the village of Woore, in Shropshire, and occupying Woore Manor into the 1600s.
Although primary documentation is scant and inconclusive, most family trees suggest that the Kenrick Colonial ancestors begin with John Kendrick (1604-1686), Bonnie’s 8 th great-grandfather, who was born in England and arrived in Boston in the mid-1630s. For a time, he owned a wharf on the town dock (later called Tyng’s Wharf). He sold this property in 1652 and acquired 250 acres to the southwest that eventually became part of Newton. The area where present-day Nahanton Street and Kendrick Street join to cross the Charles River, adjacent to Kendrick Pond, is part of that original Kenrick homestead. John Kenrick passed away on August 29, 1686. His name appears on the Newton First Settlers Monument in the East Parish Burying Ground, a cemetery dating from about 1660 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
John married Anna Smith (1604-1656) in about 1635. Their son, Elijah Kendrick (1645-1680), married Hannah Jackson (1646-1737) in 1668.
Hannah was the daughter of English immigrant, John Jackson (1602-1675), who had come to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the 1635. John himself was the son of a prosperous Londoner, Christopher Jackson (1575-1633). Not long his arrival in the Colony, John became one of the founders of Cambridge, served as the first deacon of the church, and in 1660 donated land upon which the first church and cemetery set up.
The last of the Kenricks in the Jackson line was Joanna Kenrick (1715-1759), Bonnie’s 5 th great-grandmother, who wed Jedediah Tucker in November of 1737 (see Kenrick & Jackson, below).
The Colonial Whitneys
As noted earlier (see “Whitney,” on the European and English Roots page), the Whitney’s had a long history in Europe before John Whitney Jr. joined the Puritan migration to America in 1635. The Colonial Whitneys were a prominent family with significant land holdings and scores of descendants throughout Massachusetts and the surrounding area. This common surname presents challenges for genealogists and lineages prior to the individuals noted just below are uncertain. These are the early forbearers, by the way, of the famous inventor, Eli Whitney (1765-1825).
Little is known of Thomas Whitney (1550-1637), save that he was a “Gentleman,” and long-time resident of London. In May of 1583 he wed Mary Beth Bray (1563-1629), the daughter of London tailor, John Bray (1525-1615). It was their son, John Whitney (see just below) who became one of the first of many of the various Whitneys to settle in the New World.
Infant and Child Deaths
Unlike so many of the families chronicled here, the Whitney’s suffered an unusual number of early deaths. Over three generations, these families endured the loss of fourteen children at tragically young ages.
John Bray (1525-1615) and Margaret Haslonde (1536-1588) (John Whitney’s maternal grandparents) saw six of their offspring perish at early ages:
- John, born1554, died at age four months
- Margaret, born 1556/57, died just two weeks afterbirth
- Laurence, born 1558, died at about age 12
- Joan, born 1560, died in infancy (probably stillborn)
- Thomas, born 1562, died at about age 8
- Henry, born 1566, died in infancy
Thomas Whitney and Mary Beth Bray (John’s mother and father) suffered similar calamities with six of ten children passing in infancy or childhood:
- Thomas, born 25 Jul 1587, died 19 Aug 1587, age three weeks
- Henry, born 11 Nov 1588, died 4 Jan 1589, age about eight weeks
- Arnwaye, born 2 Feb 1590, died 11 Aug 1591, age 19 months
- Nowell, born 30 Oct 1594, died 28 Feb 1597, at about age eighteen months
- Mary, born 2 Aug 1600, died 8 Aug 1600, at six days
- Robert, born 10 Nov 1605, died before 1610, age four years.
There is no known explanation for these very early deaths. There were several outbreaks of The Plague in London in 1582, 1592-93, and 1603 perhaps some of these children succumbed to remnants of these epidemics.
Sadly, two of John Whitney and Elinor’s nine children also died in infancy or very young:
At the other extreme, however, his third son, Richard Whitney (1624-1790), lived to be 94, another son, Joshua to 84, and two others into their 70s.
John Whitney, Sr. (1588-1673) and his wife, Elinor (1615-1659) (Bonnie’s 9 th great-grandparents), lived first in Isleworth, England then later in London proper. They departed for the Massachusetts Bay Colony on April 13, 1635 on the ship Elizabeth & Ann, accompanied by their six children. They landed in June, probably in Boston or Charlestown. He was a tailor by trade. John acquired a 16-acre tract a bit north of modern-day Belmont and Common Streets in Watertown. Their seventh child, Joshua Whitney (1636-1719), was the first Whitney to be born in America. He was one of the founders of Groton, Massachusetts (burned down by the Indians in 1676 during King Philip’s War) and later Deacon of the church in Watertown. Elinor died in 1659 and John married Judith Clement (1638-1673) in the fall of that year.
John and Elinor’s eldest son, John Whitney, Jr. (1620-1692), was nearly fifteen years old when he arrived in America. He married another English émigré, Ruth Reynolds (1643-1662). In adulthood, he was a soldier in King Philip’s War and became a major land holder: his will references some 200 acres of property in Watertown. Ruth passed away at age 38, in May of 1662. John died in Watertown in October of 1692, at age 72.
Nathaniel Whitney (1646-1732), son of John and Ruth, was born in Watertown on February 1, 1646. He was twice married first to Sarah Hagar (1651-1722) whose father, William, arrived in the Colony in 1645. They are Bonnie Jackson’s 7 th great-grandparents. The couple had eight children over twenty-five years the last, Grace Whitney (1700-ca. 1720), was born when Mrs. Whitney was 48 years old. This would be twenty-five years after the birth of the couple’s first child, Nathaniel, in 1675. Strangely, Sarah outlived her youngest child who passed away in around 1720/21. Grace’s death may have been related to an outbreak of smallpox that occurred in the Colony at this time. The “Fever” as it was called is estimated to have infected over 50% of the population of Boston proper.
Following Sarah’s death in 1722, Nathaniel married Sarah Shepard Goble (1658-1746). He was a successful farmer and at the time of his death he possessed some 50 acres of land, a mansion, a barn, and substantial cash. He died without a will and the administration of his estate amongst his heirs took nearly a year to sort out.
Nathaniel’s daughter, Hannah Whitney (1688-1768) was born March 17, 1687. She married Nathaniel Billings (1688-1750), a native of Concord, on October 11, 1708. The Billings chronicle continues just below (Billings).
As seen earlier (“The Noyes Clan,” on the Middle Ages and Renaissance Heritage page), the Noyes family of Weyhill, England, can be traced at least to the 14 th -century. Perhaps the first of that stock to travel to North America was Peter Noyes (1590-1667), Bonnie Jackson’s 9 th great-grandfather. Born in Andover, Hampshire County, England in August of 1590, he married Elizabeth ? (1594-1636) in 1621 and fathered six children. Elizabeth died around 1636 and Peter decided to emigrate to New England.
He made an initial Atlantic crossing, departing Southampton aboard the Confidence on April 24, 1638, accompanied by his two oldest children, Thomas, age 15 and Elizabeth 13 and three servants. Members of the afore-mentioned Haynes family (in the Middle Ages and Renaissance Heritage page) were on the same ship. He explored the area around Watertown and was granted some seventy acres of land. Having decided to relocate permanently to the New World, he sailed back to England and returned to America in 1639 aboard the ship Jonathan, with his children Nicholas, Dorothy, Abigail, and Peter, several friends and servants. It must have been a difficult sailing as the wife and infant daughter of one of the servants died during the passage as did the grandmother of one of the friends, a Richard Barnes. Peter is considered one of the founders of Sudbury, Massachusetts, where he eventually settled. He occupied numerous civic posts including surveyor, constable, deputy to the General Court and judge. Two of his daughters and one son married children of Walter Haynes (see “The Haynes’s in America on the Inland Migration page). Peter died on September 23, 1657.
Of the six offspring of Thomas and Elizabeth, eldest son Thomas Noyes (1623-1666) was the most prominent. One historical account describes him thus:
“[he] was a prominent man in the colony, one of the principle surveyors, and often called on to lay out farms in Sudbury and adjacent towns. He was a selectman for twelve years, and was authorized to marry in Sudbury was called Ensign as early as 1658, and Lieutenant in 1665 he was second in command under Capt. Hugh Mason, whose company was ordered to march against the Dutch at the ‘Monhatoes.’ In pay for his service in this campaign he was granted 250 acres of land in what is now Worcester. He also owned land in Newbury…”
The Noyes and Haynes lines merged with the marriage of John Haynes and Dorothy Noyes, whose descendants are chronicled shortly (see “The Haynes’s in America”on the Inland Migration page).
The Billings family presents an especially vexing problem for family historians. The surname is terribly common: an important index to New England family names records nearly 2,000 individuals with the Billings surname. Worse, still, errors regarding birth place, dates of birth and familial relationship for the European and Colonial Billings were accepted as fact and repeated in centuries of genealogies.
Given the uncertainties of earlier ancestors, I’ll begin the Billings ancestry with the first member of the family who can reliably be placed in the Jackson line: Nathaniel Billings (1600-1673). He was Bonnie Jackson’s 8 th great-grandfather. Nathaniel arrived first in New Hampshire in 1639 then moved on to Massachusetts. He is regarded as one of the founding fathers of Concord, Massachusetts. Some records indicate he married Jane Hastings (1604-17??) in 1640 others suggest they were married prior to their arrival in America. He eventually came to own some fifty acres of property. The couple had two sons, John Billings (1640-1704) and Nathaniel, Jr.
Nathaniel Billings, Jr. (1640-1714) married Jane Goodenow Banister (1658-1708) in 1679. They had five children between 1680 and 1690. Following Jane’s death, he married Lydia Luxford (1647- ?) (her second marriage, as well) in March of 1709. Nathaniel drowned on August 27, 1714 while fetching drinking water from a spring. He was 74 years old. The Billings’ property at this time is the same area where some 150 years later Henry David Thoreau settled while authoring Walden or, Life in the Woods.
Nathaniel Jr. and Jane’s fourth son, Nathaniel Billings III (1688-1750), was born May 29, 1688 in Concord, Massachusetts. He married Hannah Whitney (1687-1768), a Watertown, native, in October of 1708. Hannah was a descendent of above-mentioned Ruth Reynolds (1623-1662) and John Whitney (1621-1692), who had sailed for Massachusetts in the Spring of 1635 on the ship Elizabeth and Ann and were among the first settlers in Watertown.
The second son of Nathaniel and Hannah, Thomas Billings (1712-1790) (Bonnie’s 5 th great-grandfather), was born in Concord on May 9, 1712. He married Sarah Fay (1710-1800) in 1731. Sarah’s great-grandfather, David Henry Fay (1620-1655) had brought the family from England to the Boston area in 1655 or 1656. Thomas and Sarah’s fifth child, Silvanus, was born in Westborough in 1745 his history will be discussed below in the Union of the Tucker and Billings Lines page.
Massachusetts was originally inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Narragansetts, Nipmucs, Pocomtucs, Mahicans, and Massachusetts.   The Vermont and New Hampshire borders and the Merrimack River valley was the traditional home of the Pennacook tribe. Cape Cod, Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, and southeast Massachusetts were the home of the Wampanoags who established a close bond with the Pilgrim Fathers. The extreme end of the Cape was inhabited by the closely related Nauset tribe. Much of the central portion and the Connecticut River valley was home to the loosely organized Nipmucs. The Berkshires were the home of both the Pocomtuc and the Mahican tribes. Narragansetts from Rhode Island and Mahicans from Connecticut Colony were also present.
These tribes were generally dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food supply.  Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as long houses,  and tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems.  Europeans began exploring the coast in the 16th century, but they made few attempts at permanent settlement anywhere. Early European explorers of the New England coast included Bartholomew Gosnold who named Cape Cod in 1602, Samuel de Champlain who charted the northern coast as far as Cape Cod in 1605 and 1606, John Smith, and Henry Hudson. Fishing ships from Europe also worked in the rich waters off the coast, and may have traded with some of the tribes. Large numbers of Indians were decimated by virgin soil epidemics, perhaps including smallpox, measles, influenza, or leptospirosis.  In 1617–1619, a disease killed 90 percent of the Indians in the region. 
The first settlers in Massachusetts were the Pilgrims who established Plymouth Colony in 1620 and developed friendly relations with the Wampanoag people.  This was the second permanent English colony in America following Jamestown Colony. The Pilgrims had migrated from England to Holland to escape religious persecution for rejecting England's official church. They were allowed religious liberty in Holland, but they gradually became concerned that the next generation would lose their distinct English heritage. They approached the Virginia Company and asked to settle "as a distinct body of themselves" [ citation needed ] in America. In the fall of 1620, they sailed to America on the Mayflower, first landing near Provincetown at the tip of Cape Cod. The area did not lie within their charter, so the Pilgrims created the Mayflower Compact before landing, one of America's first documents of self-governance. The first year was extremely difficult, with inadequate supplies and very harsh weather, but Wampanoag sachem Massasoit and his people assisted them.
In 1621, the Pilgrims celebrated their first Thanksgiving Day together to thank God for the blessings of good harvest and survival. This Thanksgiving came to represent the peace that existed at that time between the Wampanoags and the Pilgrims, although only about half of the Mayflower company survived the first year. The colony grew slowly over the next ten years, and was estimated to have 300 inhabitants by 1630. 
A group of fur-trappers and traders established Wessagusset Colony near the Plymouth colony in Weymouth in 1622. They abandoned it in 1623, and it was replaced by another small colony led by Robert Gorges. This settlement also failed, and individuals from these colonies returned to England, joined the Plymouth colonists, or established individual outposts elsewhere on the shores of Massachusetts Bay. In 1624, the Dorchester Company established a settlement on Cape Ann. This colony only survived until 1626, although a few settlers remained.
The Pilgrims were followed by Puritans who established the Massachusetts Bay Colony at Salem (1629) and Boston (1630).  The Puritans strongly dissented from the theology and church polity of the Church of England, and they came to Massachusetts for religious freedom.  The Bay Colony was founded under a royal charter, unlike Plymouth Colony. The Puritan migration was mainly from East Anglia and southwestern regions of England, with an estimated 20,000 immigrants between 1628 and 1642. Massachusetts Bay colony quickly eclipsed Plymouth in population and economy, the chief factors being the large influx of population, more suitable harbor facilities for trade, and the growth of a prosperous merchant class.
Religious dissension and expansionism led to the founding of several new colonies shortly after Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay. Dissenters such as Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson were banished due to religious disagreements with Massachusetts Bay authorities. Williams established Providence Plantations in 1636. Over the next few years, another group, which included Hutchinson, established Newport and Portsmouth these settlements eventually joined to form the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Others left Massachusetts Bay in order to establish other settlements, including Connecticut Colony on the Connecticut River and New Haven Colony on the coast.
In 1636, a group of settlers led by William Pynchon founded Springfield, Massachusetts (originally named Agawam), after scouting for the region's most advantageous location for trading and farming.   Springfield is located just north of the first of Connecticut River's unnavigable waterfalls, and it also sits amid the fertile valley which contains New England's best agricultural land. The Indian tribes surrounding Springfield were friendly, which was not always the case for the fledgling Connecticut colonies.   Pynchon annexed Springfield to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1640 rather than the much closer Connecticut Colony over tensions with Connecticut following the Pequot War.  Massachusetts Bay Colony's southern and western borders were thus established in 1640. 
King Philip's War (1675–76) was the bloodiest Indian war of the colonial period. In little over a year, Indians attacked nearly half of the region's towns, and they burned to the ground the major settlements at Providence and Springfield. New England's economy was all but ruined, and much of its population was killed.   Proportionately, it was one of the bloodiest and costliest wars in the history of North America. 
The Massachusetts legislature established a mint to produce the pine tree shilling beginning in 1642. John Hull and his partner Robert Sanderson in charge of the "Hull Mint".  In 1645, the General Court ordered rural towns to increase sheep production. Sheep provided meat and especially wool for the local cloth industry, avoiding the expense of imports of British cloth.  Charles II was restored to the throne in 1660 and began to scrutinize the governmental oversight in the colonies, and Parliament passed the Navigation Acts to regulate trade for England's benefit. Massachusetts and Rhode Island had thriving merchant fleets, and they often ran afoul of the trade regulations. King Charles formally vacated the Massachusetts charter in 1684.
Friction erupted with the Indians in King Philip's War in the 1670s. Puritanism was the established religion in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and dissenters were banished, leading to the establishment of the Rhode Island Colony.
In 1660, King Charles II was restored to the throne. Colonial matters brought to his attention led him to propose the amalgamation of all of the New England colonies into a single administrative unit. In 1685, he was succeeded by James II, an outspoken Catholic who implemented the proposal. In June 1684, the charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony was annulled, but its government continued to rule until James appointed Joseph Dudley to the new post of President of New England in 1686. Dudley established his authority later in New Hampshire and the King's Province (part of current Rhode Island), maintaining this position until Sir Edmund Andros arrived to become the Royal Governor of the Dominion of New England. The rule of Andros was unpopular. He ruled without a representative assembly, vacated land titles, restricted town meetings, enforced the Navigation Acts, and promoted the Church of England, angering virtually every segment of Massachusetts colonial society. Andros dealt a major blow to the colonists by challenging their title to the land unlike England the great majority of New Englanders were land-owners. Taylor says that because they "regarded secure real estate as fundamental to their liberty, status, and prosperity, the colonists felt horrified by the sweeping and expensive challenge to their land titles." 
After James II was overthrown by William III and Mary II in late 1688, Boston colonists overthrew Andros and his officials in 1689. Both Massachusetts and Plymouth returned to their previous governments until 1692. During King William's War (1689–1697), the colony launched an unsuccessful expedition against Quebec under Sir William Phips in 1690, which had been financed by issuing paper bonds set against the gains expected from taking the city.  The colony continued to be on the front lines of the war, and experienced widespread French and Indian raids on its northern and western frontiers.
In 1691, William and Mary chartered the Province of Massachusetts Bay, combining the territories of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Maine, Nova Scotia (which then included New Brunswick), and the islands south of Cape Cod. For its first governor they chose Sir William Phips. Phips came to Boston in 1692 to begin his rule, and was immediately thrust into the witchcraft hysteria in Salem. He established the court that heard the notorious Salem witch trials, and oversaw the war effort until he was recalled in 1694.
The province was the largest and most economically important in New England, and one where many American institutions and traditions were formed. Unlike southern colonies, it was built around small towns rather than scattered farms. The westernmost portion of Massachusetts, the Berkshires, was settled during the three decades following the end of the French and Indian War, largely by Scots. Sir Francis Bernard, the Royal Governor, named this new area "Berkshire" after his home county in England. The largest settlement in Berkshire County was Pittsfield, Massachusetts, founded in 1761. 
The educational system, headed by Harvard College, was the best in the 13 colonies. Newspapers became a major communications system in the 18th century, with Boston taking a leading role in the British colonies.  Teenaged Benjamin Franklin (born on January 17, 1706, in Milk Street) worked on one of the earliest newspapers, The New-England Courant (owned by his brother) until he ran away to Philadelphia in 1723. Five Boston newspapers presented a full range of opinions during the coming of the American revolution. In Worcester, printer Isaiah Thomas made the Massachusetts Spy the influential voice of the western settlers. 
Farming was the largest economic activity. Most farming towns were largely self-sufficient, with families trading with each other for items they did not produce themselves the surplus was sold to cities.  and Fishing was important in coastal towns like Marblehead. Great quantities of cod were exported to the slave colonies in the West Indies.  Merchant trade was based in Salem and Boston, and numerous wealthy merchants traded internationally. They typically stationed their sons and nephews as agents in ports around the empire.  Their business grew dramatically after 1783 when they no longer were confined to the British Empire.  Shipbuilding was a fast-growing industry. Most other manufactured products were imported from Britain (or smuggled in from the Netherlands).
In 1690, the Massachusetts Bay Colony became the first to issue paper money in what would become the United States, but soon others began printing their own money as well. The demand for currency in the colonies was due to the scarcity of coins, which had been the primary means of trade.  Colonies' paper currencies were used to pay for their expenses and lend money to the colonies' citizens. Paper money quickly became the primary means of exchange within each colony, and it even began to be used in financial transactions with other colonies.  However, some of the currencies were not redeemable in gold or silver, which caused them to depreciate.  With the Currency Act of 1751, the British parliament limited the ability of the New England colonies to issue fiat paper currency. Under the 1751 act, the New England colonial governments could make paper money legal tender for the payment of public debts (such as taxes), and could issue bills of credit as a tool of government finance, but barred the use of paper money as legal tender for private debts.  Under continued pressure from the British merchant-creditors who disliked being paid in depreciated paper currency, the subsequent Currency Act of 1764 banned the issuance of bills of credit (paper money) throughout the colonies.   Colonial governments used workarounds to accept paper notes as payment for taxes and pressured Parliament to repeal the prohibition on paper money as legal tender for public debts, which Parliament ultimately did in 1773. 
The colony was always short of gold and silver and printed a great deal of paper money, which caused inflation that favored farmers but angered business interests. By 1750, however, the colony recalled its paper currency and transitioned to a specie currency based on the British reimbursement (in gold and silver) for its spending in the French and Indian wars. The large-scale merchants and Royal officials welcomed the transition but many farmers and smaller businessmen were opposed. 
Wars with France Edit
The colony fought alongside British regulars in a series of French and Indian Wars characterized by brutal border raids and attacks by Indians organized and supplied by New France. Particularly in King William's War (1689–97) and Queen Anne's War (1702–13), the colony's rural communities were directly exposed to French and Indian attacks, with Deerfield raided in 1704 and Haverhill raided in 1708. Boston responded, launching naval expeditions against Acadia and Quebec in both wars.
During Queen Anne's War, Massachusetts men were involved in the Conquest of Acadia (1710), which became the Province of Nova Scotia. The province was also involved in Dummer's War, which drove Indian tribes from northern New England. In 1745, during King George's War, Massachusetts provincial forces successfully besieged Fortress Louisbourg. The fortress was returned to France at the end of the war, angering many colonists who viewed it as a threat to their security. During the French and Indian War, Governor William Shirley was instrumental in the Expulsion of the Acadians from Nova Scotia and trying to settle them in New England. After the expulsion, Shirley also was involved in transporting New England Planters to settle Nova Scotia on the former Acadian farms.  Many troops from Massachusetts participated in the successful Siege of Havana in 1762. Britain's victory in the war led to its acquisition of New France, removing the immediate northern threat to Massachusetts that the French had posed.
Boston was hit by a major smallpox epidemic in 1721. Some colonial leaders called for use of the new technique of inoculation, whereby a patient would get a weak form of the disease and become permanently immune. Puritan minister Cotton Mather and physician Zabdiel Boylston led the drive for inoculation, while physician William Douglass and newspaper editor James Franklin led the opposition. 
In 1755, about 4:15 am on Tuesday, November 18, was the most destructive earthquake yet known in New England. The first pulsations of the ground were followed for about a minute of tremulous motion. Next came a quick vibration and several jerks much worse than the first. Houses rocked and cracked furniture fell over. Dr. Edward A. Holyoke, of Salem, wrote in his diary that he "thought of nothing less than being buried instantly in the ruins of the house." The shaking continued for two to three minutes more, and seemed to move from northwest to southeast. The ocean along the coast was affected ships shook so much that sleeping sailors awoke, thinking they had run aground. In Boston, the earthquake threw dishes on the floor, stopped clocks, and bent vane-rods on churches and Faneuil Hall. Stone walls collapsed. New springs appeared, and old springs dried up. Subterranean streams changed their courses, emptying many wells. The worst damage was to chimneys. In Boston alone, about a hundred were leveled about fifteen hundred were damaged, the streets in some places almost covered with fallen bricks. Falling chimneys broke some roofs. Many wooden buildings in Boston were thrown down, and some brick buildings suffered the gable ends of twelve or fifteen were knocked down to the eaves. Despite the danger and many narrow escapes, no one was killed or seriously injured. Aftershocks continued for four days.  
The relationship between the provincial government and the crown-appointed governor was often difficult and contentious. The governors sought to assert the royal prerogatives granted in the provincial charter, and the provincial government sought to strip or minimize the governor's power. For example, each governor was ordered to enact legislation for providing permanent salaries for crown officials, but the legislature refused to do so, using its ability to grant stipends annually as a means of control over the governor. The province's periodic issuance of paper currency was also a persistent source of friction between factions in the province, due to its inflationary effects. Notable royal governors during this period were Joseph Dudley, Thomas Hutchinson, Jonathan Belcher, Francis Bernard, and General Thomas Gage. Gage was the last British governor of Massachusetts, and his effective rule extended to little more than Boston.
Massachusetts was a center of the movement for independence from Great Britain, earning it the nickname, the "Cradle of Liberty". Colonists here had long had uneasy relations with the British monarchy, including open rebellion under the Dominion of New England in the 1680s.  The Boston Tea Party is an example of the protest spirit in the early 1770s, while the Boston Massacre escalated the conflict.  Anti-British activity by men like Sam Adams and John Hancock, followed by reprisals by the British government, were a primary reason for the unity of the Thirteen Colonies and the outbreak of the American Revolution.  The Battles of Lexington and Concord initiated the American Revolutionary War and were fought in the Massachusetts towns of Lexington and Concord.  Future President George Washington took over what would become the Continental Army after the battle. His first victory was the Siege of Boston in the winter of 1775–76, after which the British were forced to evacuate the city.  The event is still celebrated in Suffolk County as Evacuation Day.  In 1777, George Washington and Henry Knox founded the Arsenal at Springfield, which catalyzed many innovations in Massachusetts' Connecticut River Valley.
Boston Massacre Edit
Boston was the center of revolutionary activity in the decade before 1775, with Massachusetts natives Samuel Adams, John Adams, and John Hancock as leaders who would become important in the revolution. Boston had been under military occupation since 1768. When customs officials were attacked by mobs, two regiments of British regulars arrived. They had been housed in the city with increasing public outrage.
In Boston on March 5, 1770, what began as a rock-throwing incident against a few British soldiers ended in the shooting of five men by British soldiers in what became known as the Boston Massacre. The incident caused further anger against British authority in the commonwealth over taxes and the presence of the British soldiers.
Boston Tea Party Edit
One of the many taxes protested by the colonists was a tax on tea, imposed when Parliament passed the Townshend Acts, and retained when most of the provisions of those acts were repealed. With the passage of the Tea Act in 1773, tea sold by the British East India Company would become less expensive than smuggled tea, and there would be reduced profit-making opportunities for Massachusetts merchants traded in tea. This led to protests against the delivery of the company's tea to Boston. On December 16, 1773, when a tea ship of the East India Company was planning to land taxed tea in Boston, a group of local men known as the Sons of Liberty sneaked onto the boat the night before it was to be unloaded and dumped all the tea into the harbor, an act known as the Boston Tea Party.
American Revolution Edit
The Boston Tea Party prompted the British government to pass the Intolerable Acts in 1774 that brought stiff punishment on Massachusetts. They closed the port of Boston, the economic lifeblood of the Commonwealth, and reduced self-government. Local self-government was ended and the colony put under military rule. The Patriots formed the Massachusetts Provincial Congress after the provincial legislature was disbanded by Governor Gage. The suffering of Boston and the tyranny of its rule caused great sympathy and stirred resentment throughout the Thirteen Colonies. On February 9, 1775, the British Parliament declared Massachusetts to be in rebellion, and sent additional troops to restore order to the colony. With the local population largely opposing British authority, troops moved from Boston on April 18, 1775, to destroy the military supplies of local resisters in Concord. Paul Revere made his famous ride to warn the locals in response to this march. On the 19th, in the Battles of Lexington and Concord, where the famous "shot heard 'round the world" was fired, British troops, after running over the Lexington militia, were forced back into the city by local resistors. The city was quickly brought under siege. Fighting broke out again in June when the British took the Charlestown Peninsula in the Battle of Bunker Hill after the colonial militia fortified Breed's Hill. The British won the battle, but at a very large cost, and were unable to break the siege. The British made a desperate attempt by using biological weapons against the Americans by sending infected civilians with smallpox behind American lines but this was soon contained by Continental General George Washington who launched a vaccination program to ensure his troops and civilians were in good health after the damage biological warfare caused. Soon after the Battle of Bunker Hill, General George Washington took charge of the rebel army, and when he acquired heavy cannon in March 1776, the British were forced to leave, marking the first great colonial victory of the war. Ever since, "Evacuation Day" has been celebrated as a state holiday.
Massachusetts was not invaded again but in 1779 the disastrous Penobscot Expedition took place in the District of Maine, then part of the Commonwealth. Trapped by the British fleet, the American sailors sank the ships of the Massachusetts state navy before it could be captured by the British. In May 1778, the section of Freetown that later became Fall River was raided by the British, and in September 1778, the communities of Martha's Vineyard and New Bedford were also subjected to a British raid.
John Adams was a leader in the independence movement and he helped secure a unanimous vote for independence and on July 4, 1776, the United States Declaration of Independence was adopted in Philadelphia. It was signed first by Massachusetts resident John Hancock, president of the Continental Congress. Soon afterward the Declaration of Independence was read to the people of Boston from the balcony of the State House. Massachusetts was no longer a colony it was a state and part of a new nation, the United States of America.
A Constitutional Convention drew up a state constitution, which was drafted primarily by John Adams, and ratified by the people on June 15, 1780. Adams, along with Samuel Adams and James Bowdoin, wrote in the Preamble to the Constitution of the Commonwealth:
We, therefore, the people of Massachusetts, acknowledging, with grateful hearts, the goodness of the Great Legislator of the Universe, in affording us, in the course of His Providence, an opportunity, deliberately and peaceably, without fraud, violence or surprise, on entering into an Original, explicit, and Solemn Compact with each other and of forming a new Constitution of Civil Government, for Ourselves and Posterity, and devoutly imploring His direction in so interesting a design, Do agree upon, ordain and establish, the following Declaration of Rights, and Frame of Government, as the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Bostonian John Adams, known as the "Atlas of Independence", was an important figure in both the struggle for independence as well as the formation of the new United States.  Adams was highly involved in the push for separation from Britain and the writing of the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780 (which, in the Elizabeth Freeman and Quock Walker cases, effectively made Massachusetts the first state to have a constitution that declared universal rights and, as interpreted by Supreme Judicial Court Chief Justice William Cushing, abolished slavery).   Adams became minister to Britain in the 1780s, Vice President in 1789 and succeeded Washington as President in 1797. His son, John Quincy Adams, would go on to become the sixth US President.
The new constitution Edit
Massachusetts was the first state in the United States to abolish slavery. (Vermont, which became part of the U.S. in 1791, abolished adult slavery somewhat earlier than Massachusetts, in 1777.) The new constitution also dropped any religious tests for political office, though local tax money had to be paid to support local churches. People who belonged to non-Congregational churches paid their tax money to their own church, and the churchless paid to the Congregationalists. Baptist leader Isaac Backus vigorously fought these provisions, arguing people should have freedom of choice regarding financial support of religion. Adams drafted most of the document and despite numerous amendments it still follows his line of thought. He distrusted utopians and pure democracy, and put his faith in a system of checks and balances he admired the principles of the unwritten British Constitution. He insisted on a bicameral legislature which would represent both the gentlemen and the common citizen. Above all he insisted on a government by laws, not men.  The constitution also changed the name of the Massachusetts Bay State to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Still in force, it is the oldest constitution in current use in the world.
Shays' Rebellion Edit
The economy of rural Massachusetts suffered an economic depression after the war ended. Merchants, pressured for hard currency by overseas partners, made similar demands on local debtors, and the state raised taxes in order to pay off its own war debts. Efforts to collect both public and private debts from cash-poor farmers led to protests that flared into direct action in August 1786. Rebels calling themselves Regulators (after the North Carolina Regulator movement of the 1760s) succeeded in shutting down courts meeting to hear debt and tax collection cases. By the end of 1786 a farmer in western Massachusetts named Daniel Shays emerged as one of the ringleaders, and government attempts to squelch the protests only served to radicalize the protestors. In January 1787 Shays and Luke Day organized an attempt to take the federal Springfield Armory state militia holding the armory beat back the attempt with cannon fire. A private militia raised by wealthy Boston merchants and led by General Benjamin Lincoln broke the back of the rebellion in early February at Petersham, but small-scale resistance continued in the western parts of the state for a while. 
The state put down the rebellion—but if it had been too weak to do so it would be no help to call on the ineffective federal government. The event led nationalists like George Washington to redouble efforts to strengthen the weak national government as necessary for survival in a dangerous world. Massachusetts, divided along class lines polarized by the rebellion, only narrowly ratified the United States Constitution in 1788. 
Johnny Appleseed Edit
John Chapman often called Johnny "Appleseed" (born on September 26, 1774, in Leominster, Massachusetts) was an American folk hero and pioneer nurseryman who introduced apple trees and established orchards to many areas in the Midwestern region of the country including Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana. Today, Appleseed is the official folk hero of Massachusetts and his stature has served a focus in many children's books, movies, and folk tales since the end of the Civil War. 
In 1836, Mary Lyon opened Mount Holyoke College, the first women's college in America. Lyon, a very active Congregationalist, promoted the college as an exemplification of the ideas of revivalist Jonathan Edwards regarding self-restraint, self-denial, and disinterested benevolence.  One of the first students was reclusive poet Emily Dickinson.
During the 19th century, Massachusetts became a national leader in the American Industrial Revolution, with factories around Boston producing textiles and shoes, and factories around Springfield producing precision manufacturing tools and paper.  The economy transformed from one based primarily on agriculture to an industrial one, initially making use of waterpower and later the steam engine to power factories, and canals and later railroads for transporting goods and materials.  At first, the new industries drew labor from Yankees on nearby subsistence farms, and later relied upon Catholic immigrants from Ireland and Canada. 
Industrial development Edit
Massachusetts became a leader in industrial innovation and development during the 19th century. Since colonial times, there had been a successful iron making industry in New England. The first successful ironworks in America was established at Saugus in 1646,  utilizing bog iron from swamps to produce plows, nails, firearms, hoops for barrels and other items necessary for the development of the Colony. Other industries would be established during this period, such as shipbuilding, lumber, paper and furniture making. These small-scale shops and factories often utilized the State's many rivers and streams to power their machinery.
While Samuel Slater had established the first successful textile mill at Pawtucket, Rhode Island, in 1793, there remained no way to efficiently mass-produce cloth from the spun yarn produced by the early mills. The yarn was still outsourced to small weaving shops where it was woven into cloth on hand looms. The first woolen mill, and the second textile mill in the Blackstone Valley, was a "wool carding mill", established in 1810 by Daniel Day, near the West River and Blackstone River at Uxbridge, Massachusetts. Then, in 1813, a group of wealthy Boston merchants led by Francis Cabot Lowell, known as the Boston Associates, established the first successful integrated textile mill in North America at Waltham.  Lowell had visited England in 1810 and studied the Lancashire textile industry. Because the British government prohibited the export of this new technology, Lowell memorized plans for the power looms on his return trip to Boston. With the skill of master mechanic Paul Moody, the first successful power looms were produced, harnessing the power of the Charles River. For the first time, all phases of textile production could now be performed under one roof, greatly increasing production, and profits. This was the real beginning of the Industrial Revolution in America.
With the early success of the Boston Manufacturing Company at Waltham, the Boston Associates would also later establish several other textile towns, including Lowell in 1823, Lawrence in 1845, Chicopee in 1848 and Holyoke in 1850.
Lowell grew quickly to a city of 33,000 people by 1850. Its mills were highly integrated and centrally controlled. An ingenious canal system provided the water power that drove the machinery. Steam power would be introduced beginning in the 1850s. The mill owners initially employed local farm women, often recruited from poor, remote parts of New England, and attempted to create a Utopian industrial society by providing housing, churches, schools and parks for their workers, unlike their English counterparts. Eventually, as the mills grew larger and larger, the owners turned to newly arrived Irish immigrants to fill their factories.
Industrial cities, especially Worcester and Springfield, became important centers in textile machinery (in Worcester's case) and precision tool production and innovation (in Springfield's case.) While Boston did not have many large factories, it became increasingly important as the business and transportation hub of all of New England, as well as a national leader in finance, law, medicine, education, arts and publishing.
In 1826, the Granite Railway became the first commercial railroad in the nation. In 1830, the legislature chartered three new railroads—the Boston and Lowell, the Boston and Providence, and most important of all, the Boston and Worcester. In 1833, it chartered the Western Railroad to connect Worcester with Albany and the Erie Canal. The system flourished and western grain began flowing to the port of Boston for export to Europe, thereby breaking New York City's virtual monopoly on trade from the Erie Canal system. Much of the construction work was done by Irish Catholic work gangs. They lived in temporary camps but many settled in the new industrial cities along the line, where the gang bosses became leaders in the Democratic Party.  Some of their work is still used. For example, the stone Canton Viaduct at Canton, Massachusetts, built in 1835, is still used by Amtrak's high-speed Acela Express along the Boston–Washington, Northeast Corridor. The viaduct required only minor changes to bring it up to late-20th-century standards. 
Beginning in the late colonial period, Massachusetts leveraged its strong seafaring tradition, advanced shipbuilding industry, and access to the oceans to make the U.S. the pre-eminent whaling nation in the world by the 1830s.  Whale oil was in demand chiefly for lamps. By the 1750s whaling in Nantucket had become a highly lucrative deep-sea industry, with voyages extending for years at a time and with vessels traveling as far as South Pacific waters. The British Navy captured most of the whalers during the revolution, but at the same time many whalers refitted as privateers against the British. Whaling recovered after the war as New Bedford became the center. Whalers took greater economic risks to turn major profits: expanding their hunting grounds and securing foreign and domestic workforces for the Pacific. Investment decisions and financing arrangements were set up so that managers of whaling ventures shared their risks by selling some equity claims but retained a substantial portion due to moral hazard considerations. As a result, they had little incentive to consider the correlation between their own returns and those of others in planning their voyages. This stifled diversity in whaling voyages and increased industry-wide risk. After 1860, kerosene replaced whale oil—concurrent with the devastation of the whaling fleet by Confederate commerce raiders—and the entrepreneurs shifted to manufacturing. 
Political and social movements Edit
On March 15, 1820, Maine was separated from Massachusetts and entered the Union as the 23rd State as a result of the enactment of the Missouri Compromise.
Horace Mann made the state system of schools the national model. The Commonwealth made its mark in Washington with such political leaders as Daniel Webster and Charles Sumner. Building on the many activist Congregational churches, abolitionism flourished. William Lloyd Garrison was the outstanding spokesperson, though many "cotton Whig" mill owners complained that the agitation was bad for their strong business ties to southern cotton planters.
The Congregationalists remained dominant in rural areas, but, in the cities, a new religious sensibility had replaced their straight-laced Calvinism. By 1826, reported Harriet Beecher Stowe:
All the literary men of Massachusetts were Unitarians. All the trustees and professors of Harvard College were Unitarians. All the élite of wealth and fashion crowded Unitarian churches. The judges on the bench were Unitarian, giving decisions by which the peculiar features of church organization, so carefully ordained by the Pilgrim fathers, had been nullified.
Some of the most important writers and thinkers of this time came from Massachusetts. Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson are well known today for their contributions to American thought. Part of an intellectual movement known as Transcendentalism, they emphasized the importance of the natural world to humanity and were also part of the abolitionist call.
Know Nothing movement Edit
The Know Nothing movement formed a new party in 1854 and captured almost all the seats in the legislature, the state government, and many cities. Historian John Mulkern finds the new party was populist and highly democratic, hostile to wealth, elites, and to expertise, and deeply suspicious of outsiders especially Catholics. The new party's voters were concentrated in the rapidly growing industrial towns, where Yankee workers faced direct competition with new Irish immigrants. Whereas the Whig party was strongest in high income districts, the Know Nothing electorate was strongest in the poor districts. They voted out the traditional upper-class closed political leadership class, especially the lawyers and merchants. In their stead they elected working-class men, farmers, and a large number of teachers and ministers. Replacing the moneyed elite were men who seldom owned $10,000 in property. 
In national perspective, the most aggressive and innovative legislation came out of Massachusetts, Both in terms of nativism and in terms of reforms. Historian Stephen Taylor says that in addition to nativist legislation:
the party also distinguished itself by its opposition to slavery, support for an expansion of the rights of women, regulation of industry, and support of measures designed to improve the status of working people. 
It passed legislation to regulate railroads, insurance companies, and public utilities. It funded free textbooks for the public schools, and raised the appropriations for local libraries and for the school for the blind. Purification of Massachusetts against divisive social evils was a high priority. The legislature set up the state's first reform school for juvenile delinquents, while trying to block the importation of supposedly subversive government documents and academic books from Europe. It upgraded the legal status of wives, giving them more property rights and more rights in divorce courts. It passed harsh penalties on speakeasies, gambling houses and bordellos. Prohibition legislation imposed severe penalties: serving one glass of beer was punishable by six months in prison. Many juries refused to convict. Many of the reforms were quite expensive State spending rose 45% on top of a 50% hike in annual taxes on cities and towns. The extravagance angered the taxpayers few Know Nothings were reelected so the brief two-year experiment ended. 
The highest priority included attacks on the civil rights of Irish Catholic immigrants. State courts lost the power to process applications for citizenship the public schools had to require compulsory daily reading of the Protestant Bible (which the nativists were sure would transform the Catholic children). The governor disbanded the Irish militias, and replaced Catholics holding state jobs with Protestants. It failed to reach the two-thirds vote needed to pass a state constitutional amendment to restrict voting and office holding to men who had resided in Massachusetts for at least 21 years. The legislature then called on Congress to raise the requirement for naturalization from five years to 21 years, but Congress never acted. 
The most dramatic move by the Know Nothing legislature was to appoint an investigating committee designed to prove widespread sexual immorality under way in Catholic convents. The press had a field day following the story, especially when it was discovered that the key reformer was using committee funds to pay for a prostitute. The legislature shut down its committee, ejected the reformer, and saw its investigation became a laughing stock.   
In the years leading up to the Civil War, Massachusetts was a center of social progressivism, Transcendentalism, and abolitionist activity. Horace Mann made the state system of schools the national model.   Two prominent abolitionists from the Commonwealth were William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips. Garrison founded the New England Anti-Slavery Society in 1832, and helped change perceptions on slavery. The movement increased antagonism over the issues of slavery, resulting in anti-abolitionist riots in Massachusetts between 1835 and 1837.  The works of abolitionists contributed to the eventual actions of the Commonwealth during the Civil War.
Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson made major contributions to American thought.  Members of the Transcendentalism movement, they emphasized the importance of the natural world and emotion to humanity.  Although significant opposition to abolitionism existed early on in Massachusetts, resulting in anti-abolitionist riots between 1835 and 1837,  opposition to slavery gradually increased in the next few decades.   Famed abolitionist John Brown moved to the ideologically progressive town of Springfield in 1846. It was there that Brown first became a militant anti-slavery proponent. In Springfield and in Boston, Brown met the connections that would both influence him, (Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth in Springfield,) and later fund his efforts, (Simon Sanborn and Amos Adams Lawrence in Boston,) in Bleeding Kansas and John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry. In 1850, Brown founded his first militant, anti-slavery organization – The League of the Gileadites – in Springfield, to protect escaped slaves from 1850s Fugitive Slave Act. Massachusetts was a hotbed of abolitionism – particularly the progressive cities of Boston and Springfield – and contributed to subsequent actions of the state during the Civil War. Massachusetts was among the first states to respond to President Lincoln's call for troops. Massachusetts was the first state to recruit, train, and arm a Black regiment with White officers, the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry.  The Robert Gould Shaw Memorial in Boston Common contains a relief depicting the 54th regiment.  Much of the Union's weaponry for the Civil War was produced in Springfield, at the Springfield Armory.
Following the Civil War, thousands of immigrants from Canada and Europe continued to settle in the major cities of Massachusetts, attracted by employment in the state's ever-expanding factories.  The state also became a leader in education and innovation through this period, particularly in the Boston area.
Invention of basketball and volleyball Edit
In 1891, and 1895, the sports of basketball and volleyball—both now Olympic sports, popular worldwide—were invented in the Western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. Both inventors, James Naismith, and William G. Morgan sought to create games for groups at the YMCA, with Naismith seeking a fast-paced game for youths often confined indoors during New England's harsh winters.  Morgan's invention of mintonette, soon renamed volleyball at the suggestion of colleague Professor Alfred T. Halsted, was a direct response to the then-new sport basketball, as he sought to create a fast-paced game with similar objectives that could be more easily played by a wider variety of players young and old, athletic and non-athletic.  Today, Springfield is home to the international Basketball Hall of Fame. Holyoke is home to the international Volleyball Hall of Fame. 
Industrial advance Edit
In the 1890s—largely due to the presence of the Springfield Armory, which employed many skilled, mechanical workers—Greater Springfield became the United States' first major center of automobile and motorcycle innovation. The United States' first gasoline-powered automobile company, the Duryea Motor Wagon Company, was founded in Chicopee in 1893. The first American motorcycle company, the Indian Motorcycle Company, was founded in Springfield in 1901. Knox Automobile produced the world's first motorized fire engines in Springfield in 1906.  File:Street railway workers with a thermite crucible on Main Street, Holyoke, 1904.png
Although the basic rail system was in place by 1860, the railways continued to make major improvements in tracks, signals, bridging, and facilities. With steel came heavier trains and more powerful locomotives. In the 1880s the Boston & Albany Railroad invested heavily in its physical facilities, including the construction of over 30 new passenger stations. Famed Boston architect H. H. Richardson did much of the design work. 
Passenger transportation was revolutionized by the electric trolley. Thomas Davenport, the first American to construct a DC electric motor, first demonstrated the feasibility of the electric railway in Springfield with a small circular railway in late 1835, which was subsequently exhibited in Boston that winter.  Decades later in 1889, Springfield's first line was constructed and by 1905 the city had more track than New York City. The lines provided rapid, cheap transportation for farm produce and workers, created land booms in suburbia, and permitted Sunday outings in the country. They were highly profitable and the base of numerous fortunes.  The numerous trolley operators around the Commonwealth during this time would drive innovation in best practices, and while it would not be until the 1930s that American steam railroads would adopt thermite welding,  it was on August 8, 1904 that the Holyoke Street Railway became the first rail line in the United States to lay track with the process.  One of its engineers at the time, a recent graduate from Worcester Polytechnic named George Pellissier, introduced the process developed by German chemist Hans Goldschmidt to the railway company soon after the inventor's Goldschmidt Thermit Company opened its first American office in New York City. During his tenure with both the railway and Goldscmidt's company, Pellissier would contribute to thermite manufacturing plant design, as well as improvements toward continuously welded rail.  While other track-laying techniques exist the process is now considered a standard operating procedure by railmen across the world. 
On the subject of securities laws in the early 1930's in response to the Great Depression, Boston figured prominently. Governor of Massachusetts Frank G. Allen appointed John C. Hull the first Securities Director of Massachusetts in January 1930.    On May 4 1932, Hull introduced a bill to the committee on Banks and Banking in the Massachusetts House of Representatives for revision and simplification of the law relative to the sale of securities (Chapter 110A).  The act was approved June 6. 1932.  Three Harvard professors, Felix Frankfurter, Benjamin V. Cohen and James M. Landis drafted both Securities Act of 1933 and Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The 1st Chair of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. was from Boston.  . Kennedy Sr. had this to say before the Boston Chamber of Commerce on November 15, 1934: "Necessary, legitimate, useful, profitable enterprise will be encouraged. Only the senseless, vicious, and fraudulent activities will be curtailed, and these must and will be eradicated. The initials S-E-C, we hope, will come to stand for Securities Ex-Crookedness. Confidence is an outgrowth of character. We believe that character exists strongly in the financial world, so we do not have to compel virtue we seek to prevent vice.”  On June 6, 1934, FDR signed the Securities Exchange Act into law with Pecora. At one point Roosevelt asked Pecora, "Ferd, now that I have signed this bill and it has become law, what kind of law will it be?" "It will be a good or bad bill, Mr. President," replied Pecora, "depending upon the men who administer it." (Ritchie, 59) 
Massachusetts entered the 20th century with a strong industrial economy. Despite a lack of agricultural progress, the economy prospered between 1900 and 1919. Factories throughout the Commonwealth produced goods varying from paper to metals. Boston, in the year 1900, was still the second most important port in the United States, as well as the most valuable U.S. port in terms of its fish market. By 1908, however, the value of the port dropped considerably due to competition. Population growth during this period, which was aided by immigration from abroad, helped in urbanization and forced a change in the ethnic make-up of the Commonwealth.
The largely industrial economy of Massachusetts began to falter, however, due to the dependence of factory communities upon the production of one or two goods. External low-wage competition, coupled with other factors of the Great Depression in later years, led to the collapse of the state's two main industries: shoes and textiles. Between 1921 and 1949 the failure of those industries resulted in rampant unemployment and the urban decay of once-prosperous industrial centers which would persist for several decades.
The industrial economy began a decline in the early 20th century with the exodus of many manufacturing companies. By the 1920s competition from the South and Midwest, followed by the Great Depression, led to the collapse of the three main industries in Massachusetts: textiles, shoemaking, and mechanized transportation.  This decline would continue into the latter half of the century between 1950 and 1979, the number of Bay Staters involved in textile manufacturing declined from 264,000 to 63,000.  The Springfield Armory, the United States' Military's munitions producer since 1777, was controversially shut down by the Pentagon in 1968. This spurred an exodus of high-paying jobs from Western Massachusetts, which suffered greatly as it de-industrialized during the last 40 years of the 20th century.  In Eastern Massachusetts, following World War II, the economy was transformed from one based on heavy industry into a service and high-tech based economy.  Government contracts, private investment, and research facilities led to a new and improved industrial climate, with reduced unemployment and increased per capita income. Suburbanization flourished, and by the 1970s, the Route 128 corridor was dotted with high-technology companies who recruited graduates of the area's many elite institutions of higher education. 
On Thursday, October 1, 1903, the city of Boston made history by hosting the inaugural World Series at the Huntington Avenue Grounds. The Boston Red Sox won the best-of-nine series and launched into a baseball dynasty in the following years by capturing five championships in fifteen years behind Hall of Famer Babe Ruth.
Even before the Great Depression struck the United States, Massachusetts was experiencing economic problems. The crash of the Commonwealth's major industries led to declining population in factory towns. The Boston metropolitan area became one of the slowest-growing areas in the United States between 1920 and 1950. Internal migration within the Commonwealth, however, was altered by the Great Depression. In the wake of economic woes, people moved to the metropolitan area of Boston looking for jobs, only to find high unemployment and dismal conditions. In the depressed situation that predominated in Boston during this era, racial tension sometimes manifested itself in gang warfare, notably with clashes between the Irish and Italians.
Massachusetts also endured class conflict during this period. In the 1912 general strike in Lawrence, almost all of the town's mills were forced to shut down as a result of strife over wages that sustained only poverty. The Commonwealth was confronted with issues of worker conditions and wages. For example, when the legislature decreed that women and children could work only 50 hours per week, employers cut wages proportionally. Eventually, the demands of the Lawrence strikers were heeded, and a pay increase was made.
The economic and social turmoil in Massachusetts marked the beginning of a change in the Commonwealth's way of functioning. Politics helped to encourage stability among social groups by elevating members of various ranks in society, as well as ethnic groups, to influential posts. The two major industries of Massachusetts, shoes and textiles, had declined in a way that even the post-World War II economic boom could not reverse. Thus, the Commonwealth's economy was ripe for change as the post-war years dawned.
World War II precipitated great changes in the economy of Massachusetts, which led to changes in society. The aftermath of WWII created a global economy that was focused upon the interests of the United States, both militarily and in relation to business. The domestic economy in the United States was altered by government procurement policies focused on defense. In the years following WWII, Massachusetts was transformed from a factory-based economy to one based on services and technology. During WWII, the U.S. government had built facilities that they leased, and in the post-war years sold, to defense contractors. Such facilities contributed to an economy focused on creating specialized defense goods. That form of economy prospered as a result of the Cold War, the Vietnam War, and the Korean War.
In the ensuing years, government contracts, private investment, and research facilities helped to create a modern industry, which reduced unemployment and increased per capita income. All of these economic changes encouraged suburbanization and the formation of a new generation of well-assimilated and educated middle-class workers. At the same time, suburbanization and urban decay highlighted differences between various social groups, leading to a renewal of racial tension. Boston, a paragon of the problems in Massachusetts cities, experienced numerous challenges that led to racial problems. The problems facing urban centers included declining population, middle-class flight, departure of industry, high unemployment, rising taxes, low property values, and competition among ethnic groups.
The Kennedy family was prominent in Massachusetts politics in the 20th century. Children of businessman and ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. included:
- , a United States senator from Massachusetts from 1953 to 1960 and president of the United States from 1961 until his assassination in 1963 , United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964, United States senator from New York from 1965 to 1968, and presidential candidate in 1968 until his assassination , a United States senator from Massachusetts from 1962 until his death in 2009 and presidential candidate in 1980 , a co-founder of the Special Olympics. 
Over the past 20–30 years, Massachusetts has cemented its place in the country as a center of education (especially higher education) and high-tech industry, including the biotechnology and information technology sectors. With better-than-average schools overall and many elite universities, the area was well placed to take advantage of the technology-based economy of the 1990s. The rebound from the decay of manufacturing into the high-technology sector is often referred to as the Massachusetts Miracle.
The Commonwealth had several notable citizens in federal government in the 1980s, including presidential hopeful Senator Ted Kennedy and House Speaker Tip O'Neill. This legislative influence allowed the Commonwealth to receive federal highway funding for the $14.6 billion Boston Central Artery/Tunnel Project. Known colloquially as "the Big Dig", it was, at the time, the most expensive federal highway project ever approved. Designed to relieve some of the traffic problems of the poorly planned city, it was approved in 1987, and effectively completed in 2005. The project was controversial due to massive budget overruns, repeated construction delays, water leaks in the new tunnels in 2004, and a ceiling collapse in 2006 that killed a Bostonian.
Several Massachusetts politicians have run for the office of President of the United States in this period, won the primary elections, and gone on to contest the national elections. These include:
In 2002, the Roman Catholic Church sex abuse scandal involving local priests became public. The Archdiocese of Boston was found to have knowingly moved priests who sexually molested children from parish to parish and to have covered up abuse. The revelations caused the resignation of the archbishop, Cardinal Bernard Law, and resulted in an $85 million settlement with the victims. With the large Irish and Italian Catholic populations in Boston, this was a big concern. The diocese, under financial pressure, closed many of its churches. In some churches, parishioners camped out in the churches to protest and block closure.
On November 18, 2003, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (SJC) decided that the Commonwealth could not deny marriage rights to gay couples under the state constitution. On February 4, 2004, the SJC followed that ruling with a statement saying that allegedly separate but equal civil unions, implemented as of late in Vermont, would not pass constitutional muster and that only full gay marriage rights met constitutional guarantees. On May 17, 2004, the ruling took effect and thousands of gay and lesbian couples across the Commonwealth entered into marriage. Opponents of gay marriage subsequently pushed for an amendment to the state constitution that would allow the state to deny marriage rights to gay couples. It was necessary for the amendment to be approved by at least 1/4 of the members present in two consecutive legislative sessions of the Massachusetts legislature, and to receive majority support in a popular referendum. It passed the first legislative session, but was defeated in the second session, receiving less than 1/4 of the votes of the legislators present. As public opinion polls currently [ when? ] indicate majority support for gay marriage among the people of the Commonwealth, it is likely that the issue is settled in Massachusetts. [ citation needed ]
Increased white-collar jobs have driven suburban sprawl, but the consequent effects of sprawl have been lessened by regulations on land use and zoning, as well as an emphasis on "smart growth". In recent years, the Commonwealth has lost population as high housing costs have driven many away from Massachusetts. The Boston area is the third most expensive housing market in the country. Over the last several years there has been a net outflow of about 19,000 people from the Commonwealth. [ citation needed ] [ needs update ]
In 2006, the Massachusetts legislature enacted the first plan in the United States to provide all Commonwealth citizens with universal health insurance coverage, using a variety of private insurance providers. Insurance coverage for low-income individuals is paid for with tax revenues, and higher income people who don't have health insurance are required to purchase it. (The health insurance market is publicly regulated, so, at least in Massachusetts, no one can be denied coverage because of pre-existing conditions or be forced to pay exorbitant rates.) The implementation of Commonwealth Care, the new universal coverage law, is proceeding, as of 2007.
Two bombs exploded near the finish line of the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, killing three spectators and injuring 264. The 2 brothers Tamerlan Tsarnaev and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev set the bombs because they were motivated by extremist Islamic beliefs and learned to build explosive devices from an online magazine of an al-Qaeda affiliate. 
On November 8, 2016, Massachusetts voted for The Massachusetts Marijuana Legalization Initiative, also known as Question 4.  It was included on the United States presidential election, 2016 ballot in Massachusetts as an indirect initiated state statute. 
The Big Dig Edit
In 1987, the state received federal funding for the Central Artery/Tunnel Project. Known as "the Big Dig", it was at the time the biggest federal highway project ever approved.  The project included making the Central Artery a tunnel under downtown Boston, in addition to the re-routing of several other major highways.  Often controversial, with numerous claims of graft and mismanagement, and with its initial price tag of $2.5 billion increasing to a final tally of over $15 billion, the Big Dig has nonetheless changed the face of Downtown Boston.  It has connected areas once divided by elevated highway (much of the raised old Central Artery was replaced with the Rose Kennedy Greenway), and improved traffic conditions along a number of routes.  
The history of the boundaries of Massachusetts is somewhat complex and covers several centuries. Land grants made to various groups of early colonists, mergers and secessions, and settlements of various boundary disputes all had a major influence on the modern definition of the Commonwealth. Disputes arose due to both overlapping grants, inaccurate surveys (creating a difference between where the border "should" be and where markers are placed on the ground). Having loyal settlers actually on the ground also partially determined which portions of their vast claims early groups held on too.
Founding grants Edit
In 1607, the Plymouth Company was granted a coastal charter for all coastal territory up to a certain distance from the eastern shoreline of North America, from 38°N to 45°N. The northern boundary was thus slightly farther north than the current Maine–New Brunswick border, and the southern border intentionally overlapped with the Virginia Company of London ("London Company") from the 38th parallel (near the current Maryland–Virginia border) to the 41st (near the current Connecticut–New York border in Long Island Sound). Neither colony was allowed to settle within 100 miles of the other. The Plymouth Company's patent fell into disuse after the failure of the Popham Colony in what is now Maine. Meanwhile, the Plymouth Colony had settled outside the territory of the London company due to navigational difficulties. The Plymouth Company was reorganized as the Plymouth Council for New England, and given a new royal sea-to-sea charter for all North American territory from 40° North (just east between present-day Philadelphia and Trenton, New Jersey) and 48° N (thus including all of modern-day New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island). The Plymouth Colony was granted land patents between 1621 and 1630 from the Council to legitimize its settlement, though it maintained political independence under the Mayflower Compact.
The Plymouth Council for New England made sub grants to various entities before it was surrendered to the crown in 1635 and ceased to operate as a corporate entity.
The Sheffield Patent granted the use of Cape Ann to members of the Plymouth Colony and the Dorchester Company. The fishing colony there failed, but led to the foundation of Salem, Massachusetts. The bankrupt Dorchester Company's lands were reissued as part of a larger grant to the Massachusetts Bay Company. Massachusetts Bay obtained in 1628/29 a sea-to-sea patent for all lands and islands from three miles north of the Merrimack River (roughly the current Massachusetts–New Hampshire border), to three miles south of the extents of the Charles River and Massachusetts Bay. The Charles River starts in Hopkinton (in the middle of the territory) but flows in a circuitous path southeast to near present-day Bellingham on the modern Rhode Island border. Land belonging to any other colonies as of November 3, 1629, was excluded from the grant.
The boundary between the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Plymouth Colony was settled in 1639, and today forms most of the border between Norfolk County to the north and Plymouth and Bristol counties to the south.
In 1622, Sir Ferdinando Gorges obtained a patent for the Province of Maine, lands north of the Massachusetts Bay border near the Merrimack River, up to the Kennebec River. This was soon split at the Piscataqua River, with the southern portion eventually becoming the Province of New Hampshire. The northern portion came under Massachusetts Bay control in the 1640s. In 1664, James, Duke of York, obtained a charter for land from the Kennebec to the St. Croix River, joining it to his Province of New York. New Hampshire was joined with Massachusetts Bay from 1641 to 1679 and during the dominion period (1686–1692).
The 1629 charter of Massachusetts Bay was canceled by a judgment of the high court of chancery of England, June 18, 1684. 
The Province of Massachusetts Bay was formed in 1691–92 by the British monarchs William III and Mary II. It included the lands of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Plymouth Colony, the Province of Maine (including the eastern territories that had been part of Province of New York), and Nova Scotia (which included present-day New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island). Dukes County, Massachusetts (Martha's Vineyard and the Elizabeth Islands), and Nantucket were also transferred from the Province of New York. In 1696, Nova Scotia was restored to France (who called it Acadia), but the northern and eastern boundaries of Maine would not be fixed until the 1840s.
New Hampshire boundary Edit
The Province of New Hampshire received a separate royal charter in 1679, but the language defining the southern border with Massachusetts Bay referenced the Merrimack River in an ambiguous way:
all that parte of New England in America lying and extending from the greate River commonly called Monomack als Merrimack on the northpart and from three Miles Northward of the said River to the Atlantick or Western Sea or Ocean on the South part [Pacific Ocean] 
The result was disagreement over the northern boundary of Massachusetts that was often ignored by its governors because in those years they governed both Massachusetts and New Hampshire. Massachusetts claimed land west of the Merrimack as calculated from the headwaters of the river (which early colonial officials claimed to be the outlet of Lake Winnipesaukee in modern-day Franklin, New Hampshire), but New Hampshire claimed that its southern boundary was the line of latitude three miles north of the river's mouth. The parties appealed to King George II of Great Britain, who ordered the dispute be settled by agreement between the parties. Commissioners from both colonies met at Hampton, New Hampshire in 1737, but were unable to reach agreement.
In 1740, the King settled the dispute in a surprising manner, by declaring "that the northern boundary of Massachusetts be a similar curve line pursuing the course of the Merrimack River at three miles distance on the north side thereof, beginning at the Atlantic Ocean and ending at a point due north of a place called Pawtucket Falls [now Lowell, Massachusetts], and by a straight line drawn from thence west till it meets his Majesty's other governments." This ruling favored New Hampshire and actually gave it a strip of land 50 miles beyond its claim. Massachusetts declined to do a physical survey, so New Hampshire laid markers on its own. 
Rhode Island eastern border Edit
In 1641, the Plymouth Colony (at the time separate from the Massachusetts Bay Colony) purchased from the Indians a large tract of land which today includes the northern half of East Providence (from Watchemoket to Rumford), Rehoboth, Massachusetts, Seekonk, Massachusetts, and part of Pawtucket, Rhode Island. In 1645, John Brown of Plymouth bought a considerably smaller piece of land from the Indians, which today comprises the southern part of East Providence (Riverside), Barrington, Rhode Island, and a small part of Swansea, Massachusetts. Finally, in 1661, Plymouth completed the "North Purchase", from which Cumberland, Rhode Island, Attleboro, Massachusetts, and North Attleborough, Massachusetts, were later to be formed. The whole territory, which also included parts of modern Somerset, Massachusetts, and Warren, Bristol, and Woonsocket in Rhode Island, was at the time called "Rehoboth". The center of "Old Rehoboth" was within the borders of modern East Providence, Rhode Island.
By the 1650s, Massachusetts Bay, the Colony of Rhode Island (not yet unified with Providence) the Connecticut Colony, and two different land companies all claimed what is now Washington County, Rhode Island, what was referred to as Narragansett Country. Massachusetts Bay had conquered Block Island in 1636 in retaliation for the murder of a trader at the start of the Pequot War, and Massachusetts families settled there in 1661. The Plymouth Colony's land grant specified its western boundary as the Narragansett River  it is unclear whether this referred to the Pawcatuck River (on the current Connecticut–Rhode Island Border) or Narragansett Bay (much farther east, near the modern-day Rhode Island–Massachusetts border).
In 1663, Rhode Island obtained a patent extending its territory in certain places three miles east of Narragansett Bay. In 1664, a royal commission appointed by King Charles II of England denied the claims of Massachusetts and Plymouth to land west of Narragansett Bay, granting jurisdiction to the newly unified Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations (pending resolution of the claims of Connecticut). However, the claims of Plymouth to all lands east of Narragansett Bay were upheld, and so the border was set in practice. 
The 1691 charter unified Massachusetts Bay with Plymouth Colony (including Rehoboth) and said that the combined territory would extend as far south as "Our Collonyes of Rhode Island Connecticut and the Narragansett Countrey"  (Narragansett Country).
In 1693, the monarchs William III and Mary II issued a patent extending Rhode Island's territory to three miles "east and northeast" of Narragansett Bay, conflicting with the claims of Plymouth Colony.  This enlarged the area of conflict between Rhode Island and the Province of Massachusetts.
The issue was not addressed until 1740, when Rhode Island appealed to King George II of Great Britain. Royal commissioners from both colonies were appointed in 1741, and decided in favor of Rhode Island. The King affirmed the settlement in 1746 after appeals from both colonies. The royally approved three-mile boundary moved several towns on the eastern shore of Narragansett Bay (east of the mouth of the Blackstone River) from Massachusetts to Rhode Island.
This included what is now Bristol County, Rhode Island (the towns of Barrington, Bristol, and Warren), along with Tiverton, Little Compton, and Cumberland, Rhode Island (which was carved out of Attleborough, Massachusetts). East Freetown, which was left on the Massachusetts side of the border, was officially purchased by Freetown, Massachusetts, from Tiverton in 1747.
Commissioners from Rhode Island had the new boundary surveyed in 1746 (without consulting Massachusetts), based on six reference points, from each of which a distance was measured 3 miles inland. Massachusetts accepted this border until 1791, when its own surveyors found that the Rhode Island surveyors had "encroached" on Massachusetts territory by a few hundred feet in certain places. (Rhode Island disagreed.) Of particular concern was the boundary near Fall River, Massachusetts, which would later fall in the middle of a thickly settled area of high taxable value. 
In 1812, after a court case involving the Massachusetts border, the western half of Old Rehoboth was set off as a separate township called Seekonk, Massachusetts, leaving the eastern part as Rehoboth, Massachusetts. Old Rehoboth's town center now became the heart of Old Seekonk.
In 1832, Rhode Island filed a case with the U.S. Supreme Court, but after six years of deliberations, it was dismissed. The court decided it did not have the jurisdiction to rule on the matter. 
In 1844, and 1845, commissioners were once again authorized to survey and mark the boundary from Wrentham to the Atlantic Ocean, to address the inaccuracies of the 1746 survey. A report was issued in 1848, but the Massachusetts legislature refused to agree to the proposed solution after petitions from residents of Fall River.  
Both states filed bills of equity with the Supreme Court in 1852, and after more surveying and negotiation, a decree was issued on December 16, 1861. On March 1, 1862, when the Supreme Court ruling became effective,  the western part of Old Seekonk (all of which was on the eastern shore of the Blackstone River) was ceded by Massachusetts and incorporated as East Providence, Rhode Island. Part of North Providence, Rhode Island, was also combined with the former Pawtucket, Massachusetts and a sliver of Seekonk to form the modern Pawtucket, Rhode Island. A small amount of land was also added to Westport, Massachusetts.  The southern boundary of Fall River, Massachusetts, was moved from Columbia Street to State Avenue, expanding its territory. The Supreme Court made these adjustments not in conformance with King George's instructions, but to unify the thickly settled areas of Pawtucket and Fall River under the jurisdiction of a single state. 
The 1861–2 boundary was slightly redefined in 1897, using stone markers instead of high-water levels. The physical survey was performed in 1898, and ratified by both states.
Rhode Island northern border Edit
In 1710–11, commissioners from the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations and the Province of Massachusetts Bay agreed that the stake planted in 1642 by Nathaniel Woodward and Solomon Saffrey at Burnt Swamp Corner on the plains of Wrentham, Massachusetts, said to be at 41°55′N and thought to be three miles south of the southernmost part of the Charles River, would represent the starting point for the border.
The line extending west from the stake was surveyed in 1719, but inaccurately. 
In 1748, Rhode Island appointed a commission to survey the line from the stake to the Connecticut border, but Massachusetts failed to send a delegation. The surveyors could not find the 1642 stake, and so marked a line from three miles south, by their reckoning, of "Poppatolish Pond" (presumably Populatic Pond, near Norfolk Airpark in Norfolk, Massachusetts). It was discovered that the Woodward and Saffrey stake was considerably farther south than three miles from the Charles River. 
Rhode Island claimed that its commissioners had made a mistake in basing the border on the 1642 stake, and in 1832 filed a case with the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1846, the Court ruled in favor of Massachusetts. The same surveyors that marked the eastern boundary the previous year then marked the northern boundary, filing their report in 1848. Rhode Island accepted the markings as the legal boundary on the condition that Massachusetts do the same, but the Commonwealth failed to do so until 1865. But by that time, Rhode Island claimed that the 1861 Supreme Court case had changed matters so much as to render the "line of 1848" unacceptable.
Connecticut border Edit
The town of Springfield was settled in 1636 by William Pynchon (as Agawam Plantation), encompassing the modern towns of Westfield, Southwick, West Springfield, Agawam, Chicopee, Holyoke, Wilbraham, Ludlow and Longmeadow in Massachusetts, and Enfield, Suffield, Somers, and East Windsor in Connecticut. It was connected to the Atlantic and major avenues of trade by the Connecticut River, which ran past Hartford and through the territory of the Connecticut Colony. Initially, Springfield's founders attended the Connecticut Colony meetings held in Hartford however, relations quickly soured between the strong-minded leaders of each settlement, the iconoclastic William Pynchon of Springfield and Puritan Reverend Thomas Hooker of Hartford. Pynchon proved to be a very savvy businessman, and his settlement quickly eclipsed the Connecticut towns in trade with the Natives. In 1640, during a grain shortage, Hooker and other Connecticut leaders gave Pynchon permission to buy grain for them however, because the Indians were refusing to sell at reasonable prices, Pynchon refused the Indians' offers. Pynchon's perceived greed infuriated Hartford however, Pynchon explained that he was merely trying to keep market prices steady so that colonists need not pay exorbitant amounts in the future. Infuriated, Hartford sent famed Indian-killer Captain John Mason up to Pynchon's settlement "with money in one hand and a sword in the other." Mason threatened the Natives by Springfield with war if they did not sell grain at the prices he demanded. Pynchon was disgusted by this behavior, as he had enjoyed a congenial relationship with the Natives – and Mason's threats made him look bad. Mason believed that Natives were untrustworthy, and thus exchanged some "hard words" with Pynchon before leaving Springfield. After Mason left, settlers of Agawam Plantation rallied in support of Pynchon. In 1640, they voted to annex their settlement – with arguably the best position on the Connecticut River, near Enfield Falls, surrounded by fertile farmland and friendly Natives – to the faraway government in Boston, rather than the nearby government in Hartford.  (Springfield had been settled by permission of the Massachusetts General Court, so Massachusetts assumed it had jurisdiction over Pynchon's settlement anyway however, they renamed it Springfield in Pynchon's honor).
In 1641, Connecticut founded a trading post at Woronoke, which was in what was strongly considered to be Massachusetts territory (now Westfield).  Massachusetts complained, and Connecticut demanded that Springfield pay taxes to support the upkeep of the fort at the mouth of the river, in the Saybrook Colony. Springfield's magistrate, William Pynchon, would have been amenable to the tax if Springfield could have representation at the fort at Saybrook however, Connecticut refused Springfield's request for representation. Pynchon appealed to Boston, which responded to Connecticut by threatening to charge Connecticut traders for the use of the port of Boston on which they heavily depended. 
To assert its sovereignty on the northern Connecticut River, the Massachusetts Bay Colony sent Nathaniel Woodward and Solomon Saffrey to survey and mark the boundary. They accidentally marked the boundary with Rhode Island significantly farther than the royally decreed three miles south of the southernmost part of the Charles River. Instead of traversing the territory of Massachusetts by land, they sailed around and up the Connecticut River, calculating the same latitude at which they had misplaced the stake on the Rhode Island border. This compounded the error even further, resulting in a four to seven mile discrepancy between where the border should have been and where it was marked, and awarding more territory to Massachusetts Bay than it had been granted by its charter. Although it was suspicious of this survey, Connecticut would not even receive a charter until 1662, and so the dispute would lie dormant for several decades.  [ dead link ]
The towns of Woodstock, Suffield, Enfield, and Somers were incorporated by Massachusetts, and mainly settled by migrants from the Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth Colonies. In 1686, Suffield and Enfield (incorporated in Massachusetts) were in a dispute over town territory with Windsor and Simsbury (incorporated in Connecticut, and which then included Granby). Massachusetts did not agree to a re-survey, so Connecticut hired John Butler and William Whitney to do the job. They found the southernmost part of the Charles River, and then traveled by land westward. Their 1695 report found that the 1642 line had been drawn too far south.
Consternation ensued. Abortive pleas to England were made in 1702. In 1713, a joint commission awarded control of Springfield-area towns to Massachusetts (without consulting the residents of those towns), compensating Connecticut with an equal amount of land further north. But the inhabitants of the Connecticut River border towns petitioned to be part of Connecticut in 1724, perhaps due to high taxes in Massachusetts or the greater civil liberties granted in the Connecticut charter. 
In 1747, Woodstock petitioned the General Assembly of Connecticut to be admitted to the colony because the transfer of lands from Massachusetts in 1713 had not been authorized by The Crown. Suffield and Enfield soon followed, and the legislature accepted them in May 1749, and declared the 1713 compromise null and void. Massachusetts continued to assert sovereignty.  
In 1770, Southwick, Massachusetts, was granted independence from Westfield, Massachusetts. In May 1774, residents in southern Southwick also petitioned Connecticut for entry and secession from northern Southwick, on the grounds they were south of the royally approved border of the Massachusetts Bay Colony (three miles south of the Charles River). As a compromise, the area west of Congamond Lake remained in Massachusetts, and the area of Massachusetts east of the lake joined Suffield and became part of Connecticut.  
In 1791, and 1793, commissioners were sent from both states to survey the boundary line yet again, but were unable to agree until a compromise was reached in 1803–04. Massachusetts accepted the nullification of the 1713 compromise and the loss of the border towns, but regained the portion of southern Southwick west of the lake. This resulted in the modern boundary with Connecticut, a relatively straight east-west line except for the "Southwick jog", a small, mostly rectangular piece of Massachusetts surrounded by Connecticut on three sides. 
New York border Edit
Massachusetts claimed all territory to the Pacific Ocean, based on its 1629 charter, but the Province of New York claimed the west bank of the Connecticut River (passing through Springfield, Massachusetts) as its eastern boundary, based on 1664 and 1674 grants to the Duke of York. The 1705 Westenhook Patent from the governor of New York allocated land west of the Housatonic River to specific individuals, resulting in ownership conflicts. 
In 1773, the western boundary of Massachusetts was settled with New York in its present location, and surveyed in 1787, following the line of magnetic north at the time. The starting point was a 1731 marker at the Connecticut–New York border, 20 miles inland from the Hudson River. 
Massachusetts relinquished sovereignty over its western lands (east of the Great Lakes) to New York in the Treaty of Hartford in 1786, but retained the economic right to buy the Boston Ten Townships from Native Americans before any other party. These purchase rights were sold to private individuals in 1788. The Commonwealth also ceded its claim to far western lands (Michigan and all other land to the Pacific Ocean) to Congress in 1785.
In 1853, a small triangle of land in the southwest corner of the Commonwealth, known as Boston Corners, was ceded from Mount Washington, Massachusetts, to Ancram, New York. The mountainous terrain made it difficult for Massachusetts authorities to enforce the law there, making the neighborhood a haven for outlaws and prize-fighters. Residents petitioned for the transfer to allow New York authorities to clean up the hamlet.
From 1658 to 1820 Maine was an integral part of Massachusetts. In 1820, Maine was separated from Massachusetts (with its consent) and admitted into the Union as an independent state, as part of the Missouri Compromise. (See the History of Maine for information about its boundaries, including disputes with New Hampshire and Canadian provinces.)
PTSD in the Massachusetts Bay Colony
In June, 1630 the Arbella sailed for New England with 300 English Puritans determined to establish “a Model of Christian Charity.” During the ten week passage across the Atlantic, passengers were confined to narrow quarters for ten weeks, living on short rations and without comfort. During the following decade, the Great Migration brought nearly 14,000 Puritan settlers, successful, mostly highly educated persons unprepared for the hardships that awaited them. Building a new society in the wilderness while surrounded by wild animals and hostile Indians induced transgenerational trauma and psychological symptoms that we now recognize as post-traumatic stress and mass conversion disorder, culminating in the Salem Witch Trials.
Death, Disease, Wolves and the Strangers Among Us
One of the first laws instituted by the Massachusetts Bay Colony was a bounty on wolves, and in early Ipswich, a rather disconcerting aspect of entering the Meeting House was the site of wolf heads nailed to the door. Even in 1723, wolves were so abundant and so near the meeting house, that parents would not allow their children to go and come without adult accompaniment.
The prospect of raising a family in the New England wilderness was accompanied by hope and dread, with infectious diseases such as smallpox, measles, and diphtheria causing perhaps a fifth of the infants born to never see their first birthday, if indeed they and their mothers survived the rigors of childbirth. By September, 1630 Governor Winthrop wrote to his wife of “much mortality, sickness, and trouble,” and within a year, 200 of the settlers had died.
Martha Fones, the wife of John Winthrop Jr. died with an infant in the summer of 1634, the first of the Ipswich settlers to be buried. Winthrop sailed for England and returned with a new bride, but in 1636 the town was panic-struck when he accepted a commission to begin a plantation in Saybrook Connecticut. Deserted in the wilderness by their leader, their anxiety was relieved after a young man named Daniel Denison assumed the role.
Smallpox is exogenous to Africa, but Colonial expansion and the slavery trade spread the disease throughout the Americas. It was already a familiar enemy, killing up to 60% of those infected, and over 80% of infected children, and leaving the survivors seriously disfigured. From 1636 to 1698, Boston endured six epidemics of smallpox. Towns throughout the colony ordered that all persons infected with smallpox be removed to some isolated place, and be provided nurses or attendants, and food and clothing.. The most severe epidemic came in 1721 in which the population of Boston fled the city to other locations, infecting people throughout Massachusetts and the other colonies.
From the founding of the colony, the Puritans were highly selective of who they allowed to live with them. In the first year of its settlement, the Freemen of the Ipswich established “for our own peace and comfort” the exclusive right to determine the privileges of citizenship in the new community, and gave formal notice that “no stranger coming among us” could have place or standing without their permission. Beginning in 1656, laws forbade any captain to land Quakers, and any individual of that sect was to be severely whipped on his or her entrance, and none were allowed to speak with them. Newcomers who were unable to support themselves and their families were “warned out.”
King Phillip’s War (1675-1678)
The collapse of traditional indigenous tribes and the genocidal loss of life led to a collective stress and anxiety among the Native American population as well. In May, 1660, a group of colonists moved from Ipswich to the Indian town Quaboag in Western Massachusetts, which they renamed Brookfield. Indian attacks known as “King Philips War” resulted in the destruction of Brookfield and the deaths of a dozen settlers on August 2, 1675. Metacomet, t he leader of the Indian attacks known by the English as King Philip, led a bloody uprising of Wampanoag, Nipmuck, Pocumtuck and Narragansett tribes that lasted over a year and destroyed twelve frontier towns, the bloodiest war per capita in North American history.
Many of the Indians who had been scattered by the eventual success against King Phillip made their way to the tribes in Casco Bay, and incited them to rise against the white men in a two-year conflict known as the Eastern War. Hostilities began there in September, 1676. Men, women and little children were killed and scalped, houses and barns burned, and cattle driven away. A vigorous march by Massachusetts soldiers to confront a great gathering of Indians began a series of battles in Maine known as the Eastern War. On October 12, 1676 about 100 Indian warriors made an assault on an English settlement at Black Point near Portland, Maine and took a number of captives, including the son of Rev. Thomas Cobbett of Ipswich. At Black Point, Captain Lovett’s company was led into an ambush where he and about forty of his command were slain. The Arosagunticook chief Mugg Hegonwas was killed at the re-established garrison at Black Point on May 16, 1677.
In 1620, Capt. John Mason had obtained title to all land between the Naumkeag and Merrimack Rivers (Salem to Newburyport) as a principal partner in a stock company known as the Plymouth Council for New England. When the Crown was restored in 1660 the old claim was revived by Captain Mason’s grandson Robert Tufton, who had his surname changed to Mason. King Charles II saw this as an opportunity to reclaim control of Massachusetts, “a prejudicial plantation” that was flaunting tariff and navigation laws.
Mason’s Claim threatened to invalidate every land title. On January 4, 1681, John T. Mason presented the King’s letter to the General Court, which ordered “all said tenants” to appear in Ipswich. At this hearing, which was held on Wednesday, February 14, 1681, residents protested that they had owned their lands for fifty years and defended them against the Indians without a penny from Robert Mason. The next year the General Court was allowed to hear the case in Boston, where the lawyers were instructed to consent to nothing that would infringe on the Charter. Mason turned his sights to New Hampshire, and Massachusetts was never turned into the personal fiefdom that Mason planned to call “Mariana.”
1684: The Massachusetts Bay Colony Charter is Revoked
In 1684, King Charles II of England revoked the Colony’s charter. On August 23, 1687, the citizens of Ipswich, led by the Reverend John Wise, denounced the levy of taxes by the arbitrary government of Sir Edmund Andros. On April 18, 1689 leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony reclaimed control of the government from the crown-appointed governor, Sir Edmund Andros. Major Samuel Appleton of Ipswich was given the honor of handing Andros into the boat which conveyed him to prison on Castle Island in Boston Harbor, and was appointed to serve on the new ruling council.
1688-97: King William’s War (aka 2nd Indian War)
In 1689, Comte de Frontenac, governor general of New France sent a large force of French and Indians to drive the English from the settlements east of Falmouth, Maine which was then part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In September of that year, 200 Norridgewock, Penobscot, and Canada Indians attacked the settlements at Back Cove, now part of Portland. Major Benjamin Church arrived by sloop at sunrise at Fort Loyal, and After a fierce battle, Major Benjamin Church, who had already played an important part in King Phillip’s War, drove the Indians from the area. Over the next 9 years, Church led four raids against the ethnic French Acadians and Abenaki.
In 1693 the Abenaki offered to negotiate for peace, but the English refused their terms, and the war continued. The English at Fort William Henry fell to the Abenaki in August 1696, and the English were forced out of lower Kennebec. Forces from Massachusetts attacked the French-Indian coalition in Port Royal, Quebec and along Kennebec and Penobscot Rivers with little effect. France and England concluded a peace agreement in 1697, and in 1699 the Wabanaki followed. The upper Kennebec River became the southern boundary of New France.
Apparitions, Accusation, Witchcraft and Mass Hysteria
The strain, financial burden of the wars and the loss of young life had been so intense that the superstitious Puritans assumed the Devil to be the reason for their misery. In 1692, Gloucester was invaded by the apparitions of Indians and French known as the Spectral Leaguers. Their speech was in an unknown tongue, and the bullets of soldiers had no effect. Cotton Mather wrote that many believed “this whole matter to have been a Prodigious Piece of the Strange Descent from the Invisible World, then Made Upon Other Parts of the Country.”
In Salem Village in February 1692, two prepubescent girls Betty Parris (age nine) and her cousin Abigail Williams (age 11) began to have fits, complained of being pricked with pins and accused their neighbors of witchcraft. Some of the afflicted girls had been traumatized after losing one or both parents in King William’s War. The afflicted girls routinely described the Devil as a “dark man.”George Burroughs, the unpopular predecessor to Rev. Parris in Salem Village, had come from Maine, and returned there when the parish refused to pay him. Only five weeks before the accusations began, Indians had burned York Maine, 80 miles north of Salem, killing 48 people and taking 73 captives. When one of the accused confessed that the Devil had tempted her in Maine, Reverend Burroughs was arrested, charged with witchcraft and encouraging the Indians, and was hanged on Gallows Hill.
Enlightenment and Disease
Salem was the final gasp of the rigid Puritan theocracy, as the old leadership, no longer able to maintain control and obedience, succumbed to the Age of Reason. The minds of succeeding generations moved from godly pursuits in the period following the witch trials. It was not until the Rev. George Whitefield arrived in New England during the Great Awakening of the 1740’s that religious fervor would be revived.
Although the new century would bring scientific and medical advances, an epidemic of “throat distemper” raged in New England between 1735 and 1740. In 1736, scarlet fever was spreading out from Boston while the diphtheria epidemic was descending from the north. The contagion struck first in New Hampshire, killing almost 1% of the population. The epidemic spread south through the Massachusetts Bay Colonies, and eventually into Connecticut. By the time it had run its course, 5000 people had died, with more than 75 percent of the deaths being children.
War with the French
Establishment of a border between French-speaking Acadia and New England was still unresolved following King William’s War.
Queen Anne’s War (1701–1713) broke out in Europe over who should succeed King Charles II to the Spanish Throne following the death in 1701. This set in motion the second in a series of French and Indian Wars in the Colonies. English Colonists in Northern Massachusetts were unable to mount an effective defense against raids by the French and Wabanaki Confederacy between the French and Wabanaki tribes. After a dozen years of fighting, Britain and France declared an armistice, and The Treaty of Portsmouth was ratified on July 13, 1713.
King George’s War erupted in 1744 primarily in the British provinces of New York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Nova Scotia. The French fortress of Louisbourg, on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia was captured in 1745. The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war in 1748 and restored Louisbourg to France.
The French and Indian war (1754–1763) became the American theater of the Seven Years’ War of 1756–63. Defeated, France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, which then remained the dominant colonial power in America.
Patriots vs Loyalists
The French and Indian Wars created a massive national debt for Great Britain. Attempts to raise money by consolidating colonial administration and imposition of new taxes on the colonies met stiff resistance to subjection by the parent country and led to the American Revolution. Yet, historians have estimated that somewhat less than half of the colonists supported the rebellion, with 15 to 20 percent professing loyalty to the Crown, and at least 25,000 Loyalists fighting on the side of the British. Loyalists were paraded by mobs through towns on fence rails, and some were tarred and feathered, often the victims of politically-motivated violence by residents of their own communities. The American Revolution was the nation’s first civil war, resulting in permanent expulsion of 100,000 Tories from the newly-created United States. Many Loyalists fled to England and Canada.
As the harsh realities of yet another war set in, enthusiasm diminished and the colonies were forced to fill the ranks by inscription. Continental soldiers, many of whom were young, single, poor and devoid of property, were paid in worthless Continental currency known as “script.” Over 20,000 Colonists were killed or died as a result of disease and imprisonment by the British. After the Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783 General Washington, addressed a gathering of soldiers at West Point, promising that the victory “enlarged prospects of happiness and personal independence.” In lieu of payment, soldiers were rewarded with land grants in the newly acquired Ohio territory, where they would endure hardships in the wilderness experienced by their ancestors a century before.
There was no mention in Washington’s exuberance of the emancipation of slaves, who constituted over 10% of the population. It was not until the 19th Century that the nation would end slavery at the cost of 620,000 lives.
The First Settlers
The settlers of Newbury were much like those of much of what is now northern Essex county. They were not religious enthusiasts or pilgrims who fled from religious persecution in England. They were substantial, law abiding, loyal English tradesmen, of that staunch middle class that was the backbone of England.
Those that settled Newbury came at different times and on different ships, between the end of April, 1634 and July, 1635 . On May 6, 1635, before the settlers had moved from Ipswich to Newbury, the House of Deputies passed a resolution that Quascacunquen was to be established as a plantation and its name was to be changed to Newbury. So Newbury was named before the first settlers arrived, interestingly Thomas Parker had taught school in Newbury, Berkshire, England before coming to America.
There is no record of how many families arrived in the first year. Houses were erected on both sides of the Parker River. The principal settlement was around the meeting house on the lower green. The first church in Newbury could not have been formed before June, as some of those recorded at its formation are not recorded as having arrived until June.
In the division of land the first settlers recognized the scripture rule, "to him that hath shall be given," and the wealth of each grantee can be estimated by the number of acres given him.
The reason for establishing Newbury, as stated above, was not in fleeing from religious persecution but to utilize vacant lands and to establish a profitable business for the members of a stock-raising company.
Overview [ edit | edit source ]
Watertown, Massachusetts, first known as Saltonstall Plantation, was one of the earliest of the Massachusetts Bay Colony settlements. Founded in early 1630 by a group of settlers (116 households) led by Richard Saltonstall (1586-1661) and George Phillips (1593-1644), it was officially incorporated that same year. The alternate spelling "Waterton" is seen in some early documents.
The original monument was dedicated in 1931, and rededicated in 2009. It consists of a statue of Sir Richard Saltonstall and two bas-reliefs on the sides that showcase two historical moments in Watertown’s history.
Several of the early settlers listed here can be found interned nearby at Old Burying Place (AKA: Arlington Street Cemetery). This first documented internment occurred in 1642.
Base Inscription [ edit | edit source ]
Inscription at Base of Monument:
SIR RICHARD SALTONSTALL TO MR. WILSON AND MR. COTTON.
"I HOPE YOU DO NOT ASSUME TO YOURSELVES INFALLIBILITIE OF JUDGMENT WHEN THE MOST LEARNED OF THE APOSTLES CONFESSETH THAT HE KNEW BUT IN PARTE AND SAW BUT DARKELY AS THROUGH A GLASS” “THAT THE LORD WOULD GIVE YOU MEEKE AND HUMBLE SPIRITS, NOT TO STRYVE SO MUCH FOR UNIFORMITY AS TO KEEP THE UNITY OF THE SPIRIT IN THE BOND OF PEACE”
1632 Tax Protest [ edit | edit source ]
In 1632 the residents of Watertown protested against being compelled to pay a tax for the erection of a stockade fort at Cambridge this was the first protest in America against taxation without representation and led to the establishment of representative democracy in the colony.
Governor of the Colony of Connecticut, 1657, 1659-1676
Born: February 12, 1605/6, Groton, Suffolk, England
College: Trinity College, Dublin
Political Party: None
Offices: Assistant, General Court, Massachusetts Bay Colony, 1631-1649
Governor, Colony of Connecticut, 1657, 1659-1676
Deputy Governor, Colony of Connecticut, 1658
Died: April 5, 1676, Boston, Massachusetts
John Winthrop, often known as “John Winthrop, Junior” or “the Younger”, was the eldest son of John Winthrop, first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and Mary Forth, his first wife. His parents were wealthy, and in 1622, at age 16, he was sent to Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland, for a general education. Two years later, he returned to England and studied law until 1627, when he went to sea, first to France as a secretary to a captain on a military expedition, then to Turkey, Italy, and Holland as a regular traveler. When he came home to England in August of 1629, he found that his father was preparing to leave for America as the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. His father left in the spring of 1630, and John stayed behind to care for his stepmother, Margaret (Tyndal) Winthrop, and the Winthrop children, as well as his father’s businesses.
On February 8, 1630/1, he married his cousin Martha Fones, daughter of Thomas and Anne (Winthrop) Fones of London. Some of their correspondence after marriage was in code, and not deciphered until almost three centuries later.
Late in August of 1631, John, his wife, and the other Winthrops left for Boston. The group arrived in October 1631, and in December, John Winthrop, Jr. was elected as an Assistant to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In March 1633 he established a settlement at Agawam (Ipswich). His wife and infant daughter died there in the summer of 1634, at which time he returned to England to visit friends. There, on July 6, 1635, he married Elizabeth Reade, daughter of Edmund Reade of Wickford, Co. Essex.
In July 1635 Lord Brooke, Lord Saye and Sele, and several others hired Winthrop to establish a colony on land at the mouth of the Connecticut River, and agreed to make him “governor of the river Connecticut” for one year after his arrival there. He and Elizabeth returned to Boston in October 1635, and in November he sent twenty men to claim the land and build some houses. He named the area “Say-Brook” in honor of his employers. In March 1636 Lion Gardner began overseeing the construction of a fort, and Winthrop arrived in April. He worked on the Saybrook project until his commission expired in July and then returned to Massachusetts.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony conquered the Pequots of eastern Connecticut in 1637 and considered Pequot lands to be its territory. In 1640, the Colony gave Fisher’s Island, at the mouth of the Thames River, to John Winthrop, Junior, and in 1644, he received a grant of land “at or near Pequott”. Winthrop chose a site on the mainland across from his island, and named it “Nameaug”. It later became New London.
The Winthrop family did not come to Fisher’s Island until the fall of 1646, and in 1647, they moved to New London. Winthrop was then serving in the government of the Bay Colony, and traveled back and forth to Boston. However, the New England Confederation, formed to encourage cooperation among the New England colonies, ruled that the New London area should be a part of Connecticut. Winthrop refused re-election to the government of Massachusetts Bay Colony, was declared a freeman of Connecticut in 1650, and became active in Connecticut politics. The spring of 1651 saw Winthrop elected as an Assistant.
John Winthrop was more than a skilled leader. He was an avid chemist and practical scientist, famous for starting one of the first ironworks in Massachusetts (1633), for his interest in developing mines, and for his experiments in obtaining salt from sea water by evaporation. He had previously acquired some mineral rights in Connecticut, but in the 1650s, he obtained even more. While the cost of exploration and development was his, the knowledge he gained about the deposits benefited the Colony of Connecticut.
He was also a physician, who treated an average of twelve patients a day by traveling around the colony. It is believed that he served up to 500 families out of a population of some 5,000 persons. He was so successful as such that the people of New Haven (then a separate colony), persuaded him to move there in 1655. The real attraction for him was not the free house and other amenities that the town offered (which he refused), but that he had ironworks there that he wanted to develop.
New London tried to lure him back, but in May of 1657 he was elected governor of the Connecticut Colony, and moved to Hartford. He could not be re-elected in 1658, as the one-term-only rule for governors was still in effect. That law was changed as of 1659. During 1658, John Winthrop served as Deputy Governor of the Colony of Connecticut. From 1659 to 1676, John Winthrop was always re-elected as governor of Connecticut Colony. He continued to be successful in governmental life because he was an excellent diplomat and very popular. His diplomatic charm was now about to help Connecticut.
Normally, colonies could not be started without permission from the Crown. But the Connecticut Colony had been established without an authorized charter, though with permission of the government of the Bay Colony, in answer to church differences and crowding in the Bay Colony. This was not a problem as long as the Puritans were in power, but in 1660, Charles II was restored to the throne. This placed Connecticut in an awkward position — a colony of Puritans, with no real legal status. It was completely at the mercy of the Crown.
Governor John Winthrop was sent to England in 1661 as the agent of the Connecticut Colony, to obtain a charter. Lord Saye, Winthrop’s former employer and a Puritan, had friends in high Royalist circles. Winthrop was introduced to Lord Saye’s friends, and soon had made many friends for the cause of the Connecticut Colony. He gained a charter for Connecticut in 1662, one that gave it lands from the Pawcatuck River westward to the “South Sea” (i.e., Pacific Ocean). The charter also merged the New Haven Colony (which also had no legal status) with the Connecticut Colony. This came as a surprise to most citizens of the New Haven Colony, and some of them were extremely upset. Discussions were held between the two colonies, until the Colony of Connecticut officially took over the government in 1664. A number of New Haven colonists who were still unhappy with the situation left for New Jersey in 1667. Among them was Robert Treat, who ultimately returned to Connecticut and served as its governor from 1683 until 1698.
Winthrop returned to Connecticut in 1663, and in 1664, he assisted in Charles II’s surprise seizure of the Dutch New Netherlands (Manhattan Island). This act caused war between England and Holland, and Dutch harassment of shipping to the English colonies. Governor Winthrop lost at least one cargo of goods due to this, and also suffered other financial reverses. He decided in 1667 that he needed to leave the governorship and devote time to his own businesses, but the Connecticut Colony refused his resignation and exempted him from some taxes, to persuade him to stay in office. He tried to resign again in October of 1670, but the Connecticut Colony again refused to grant his request, raising his salary and giving him land as a further enticement to stay.
His second wife, Elizabeth (Reade) Winthrop, died in 1672. John Winthrop did not remarry. The couple had nine children, one of whom was “Fitz-John” Winthrop, a future governor of the Colony of Connecticut.
John Winthrop was a man of many talents. He had a mind with a scientific bent, one that was curious about everything. In an age when most people had only several books, he had a library of a thousand volumes, on various subjects, in a number of languages. He corresponded with scientists in England, and during his 1661-1663 visit, was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London for Improving of Natural Knowledge. He read papers before that Society, and over the years, sent them a number of New World natural curiosities. The items caused such a sensation on one occasion, that King Charles II himself asked to see them. The unusual plants and animals were shown to the King, who was greatly taken with “pods with silk like cotton” (milkweed), and wanted a pillow made of them. The King eventually had to be persuaded that they were too delicate for such a pillow to be practical. Winthrop later shipped milkweed pods to England, especially for the King.
Winthrop’s scientific interests also extended to the heavens. He had a three-and-a-half-foot telescope, and while he lived in Hartford in 1664, he claimed he saw, or thought he saw, a fifth moon of Jupiter. He reported the sighting to the Royal Society, but there was no confirmation of it. It was not until September 1892 that Edward Barnard of the Lick Observatory definitely established the existence of such a moon.
King Phillip’s War had caused the New England Confederation to be convened in Boston in the fall of 1675, and the deliberations went into the spring of 1676. Winthrop had attended, and was preparing to leave Boston at the end of March, when he caught a bad cold. His health quickly worsened, and on April 5, 1676, he died in Boston. He was buried in the King’s Chapel Burying-ground, beside his father, John Winthrop, Senior.
There is a community called Winthrop in Deep River, which also has a school named in his honor. New London also has a school named for Winthrop, located on the site where his house once stood. New London maintains a statue on Winthrop and has a street and an avenue named for him. His original mill in New London is still standing and is open to visitors.
Black, Robert C. The Younger John Winthrop. New York: Columbia University Press, 1966 [CSL call number F 97 .W8 B55].
Caulkins, Francis Manwaring. History of New London, Connecticut. New London: Published by the Author, 1860 [CSL call number F 104 .N7 C28 1895].
Dictionary of American Biography. Volume XX. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1936, s.v. “Winthrop, John,” pp. 411-413 [CSL call number E 176 /D56].
Dunn, Richard S. Puritans and Yankees, The Winthrop Dynasty of New England, 1630-1717. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1962 [CSL call number F 67 .W7957].
Maltbie, William M. “Winthrop the Younger.” Connecticut Bar Journal 6 (January 1932) 1:1-11 [CSL call number K 3 .062].
Massachusetts Historical Society. The Winthrop Papers. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1929- [CSL call number F 7 .W79].
Mayo, Lawrence Shaw. The Winthrop Family in America. Boston: The Massachusetts Historical Society, 1948 [CSL call number 929.2 W738m].
The National Cyclopedia of American Biography. Volume X. New York: James T. White & Company, 1900, s.v. “Winthrop, John Jr.”, p. 321 [CSL call number E 176 .N27].
Norton, Frederick Calvin. The Governors of Connecticut. Hartford: Connecticut Magazine Co., 1905 [CSL call number HistRef F93 .N 88 1905].
Osterweis, Rollin G. Three Centuries of New Haven, 1638-1938. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953 [CSL call number F 104 .N657 083 1953].
Raimo, John W. Biographical Dictionary of American Colonial and Revolutionary Governor 1607-1789. Westport, CT: Meckler Books, 1980 [CSL call number E 187.5 .R34].
Treat, John Harvey. The Treat Family: A Genealogy of Trott, Tratt, and Treat. Salem, MA: The Salem Press Publishing & Printing Company, 1893. See especially page 135.
Wilkinson, Ronald Sterne. John Winthrop, Jr. and the Origins of American Chemistry. Thesis (PhD.), Michigan State University, 1969. Photocopy. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms, 1998 [CSL call number F 97 .W56 W55 1969b].
This portrait was painted by George F. Wright (1828-1881) from a copy owned by Greenville L. Winthrop. It is 34″ x 39″ in its frame.
Prepared by the History and Genealogy Unit, Connecticut State Library, April 1999.
B. about 1590 in (probably) Bridport, England
M. (1) 13 Dec 1610 in Dorset, England
Wife: Joan Waye
M. (2) 19 Jun 1616 in Bridport, England
Wife: Elizabeth Chard
M. (3) 7 Nov 1644 in Windsor, Connecticut
D. 28 Nov 1676 in Northampton, Massachusetts
Thomas Ford was in his thirties when he was among the earliest settlers of the Massachusetts Bay colony. And his longevity spanned a migration in stages to two other regions of New England.
Thomas was thought to have been born in Bridport, England, which is in Dorset, in about 1590 the names of his parents are unknown. He first appeared in records on December 13, 1610 in the village of Powerstock, where he married a woman named Joan Waye. Their marriage was brief because she passed away in May 1615, and Thomas took a second wife, Elizabeth Chard, on June 19, 1616. Between 1617 and 1629, they had five children, two of whom died as infants. Elizabeth also had a son from a first marriage named Aaron Cooke who became a part of Thomas’ household.
By 1623, Thomas lived in Dorchester, England, a larger town in Dorset. He was a member of Holy Trinity Church, whose pastor was Reverend John White, a leader in the Puritan movement. Reverend White was credited with being the key person promoting Puritan resettlement in America. Thomas was said to be present at a gathering of 25 of Reverend White’s followers on October 15, 1629. The meeting was to discuss a scheme to use fur trading in New England to support a Puritan colony, something which was apparently never carried out. But they did move ahead with their effort to relocate there. Oddly, Reverend White never made the migration himself.
The first ship sent over was the Mary and John, and Thomas and his family were on board. It’s thought that the men on this voyage were specially chosen as having the skills to set up a new community. The ship left Plymouth, England on March 20, 1630 on a trip that took over two months. They landed on a sandbar just outside of Boston harbor called Nantasket Point. The captain of the ship was supposed to take the passengers further inland, but he made them disembark and left them there. It was a huge undertaking to move themselves and their possessions to where they could safely build a town.
The place they ended up became Dorchester, Massachusetts. As the town was formalized, Thomas was listed as a freeman on May 18, 1631, which meant he was recognized as a church member, and therefore eligible to vote. In colonial New England towns, men were expected to perform various civic duties, and within a couple of years, Thomas was chosen as selectman (member of the town council). In one of Dorchester’s first town meetings on January 6, 1634, he and his son-in-law Roger Clap were assigned to collect money from town members in order to build a fort.
Thomas decided not to remain in Dorchester. In 1635, some of his fellow colonists had slight differences with the leaders of the Massachusetts colony, and they got permission to begin a new settlement along the Connecticut River. By 1637, Thomas relocated to the new settlement, possibly in a second wave of migration. That year he was one of four men who purchased a large tract of tribal land, and this formed the town of Windsor, Connecticut. Because of Thomas’ involvement in the deal, his name is inscribed on the Founders Monument erected in Windsor in 1930.
As with Dorchester, Thomas served the community of Windsor, this time as a representative to the General Court in Hartford. Thomas' wife Elizabeth died on April 18, 1643, and he married a third wife, Ann, on November 7, 1644. The couple had a daughter together, although her date of birth is unknown. Ann had been married before, and in 1645, Thomas moved to Hartford and established a tavern in the house of her former husband. His time as a barkeep was brief, and he sold the tavern in 1652. By 1655, Thomas was a constable back in Windsor.
The last place where Thomas moved was up the Connecticut River to the newly settled town of Northampton, Massachusetts. He purchased land as early as 1660, and moved there with Ann in about 1670. She died on May 5, 1676, and Thomas followed later that year on November 28th. They were both buried at Bridge Street Cemetery in Northampton. Through his daughters, it's been said Thomas left more descendants than any other Puritan immigrant.
Massachusetts Bay Colony Government
The colonists also had to devise some kind of policy toward the American Indians they encountered, and some were more successful and more just than others. Few would deny that the American Indians have been the victims of injustice and maltreatment over the course of American history. But those injustices have led many Americans to believe that the colonists had nothing but contempt for the American Indian, and sought merely to expel him or “steal” his land. But by its second decade Harvard College welcomed Indian students. Colonists could and did receive the death penalty for murdering Indians. Indian converts to Christianity living in the “praying towns” of New England enjoyed considerable autonomy.
Today the Puritans’ desire to win the natives to Christianity is often met with impatience and smirks. But consider the greatest of the Puritan missionaries, John Eliot, who lived from 1604 to 1690. What Eliot did in order to spread the Christian faith among the Indians almost defies belief. The Algonquins had no written language. So Eliot learned the spoken language of the Massachusetts Algonquins, developed a written version of their language for them, and then translated the Bible into that language. If Eliot and the Puritans had simply wanted to oppress the natives, they could have come up with an easier way.
It is not true that the Puritans possessed a sense of racial superiority over the Indians. They certainly did consider themselves culturally superior, though it is not clear what else they were supposed to think when they met peoples who did not use the wheel, possessed no written language, and were, in effect, living in the Stone Age. But race did not enter into the question. Roger Williams, who founded Providence, Rhode Island, believed that the Indians were born white, a view that
was generally shared by the Puritans the effects of stains and the sun were said to have darkened their skins.
Scholars in recent decades have softened their earlier judgments about the harshness of Puritan treatment of the natives. But the research of specialists typically takes a long time to make it to the texts written by generalists. For instance, some overviews of European history still portray the Middle Ages as backward and barbaric, when medieval scholars know full well the contributions of the Middle Ages to European civilization, particularly in the origins of modern science, the development of the university system, and the fruitfulness of medieval intellectual life. The same is true of scholarship on the Puritans and the Indians: the generalists continue to speak badly of the Puritans, while specialists often conclude that the Puritans’ record is considerably better than people have been led to believe. This is true also in studies of the PuritanIndian wars. “In generalists’ eyes,” explains historian Alden Vaughan, “the Puritans provoked every clash and intended—indeed sometimes accomplished—genocide. Specialists, whether of military history or of related topics, viewed the causes of the English-Indian wars as less simple, less unilateral, and the outcomes, though appallingly lethal, never genocidal.”