1818 Anglo-Dutch Treaty

1818 Anglo-Dutch Treaty


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

In February 1806, Lord Grenville formed a Whig administration. Grenville and his Foreign Secretary, Charles Fox, were strong opponents of the slave trade. Fox and William Wilberforce led the campaign in the House of Commons, whereas Grenville, had the task of persuading the House of Lords to accept the measure.

Greenville made a passionate speech where he argued that the trade was "contrary to the principles of justice, humanity and sound policy" and criticised fellow members for "not having abolished the trade long ago". When the vote was taken the Abolition of the Slave Trade bill was passed in the House of Lords by 41 votes to 20. In the House of Commons it was carried by 114 to 15 and it become law on 25th March, 1807.

British captains who were caught continuing the trade were fined £100 for every slave found on board. However, this law did not stop the British slave trade. If slave-ships were in danger of being captured by the British navy, captains often reduced the fines they had to pay by ordering the slaves to be thrown into the sea.

It was considered important to gain agreement with other countries to agree to have their ships to be searched for slaves. The most important of these was the Anglo-Dutch Treaty signed in 1818. It was also agreed that the Dutch naval squadron should be established to search ships.


Ⓘ Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 was signed by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Sovereign Principality of the U ..

The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 was signed by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands in London on 13 August 1814.

It was signed by Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, on behalf of the British and diplomat Hendrik Fagel on behalf of the Dutch.

1.1. Terms Possessions

The treaty returned the colonial possessions of the Dutch as they were at 1 January 1803, before the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars in the Americas, Africa, and Asia, with the exception of the Cape of Good Hope and the South American settlements of Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice, where the Dutch retained trading rights.

In addition, the British ceded the island of Banca off the island of Sumatra in exchange for the settlement of Cochin in India and its dependencies on the coast of Malabar. The Dutch also ceded the district of Bernagore, situated close to Calcutta, in exchange for an annual fee.

1.2. Terms Cooperation

The treaty also noted a declaration of 15 June 1814 by the Dutch, that ships for the slave trade were no longer permitted in British ports. That restriction would be extended to a ban on involvement in the slave trade by Dutch citizens. Britain also agreed to pay £1.000.000 to Sweden to resolve a claim to the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe.

The British and the Dutch agreed to spend £2.000.000 each on improving the defences of the Low Countries. More funds, of up to £3.000.000, are mentioned for the "final and satisfactory settlement of the Low Countries in union with Holland."

Disputes arising from the treaty were the subject of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824.


One half section of land shall be granted to each of the following persons, namely Isaac Wobby, Samuel Cassman, Elizabeth Petchaka, and Jacob Dick and one quarter of a section of land shall be granted to each of the following persons, namely Solomon Tindell, and Benoni Tindell all of whom are Delawares which tracts of land shall be located, after the country is surveyed, at the first creek above the old fort on White river, and running up the river and shall be held by the persons herein named, respectively, and their heirs but shall never be conveyed or transferred without the approbation of the President of the United States.

A sum, not exceeding thirteen thousand three hundred and twelve dollars and twenty-five cents, shall be paid by the United States, to satisfy certain claims against the Delaware nation and shall be expended by the Indian agent at Piqua and Fort Wayne, agreeably to a schedule this day examined and approved by the commissioners of the United States.


1818 Anglo-Dutch Treaty - History

The signing of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty between Great Britain and the Netherlands in London on 17 March 1824 [1] was primarily a settlement of a long period of territorial and trade disputes between the two countries in Southeast Asia. [2] The treaty redefined the spheres of influence of these two colonial powers in the region, eventually leading to the formation of British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies.

Anglo-Dutch rivalries in Southeast Asia had resulted in frequent clashes and verbal disputes between Great Britain and the Netherlands since the 17th century. The intention of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London, [3] was to settle these conflicts once and for all. The treaty had three provisions: territorial, commercial, and financial. Under the territorial clauses, the Netherlands ceded all its factories in India to Britain, withdrew all objections to the British occupation of Singapore, and ceded Melaka (Malacca) and all its dependencies to Britain. In return, Britain ceded Benkulen (Bencoolen) and all its possessions in Sumatra to the Netherlands. In addition, neither party could sign any treaty with any ruler or state in the other’s sphere of influence The above clauses effectively brought Malaya and Singapore under the control of the British, while most of what is today Indonesia came under Dutch rule. [4]

The commercial provisions of the agreement confirmed the Dutch monopoly over the spice trade of Maluku (the Moluccas or the Spice Islands) but not of the trade of the Malay Archipelago. The Dutch agreed not to discriminate unfairly against British trade, as well as forgo any existing monopoly treaties they had in the Malayan peninsula. Both countries also agreed to allow free communication between the locals of the different ports belonging to their respective spheres of influence, and cooperate in the suppression of piracy. The financial provisions settled all outstanding claims between the British and the Dutch, in which the latter agreed to pay 100,000 pounds sterling to the British. [5]

References
1. Treaty between His Britannic Majesty and the King of the Netherlands, respecting territory and commerce in the East Indies. (1825). In The Edinburgh Annual Register, for 1824, 17(III), p. 25. Edinburgh: James Ballantyne and Co. Retrieved February 25, 2014, from Google Books.
2. Mills, L. A. (2003). British Malaya 1824–67 (p. 86– 87). Selangor, Malaysia: Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Call no.: RSEA 959.5 MIL.
3. Koh, T., et al. (Eds.). (2006). Singapore: The encyclopedia (p. 33). Singapore: Editions Didier Millet in association with the National Heritage Board. Call no.: RSING 959.57003 SIN-[HIS].
4. Tan, D. E. (1983). A portrait of Malaysia and Singapore (p. 49). Singapore: Oxford University Press. Call no.: RSING 959.5 TAN.
5. Tan, 1983, p. 49.

The information in this article is valid as at 2014 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.


In consideration of the cession and recognition aforesaid, the United States agree to pay to the Miami nation of Indians, a perpetual annuity of fifteen thousand dollars, which, together with all annuities which, by any former treaty, the United States have engaged to pay to the said Miami nation of Indians, shall be paid in silver.
The United States will cause to be built for the Miamis one gristmill and one saw-mill, at such proper sites as the chiefs of the nation may select, and will provide and support one blacksmith and one gunsmith for them, and provide them with such implements of agriculture as the proper agent may think necessary.

The United States will also cause to be delivered, annually, to the Miami nation, one hundred and sixty bushels of salt.


Sept. 17, 1818.
7 Stat., 178. Proclamation, Jan. 4, 1819.

Articles of a treaty made and concluded, at St. Mary’s, in the state of Ohio, between Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur, commissioners of the United States, with full power and authority to hold conferences, and conclude and sign a treaty or treaties, with all or any of the tribes or nations of Indians within the boundaries of the state of Ohio, of and concerning all matters interesting to the United States and the said nations of Indians, and the sachems, chiefs, and warriors, of the Wyandot, Seneca, Shawnese, and Ottawas, tribes of Indians being supplementary to the treaty made and concluded with the said tribes, and the Delaware, Potawatamie, and Chippewa, tribes of Indians, at the foot of the Rapids of the Miami of Lake Erie, on the twenty-ninth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventeen.

It is agreed, between the United States and the parties hereunto, that the several tracts of land, described in the treaty to which this is supplementary, and agreed thereby to be granted by the United States to the chiefs of the respective tribes named therein, for the use of the individuals of the said tribes, and also the tract described in the twentieth article of the said treaty, shall not be thus granted, but shall be excepted from the cession made by the said tribes to the United States, reserved for the use of the said Indians, and held by them in the same manner as Indian reservations have been heretofore held. But [it] is further agreed, that the tracts thus reserved shall be reserved for the use of the Indians named in the schedule to the said treaty, and held by them and their heirs forever, unless ceded to the United States.

It is also agreed that there shall be reserved for the use of the Wyandots, in addition to the reservations before made, fifty-five thousand six hundred and eighty acres of land, to be laid off in two tracts, the first to adjoin the south line of the section of six hundred and forty acres of land heretofore reserved for the Wyandot chief, the Cherokee Boy, and to extend south to the north line of the reserve of twelve miles square, at Upper Sandusky, and the other to adjoin the east line of the reserve of twelve miles square, at Upper Sandusky, and to extend east for quantity.

There shall also be reserved, for the use of the Wyandots residing at Solomon’s town, and on Blanchard’s fork, in addition to the reservations before made, sixteen thousand acres of land, to be laid off in a square form, on the head of Blanchard’s fork, the centre of which shall be at the Big Spring, on the trace leading from Upper Sandusky to fort Findlay and one hundred and sixty acres of land, for the use of the Wyandots, on the west side of the Sandusky river, adjoining the said river, and the lower line of two sections of land, agreed, by the treaty to which this is supplementary, to be granted to Elizabeth Whitaker.

There shall also be reserved, for the use of the Shawnese, in addition to the reservations before made, twelve thousand eight hundred acres of land, to be laid off adjoining the east line of their reserve of ten miles square, at Wapaughkonetta and for the use of the Shawnese and Senecas, eight thousand nine hundred and sixty acres of land, to be laid off adjoining the west line of the reserve of forty-eight square miles at Lewistown. And the last reserve hereby made, and the former reserve at the same place, shall be equally divided by an east and west line, to be drawn through the same. And the north half of the said tract shall be reserved for the use of the Senecas who reside there, and the south half for the use of the Shawnese who reside there.

There shall also be reserved for the use of the Senecas, in addition to the reservations before made, ten thousand acres of land, to be laid off on the east side of the Sandusky river, adjoining the south line of their reservation of thirty thousand acres of land, which begins on the Sandusky river, at the lower corner of William Spicer’s section, and excluding therefrom the said William Spicer’s section.

ARTICLE III.

It is hereby agreed that the tracts of land, which, by the eighth article of the treaty to which this is supplementary, are to be granted by the United States to the persons therein mentioned, shall never be conveyed, by them or their heirs, without the permission of the President of the United States.

The United States agree to pay to the Wyandots an additional annuity of five hundred dollars, forever to the Shawnese, and to the Senecas of Lewistown, an additional annuity of one thousand dollars, forever and to the Senecas an additional annuity of five hundred dollars, forever and to the Ottawas an additional annuity of one thousand five hundred dollars, forever. And these annuities shall be paid at the places, and in the manner, prescribed by the treaty to which this is supplementary.

This treaty shall take effect, and be obligatory on the contracting parties, as soon as the same shall be ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof.

In testimony whereof, the said Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur, commissioners as aforesaid, and the sachems, chiefs, and warriors, of the Wyandot, Seneca, Shawanee, and Ottawa tribes of Indians, have hereunto set their hands, at St. Mary’s, in the state of Ohio, this seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighteen.


Anglo-Dutch Wars

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Anglo-Dutch Wars, also called Dutch Wars, Dutch Engelse Oorlogen, four 17th- and 18th-century naval conflicts between England and the Dutch Republic. The first three wars, stemming from commercial rivalry, established England’s naval might, and the last, arising from Dutch interference in the American Revolution, spelled the end of the republic’s position as a world power.

The First Anglo-Dutch War (1652–54) began during a tense period following England’s institution of the 1651 Navigation Act, which was aimed at barring the Dutch from involvement in English sea trade. An incident in May 1652 resulting in the defeat of a Dutch force under Adm. Maarten Tromp led England to declare war on July 8 (June 28, old style). The Dutch under Tromp won a clear victory off Dungeness in December, but most of the major engagements of the following year were won by the larger and better armed men-of-war of England. In the summer of 1653 off Texel (Terheide), in the last battle of the war, the Dutch were defeated and Tromp killed, with both sides suffering heavy losses. The war was ended by the Treaty of Westminster (April 1654).

The commercial rivalry of the two nations again led to war in 1665 (the Second Anglo-Dutch War of 1665–67), after hostilities had begun the previous year and the English had already captured New Amsterdam (New York). England declared war in March 1665 and won a decisive victory over the Dutch off Lowestoft in June. After the destruction of the Dutch flagship, only hasty action by Vice Adm. Cornelis Tromp, Maarten Tromp’s son, prevented the defeat at Lowestoft from descending into a total rout. The English failed to capitalize on their initial success, however, and most subsequent battles (which occurred in the following year) were won by the Dutch. England’s ally, the principality of Münster, sent troops into Dutch territory in 1665 but was forced out of the war in the following year by France, which took the Dutch side in January 1666. A plague epidemic in 1665 and the Great Fire of London in 1666 contributed to England’s difficulties, which culminated in the destruction of its docked fleet by the Dutch at Chatham in June 1667. The war was ended the following month by the Treaty of Breda.

The Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–74) formed a part of the general European war of 1672–78 (see Dutch War).

England and the Dutch Republic had been allied for a century when they again went to war (the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War of 1780–84) over secret Dutch trade and negotiations with the American colonies, then in revolt against England. The English declared war on December 20, 1780, and in the following year quickly took key Dutch possessions in the West and East Indies while imposing a powerful blockade of the Dutch coast. In the only significant engagement of the war, a small Dutch force attacked a British convoy in an indecisive clash off Dogger Bank in August 1781. The republic was never able to assemble a proper fleet for combat, however. When the war ended in May 1784, the Dutch were at the nadir of their power and prestige.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Michael Ray, Editor.


1784-1963 - The British

Events on the other side of the world changed the English and Dutch relationship in Southeast Asia in the fourth Anglo-Dutch War, a commercial battle stimulated by the American Revolutionary War, Dutch shipping power was nearly destroyed. The peace treaty gave Great Britain the right to trade in Southeast Asia. Although the British victory in 1784 marked the end of the long Anglo-Dutch struggle for supremacy on the seas, the British finally succeeded the Dutch at Malacca only after another half century of negotiation and intrigue. British interest in the area centered around naval strategy in the Indian Ocean and the trade with China. British ships had for some time carried on a limited trade with ports in Kedah and Perak, but the decision of the British East India Company to seek a permanent base in northern Malaya was occasioned by the naval war between Great Britain and France.

Francis Light, an English captain who had first negotiated with the Sultan of Kedah in 1771, drafted a treaty in 1785 by which the Sultan was to cede the island of Penang in return for protection against the Bugis and the increasingly threatening Thai. Although the British assumed their right under this agreement and occupied Penang, they signed no treaty. At about the same time the Bugis drove the Dutch from Selangor and Johore, and in 1790 they allied with Kedah, Trengganu, Johore and several Sumatran Kingdoms in a grand scheme to attack the Dutch north of Malacca and to aid Kedah against the British in Penang. Sufficient strength to achieve either goal was lacking, and the attack on Penang was easily repulsed. The subsequent treaty in 1891 recognized the cession of Penang in return for a stipend, but still included no promise of assistance to the Sultan of Kedah.

Although the British had by this act gained their first foothold in Malaya, it was of dubious value to them. The population increased, and the port, renamed Georgetown, became fairly important, but Penang was too far north to dominate the Strait. Since there was no timber for shipbuilding or repairing, Penang was almost useless as a naval base, and the debate over whether to keep this profitless colony continued for some years.

Malaya's future was again decided by events in Europe. When Holland was occupied by French troops in 1795, its ruler ordered the Dutch overseas colonies to accept British occupation as a defense measure against the French. The British occupied Malacca. The Anglo-Dutch convention of 1814 returned the Dutch colonies, and in 1818 the Dutch reoccupied Malacca.

With the Dutch thus reestablished in Malaya, the British needed a base to counter the revival of Dutch power in the area. In 1818, Stamford Raffles, then lieutenant governor of Bencoolen, gained permission to investigate possible locations and chose the sparsely settled island of Singapore. He found as the local ruler a former temenggong of Johore, who was loyal to an exiled heir to the Johore Sultanate, Tungku Hussein, and hoped to see his prince return to power in return for the cession of Singapore.

The Temenggong's actual overlords, however, the de facto Sultan of Riau-Johore, Abdul Rahman, and the Bugi undertaking, were under Dutch influence and would not consent to what they felt was British intrusion Raffles therefore installed Hussein as Sultan of Johore and from him accepted permission to develop the port of Singapore. Henceforth, the Riau-Johore Sultanate was divided, one sultan ruling Riau under Dutch protection, another ruling in Johore under the British. The Bugis' opportunity to unite the Peninsula was also permanently destroyed, for the underkings at Riau and Lingga were now separated from their relatives in Selangor. Although some Malay rulers in Pahang and Trengganu continued to recognize the Riau suUan, the geographical separation made a close relationship impossible.

The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 made these arrangements permanent. The Dutch, having been unable to prevent British acquisition ef Singapore, recognized British interest in Malaya, and the British recognized the Dutch sphere of influence south of Singapore, including the Riau and Lingga Archipelagoes. The British gave up only the white elephant port at Bencoolen in exchange for Malacca.

By 1824 the basic political divisions of Malaya were fairly well established. The British held Penang, Malacca and Singapore, the areas which came to be known at the Straits Settlements. In central and southern Malaya, Selangor was the stronghold of the Bugis, who fought alternately with Kedah and with the Menangkabau of Negri Sembilan. Pahang was ruled by a bendahara whose nominal allegiance was to the Sultan of Riau, and Johore was under the rule of a temenggong, though nominally under the sultan installed by Raffles. In northern Malaya the Thai had gained a hegemony which was maintained until 1909.

Kelantan, formerly a number of petty states, had been united in 1730 and in 1800 declared a sultanate, nominally vassal to Siam. Trengganu was nominally vassal to both Siam and the Sultanate of Riau. Kedah, under close Thai control, in 1818 was forced by the Thai to conquer Perak, which for a short time sent tribute to Siam. Intrigue between Kedah and Burma led to a major Thai expedition in 1821 the Kedah Sultan went into exile at Penang and did not regain his kingdom for 20 years. Perak, though threatened by both Siam and Selangor, was independent under its own sultan, the last direct descendant of the royal line of Malacca.


  • May 4 Netherlands & Britain sign treaty against illegal slave handling.
  • May 24 General Andrew Jackson captures Pensacola, Florida.
  • May 28 Walk-in-the-Water, 1st steam vessel to sail Lake Erie launched.
  • Jun 3 Maratha Wars between British and Maratha Confederacy in India ends.

October 25 – November 6 – 1816 United States presidential election: James Monroe defeats Rufus King. November 19 – The University of Warsaw is established. November 30 – December 11 – Indiana is admitted as the 19th U.S. state.


Contents

The High Contracting Parties engage to admit the subjects of each other to trade with their respective possessions in the Eastern Archipelago, and on the continent of India, and in Ceylon, upon the footing of the most favoured nation their respective subjects conforming themselves to the local regulations of each settlement.

The subjects and vessels of one nation shall not pay, upon importation or exportation, at the ports of the other in the Eastern Seas, any duty at a rate beyond the double of that at which the subjects and vessels of the nation to which the port belongs, are charged.

The duties paid on exports or imports at a British port, on the continent of India, or in Ceylon, on Dutch bottoms, shall be arranged so as, in no case, to be charged at more than double the amount of the duties paid by British subjects, and on British bottoms.

In regard to any article upon which no duty is imposed, when imported or exported by the subjects, or on the vessels, of the nation to which the port belongs, the duty charged upon the subjects or vessels of the other, shall, in no case, exceed 6 per cent.

The High Contracting Parties engage, that no Treaty hereafter made by either, with any native power in the Eastern Seas, shall contain any article tending, either expressly, or by the imposition of unequal duties, to exclude the trade of the other party from the ports of such native power: and that if, in any Treaty now existing on either part, any Article to that effect has been admitted, such Article shall be abrogated upon the conclusion of the present Treaty.

It is understood that, before the conclusion of the present Treaty, communication has been made by each of the Contracting Parties to the other, of all Treaties or Engagements subsisting between each of them, respectively, and any native power in the Eastern Seas and that the like communication shall be made of all such Treaties concluded by them respectively hereafter.

Their Britannic and Netherland Majesties engage to give strict orders, as well to their Civil and Military Authorities, as to their ships of war, to respect the freedom of trade, established by Articles I., II., and III. and, in no case, to impede a free communication of the natives in the Eastern Archipelago, with the ports of the two Governments, respectively, or of the subjects of the two Governments with the ports belonging to native powers.

Their Britannic and Netherland Majesties, in like manner, engage to concur effectually in repressing piracy in those seas they will not grant either asylum or protection to vessels engaged in piracy, and they will, in no case, permit the ships or merchandise captured by such vessels, to be introduced, deposited, or sold, in any of their possessions.

It is agreed that orders shall be given by the two Governments to their officers and agents in the East, not to form any new settlement on any of the islands in the Eastern seas, without previous authority from their respective Governments in Europe.

The Molucca islands, and especially Amboyna, Banda, Ternate, and their immediate dependencies, are excepted from the operation of the I., II., III., and IV. Articles, until The Netherland Government shall think fit to abandon the monopoly of spices but if the said Government shall, at any time previous to such abandonment of the monopoly, allow the subjects of any power, other than a native Asiatic power, to carry on any commercial intercourse with the said islands, the subjects of His Britannic Majesty shall be admitted to such intercourse, upon a footing precisely similar.

His Netherland Majesty cedes to His Britannic Majesty all His establishments on the continent of India and renounces all privileges and exemptions enjoyed or claimed in virtue of those establishments.

The factory of Fort Marlborough, and all the English possessions on the Island of Sumatra, are hereby ceded to His Netherland Majesty and His Britannic Majesty further engages that no British settlement shall be formed on that island, nor any Treaty concluded by British authority, with any native Prince, Chief, or State therein.

The town and fort of Malacca, and its dependencies, are hereby ceded to His Britannic Majesty and His Netherland Majesty engages for himself and his subjects, never to form any establishment on any part of the Peninsula of Malacca, or to conclude any Treaty with any native Prince, Chief, or State therein.

His Britannic Majesty withdraws the objections which have been made to the occupation of the island of Billiton and its dependencies, by the agents of The Netherland Government.

His Netherland Majesty withdraws the objections which have been made to the occupation of the island of Singapore, by the subjects of His Britannic Majesty.

His Britannic Majesty, however, engages, that no British establishment shall be made on the Carimon isles, or on the islands of Battam, Bintang, Lingin, or on any of the other islands south of the straits of Singapore, nor any Treaty concluded by British authority with the chiefs of those islands.

All the colonies, possessions, and establishments which are ceded by the preceding Articles, shall be delivered up to the officers of the respective Sovereigns on the 1st of March, 1825. The fortifications shall remain in the state in which they shall be at the period of the notification of this Treaty in India but no claim shall be made, on either side, for ordnance, or stores of any description, either left or removed by the ceding Power, nor for any arrears of revenue, or any charge of administration whatever.

All the inhabitants of the territories hereby ceded shall enjoy for a period of 6 years from the date of the ratification of the present Treaty [1] , the liberty of disposing, as they please, of their property, and of transporting themselves, with out let or hindrance, to any country to which they may wish to remove.

The High Contracting Parties agree that none of the territories or establishments mentioned in Articles VIII., IX., X., XI., and XII., shall be at any time transferred to any other Power. In case of any of the said possessions being abandoned by one of the present Contracting Parties, the right of occupation thereof shall immediately pass to the other.

It is agreed that all accounts and reclamations, arising out of the restoration of Java, and other possessions, to the officers of His Netherland Majesty in the East Indies, as well those which were the subject of a Convention made at Java on the 24th of June, 1817, between the Commissioners of the two nations, as all others, shall be finally and completely closed and satisfied, on the payment of the sum of £100,000, to be made in London, on the part of The Netherlands before the expiration of the year 1825.

The present Treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications exchanged at London, within 3 months from the date hereof, or sooner if possible.

In witness whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and affixed thereunto the seals of their arms.


Watch the video: Η Συνθήκη της Ρώμης