A Rogue Archaeologist, Atlantis, and the Chac-Mool

A Rogue Archaeologist, Atlantis, and the Chac-Mool

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In the late 1890s, as America was developing into an industrial heavyweight, its scientists and explorers were rediscovering Earth’s ancient past and charting forgotten civilizations around our planet. One of these explorers was Augustus Le Plongeon, a French American who, after reading the exploits of Stephens and Catherwood in Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan , set out to explore Mexico and the Maya cities on the Yucatan Peninsula.

The accomplished photographer and land surveyor, Augustus arrived in Mérida, Mexico (capital of Yucatan) in 1875, and together with his wife Alice made plans to visit a number of major Maya ruins. Before they could go anywhere, an armed escort had to be arranged for protection against bandits, Maya rebels, and the Yucatecan Militia who were fighting a Caste War which had destabilized the area for a number of years. Although dangerous, they traveled to Uxmal and later Chichen Itza , and produced some of the earliest photographs of the buildings in these areas.

At Chichen Itza, Augustus had workers clear large portions of the central acropolis to better photograph the standing buildings. These images would later inspire a number of noted scientists including Edward Thompson, an American archaeologist, who, with the support of the Carnegie Institution conducted the first extensive excavations and consolidations of the ancient city.

Symbols and Hieroglyphs of Early Civilizations

Curious about the Maya language, Augustus had local teachers instruct him in the Yucatan Maya language to aid his research in understanding the decorative symbols and hieroglyphs that covered a number of buildings and murals. A high-level Freemason who had traveled extensively throughout the Middle East and Egypt, Le Plongeon believed the Dynastic Egyptians were influenced by early Maya explorers and people from Atlantis and wrote extensively about his theories.

Augustus Le Plongeon and laborers stand by a collection of sculptures close to the main pyramid at Chichen Itza, (1875.) Photo from ‘A Dream of Maya’ by Lawrence Gustave Desmond (Via Author)

In the 1890s and well into the early 1900s, before the introduction of carbon-14 dating techniques scientists were establishing the backgrounds of early civilizations through comparative analysis and believed the Maya’s Formative period was the same as the Christian era, roughly 1500 BC. Most of the prominent archaeologists at the time immediately wrote off Le Plongeon and discounted his work as sheer foolery. But Le Plongeon may have been on to something that we can only appreciate today.

Ancient Engineering: Star Constellations and Energy Alignments

The Maya revered their history and sanctified earlier generations. Noted pyramid complexes and buildings were constructed on the foundations and tops of existing architecture for the purpose of maintaining correct star constellation and energetic alignments. Today we have only a rudimentary understanding of why these practices were maintained, which centered on seasonal planting, harvesting, etc. But, recent research has uncovered a startling discovery!

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The Maya applied a science, engineered into their pyramids, which collected and amplified natural earth-emitting, geomagnetic fields. John Burke, in his book, Seed of Knowledge, Stone of Plenty , measured these telluric fields (earth currents) and discovered that pyramid complexes were purposely designed and built over these vortexes. Obviously, the original Maya were technologically and scientifically advanced and over thousands of years developed a powerful and culturally rich civilization that influenced much of the ancient world.

The Great Antiquity of the Maya – Le Plongeon sits on the Chac-Mool sculpture that has been raised from a depth of over ten feet, at Chichen Itza. From ‘A Dream of Maya’. (Via author)

Le Plongeon believed these early Maya formed the foundation for the people we have come to appreciate today and according to his interpretations, settled in present day Yucatan Mexico over 11,500 years ago. To protect relics from the past, the priests buried artifacts and important documents of those periods, including a large statue.

A Lost Figure From the Past

Through his decipherment of a door lintel in an old ruin at Chichen Itza, Le Plongeon learned that under ‘The Platform of the Eagles and the Jaguars’, a small pyramid-shaped building close to the main acropolis, he would find an important figure from the past.

With nothing more than tree branches and a few laborers, he dug down over 10 feet (three meters) and found a large statue of a reclining man. Carved from granite, and weighing close to 800 pounds (363 kg), the figure wears an unusual cap, with strange side panels covered with hieroglyphs that extend down over the ears. His head is turned 90 degrees from the front, and he supports himself on his elbows. With arms resting on the midsection, his hands hold a small round bowl. A number of archaeologists have assigned the figure to the Toltec culture found in Central Mexico as a similar reclining sculpture was discovered in Tula, their capital city. A large plate or insignia covers the upper half of the statue’s chest and is identical to those found on the massive standing sculptures at Tula on top of pyramid B.

Who was Chac-mool? – The Chac-mool statue as it appears today in Mexico City at National Museum of Anthropology. (Via author)

Le Plongeon named the statue ‘Chacmool’, or powerful warrior to symbolize a slain soldier carrying offerings to the gods. A crude work of art, the sculptor hastily carved the piece with a simple, expressionless face, and with a body not typical of the highly refined sculptures we find from the early Maya. Why Le Pleongeon named the figure Chacmool is curious. The figure wears nothing that would be considered a warrior’s clothing. This is a king, nobleman, or priest from the past. Could this figure be the fabled Kukulkan, bringer of knowledge, a survivor of the great deluge, returned to kick-start civilization?

Ballcourt marker from the Postclassic site of Mixco Viejo in Guatemala. This sculpture depicts Kukulkan, jaws agape, with the head of a human warrior emerging from his maw. (Simon Burchell/ CC BY-SA 3.0 )

The Cult of Kukulkan

Archaeologists believe the cult of Kukulkan facilitated communication and peaceful trade among peoples of many different social and ethnic backgrounds, and was originally centered on the ancient city of Chichen Itza, but spread as far as the Guatemalan Highlands and into other portions of Central America. The Aztecs had a similar figure called Quetzalcoatl and named a pyramid after him at Teotihuacan.

Detail of Temple of the Warriors at Chichen Itza, showing a statue of Chac-mool. (Bjørn Christian Tørrissen/ CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Although the name Kukulkan is well known throughout Central America, we have few if any documents that tell us who he was and reveal his legacy. Some have speculated that the dish the figure holds on his midsection may have contained liquid mercury, and through its metallic reflection, was used to view the heavens or for purposes of divination.

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Whatever the purpose of the reclining pose, this figure is important to the early Maya and perhaps other Meso-American cultures. Small reproductions (figurines) of the Chac-Mool have been unearthed throughout Yucatan and present day Mexico which tell us that the figure was deified, and possibly used in religious ceremonies.

Examples of Chac-Mool sculptures have been found widely across Mesoamerica from Michoacan in Mexico down to El Salvador. The earliest examples date from the Terminal Classic period of Mesoamerican chronology (c. AD 800–900). Although Le Plongeon found the largest Chac-Mool, fourteen other Chac-Mools were discovered at Chichen Itza and twelve from Tula. In Chichen Itza, only five of the fourteen were securely confirmed in architectural contexts, those in the Castillo, the Chac-Mool Temple, the North Colonnade, the Temple of the Little Tables and the Temple of the Warriors. The rest were found interred in or near important structures. The smaller Tula Chac-Mool is almost identical the Chichen Itza version except for the knife bound to his arm.

Blood for the Blood God

Centuries later, the Chac-Mool would be used by degenerate Meso American civilizations, including later generations of the Maya, to represent a blood god. In the Aztec version, the plate held on the midsection became a Cuauhxicalli (a stone bowl to receive human hearts), and was responsible for the religious cult deaths of tens of thousands of men, women, and children, marking it as one of the lowest periods in human history.

Human sacrifice as shown in the Codex Magliabechiano, Folio 70.

Kick-Starting a New World

As archaeologists continue to find older Maya settlements throughout Central America, one point has become clear. It was the Maya and not the Olmec who were the great teachers, and who influenced a number of early native people in much of present day Mexico, Honduras and Guatemala. The Chac-Mool may have been one of many important figures following what appears to have been a major deluge (and earth change) which destroyed a great deal of the human population throughout Meso-America. Native myths describe a figure (or figures) who disseminated information on agriculture, astronomy, cultural development and the sciences to help kick-start a new world for the survivors. I believe as we continue to dig and decipher more of the Maya building complexes that are left to us, we’ll uncover new evidence for this claim and come to better understand these and other important individuals who influenced the past.


Fate of Atlantis is based on the SCUMM story system by Ron Gilbert, Aric Wilmunder, Brad P. Taylor, and Vince Lee, [1] thus employing similar gameplay to other point-and-click adventures developed by LucasArts in the 1980s and 1990s. [2] The player explores the game's static environments while interacting with sprite-based characters and objects they may use the pointer to construct and give commands with a number of predetermined verbs such as "Pick up", "Use" and "Talk to". [3] Conversations with non-playable characters unfold in a series of selectable questions and answers. [4]

Early on, the player is given the choice between three different game modes, each with unique cutscenes, puzzles to solve and locations to visit: the Team Path, the Wits Path, and the Fists Path. [5] In the Team Path, protagonist Indiana Jones is joined by his partner Sophia Hapgood who will provide support throughout the game. [5] The Wits Path features an abundance of complex puzzles, while the Fists Path focuses heavily on action sequences and fist fighting, the latter of which is completely optional in the other two modes. [5] Atypical for LucasArts titles, it is possible for the player character to die at certain points in the game, though dangerous situations were designed to be easily recognizable. [6] A score system, the Indy Quotient Points, keeps track of the puzzles solved, the obstacles overcome and the important objects found. [6]

The story of Fate of Atlantis is set in 1939, on the eve of World War II. [7] At the request of a visitor named Mr. Smith, archaeology professor and adventurer Indiana Jones tries to find a small statue in the archives of his workplace Barnett College. After Indy retrieves the horned figurine, Smith uses a key to open it, [8] revealing a sparkling metal bead inside. Smith then pulls out a gun and escapes with the two artifacts, but loses his coat in the process. The identity card inside reveals "Smith" to be Klaus Kerner, a Nazi agent. [9] Also inside the coat is an old magazine containing an article about an expedition on which Jones collaborated with a young woman named Sophia Hapgood, who has since given up archaeology to become a psychic. [10]

Fearing that she might be Kerner's next target, Indy travels to New York City to warn her and to find out more about the mysterious statue. [11] There, he interrupts her lecture on the culture and downfall of Atlantis, [12] and the two return to Sophia's apartment. They discover that Kerner ransacked her office in search of Atlantean artifacts, but Sophia says that she keeps her most valuable item, her necklace, with her. [13] She owns another of the shiny beads, now identified as the mystical metal orichalcum, and places it in the medallion's mouth, invoking the spirit of the Atlantean king Nur-Ab-Sal. [14] She explains that a Nazi scientist, Dr. Hans Ubermann, is searching for the power of Atlantis to use it as an energy source for warfare. [15]

Sophia then gets a telepathic message from Nur-Ab-Sal, instructing them to find the Lost Dialogue of Plato, the Hermocrates, a book that will guide them to the city. [16] After gathering information, Indy and Sophia eventually find it in a collection of Barnett College. [17] Correcting Plato's "tenfold error", a mistranslation from Egyptian to Greek, the document pinpoints the location of Atlantis in the Mediterranean, 300 miles from the Kingdom of Greece, instead of 3000 as mentioned in the dialogue Critias. [18] [19] It also says that in order to gain access to the Lost City and its colonies, three special engraved stones are required. [20] At this point, the player has to choose between the Team, Wits, or Fists path, which influences the way the stones are acquired. In all three paths, Jones meets an artifact dealer in Monte Carlo, ventures to an archaeological dig in Algiers, explores an Atlantean labyrinth in Knossos on Crete, and Sophia gets captured by the Nazis. Other locations include the remains of a small Atlantean colony on Thera, [21] a hydrogen balloon and a Nazi submarine.

The individual scenarios converge at this point as Indiana makes his way to the underwater entrance of Atlantis near Thera and starts to explore the Lost City. He figures out how to use various Atlantean devices and even produce orichalcum beads. With this knowledge he saves Sophia from a prison, and they make their way to the center of Atlantis, where her medallion guides them to the home of Nur-Ab-Sal. The spirit of the Atlantean king takes full possession of Sophia [22] and it is only by a trick that Indy rids her of the necklace and destroys it, thus freeing her. Meanwhile, they notice grotesquely deformed bones all over the place. They advance further and eventually reach a large colossus the inhabitants of the city built trying to transform themselves into gods. They had hoped using ten orichalcum beads at a time would enable them to control the water with the powers they gained, keeping the sea level down to prevent an impending catastrophe. [23]

Unknowingly, Indiana starts the machine, upon which Kerner, Ubermann, and Nazi troops invade the place and announce their intention to use the machine to become gods. The machine was responsible for creating the mutated skeletons seen earlier, but the Nazis believe that it will work on them due to their Aryan qualities. Kerner insists to step onto the platform first, claiming himself to be most suitable for godhood. After Jones mentions Plato's tenfold error, Kerner decides to use one bead instead of ten. He is turned into a horribly deformed and horned creature, and jumps into the surrounding lava. [23] Indiana is forced to step on the platform next but threatens Ubermann with eternal damnation once he is a god. Fearing his wrath, Ubermann uses the machine on himself, feeding it one hundred beads. He is turned into a green ethereal being, but his form becomes unstable and he flies apart with an agonized scream.

Two alternative bad endings see one of the protagonists undergo the second transformation if Indiana could not convince Ubermann to use the machine instead, or if Sophia was not freed from her prison and Nur-Ab-Sal's influence. In the happy ending, Atlantis succumbs to the eruption of the still active volcano as the duo flees from the city. The final scene depicts Indiana kissing Sophia on top of the escape submarine, to comfort himself for the lack of evidence for their discovery. [24]

At the time a sequel to Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Graphic Adventure was decided, most of the staff of Lucasfilm Games was occupied with other projects such as The Secret of Monkey Island and The Dig. [25] [26] Designer Hal Barwood had only created two computer games on his own before, but was put in charge of the project because of his experience as a producer and writer of feature films. [25] [26] The company originally wanted him to create a game based on Indiana Jones and the Monkey King/Garden of Life, a rejected script written by Chris Columbus for the third movie [26] that would have seen Indiana looking for Chinese artifacts in Africa. [26] [27] However, after reading the script Barwood decided that the idea was substandard, and requested to create an original story for the game instead. [26] Along with co-worker Noah Falstein, he visited the library of George Lucas' workplace Skywalker Ranch to look for possible plot devices. [26] They eventually decided upon Atlantis when they looked at a diagram in "some cheap coffee-table book on the world's unsolved mysteries", which depicted the city as built in three concentric circles. [26] Falstein and Barwood originally considered the mythical sword Excalibur as the story's plot device, but the idea was scrapped because it wouldn't have easily given Indiana Jones a reason to go anywhere except England. [28]

Writing the story involved extensive research on a plethora of pseudo-scientific books. [29] Inspiration for the mythology in the game, such as the description of the city and the appearance of the metal orichalcum, was primarily drawn from Plato's dialogues Timaeus and Critias, and from Ignatius Loyola Donnelly's book Atlantis: The Antediluvian World that revived interest in the myth during the nineteenth century. [25] The magical properties of orichalcum and the Atlantean technology depicted in the game were partly adopted from Russian spiritualist Helena Blavatsky's publications on the force vril. [25] The giant colossus producing gods was based on a power-concentrating device called "firestone", formerly described by American psychic Edgar Cayce. [25]

Once Barwood and Falstein completed the rough outline of the story, Barwood wrote the actual script, [30] and the team began to conceive the puzzles and to design the environments. [25] The Atlantean artifacts and architecture devised by lead artist William Eaken were made to resemble those of the Minoan civilization, while the game in turn implies that the Minoans were inspired by Atlantis. [31] [32] Barwood intended for the Atlantean art to have an "alien" feel to it, with the machines seemingly operating on as yet unknown physics rather than on magic. [32] The backgrounds were first pencil sketched, given a layer of basic color and then converted and touched up with 256-colors. [33] Mostly they were mouse-drawn with Deluxe Paint, though roughly ten percent were paintings scanned at the end of the development cycle. [31] As a consequence of regular design changes, the images often had to be revised by the artists. [32] Character animations were fully rotoscoped with video footage of Steve Purcell for Indiana's and Collette Michaud for Sophia's motions. [26] The main art team that consisted of Eaken, James Dollar and Avril Harrison was sometimes consulted by Barwood to help out with the more graphical puzzles in the game, such as a broken robot in Atlantis. [31] [32]

The addition of three different paths was suggested by Falstein and added about six more months of development time, mainly because of all the extra dialogue that had to be implemented for the interaction between Indiana and Sophia. [26] Altogether, the game took around two years to finish, starting in early 1990, [26] and lasting up to the floppy disk release in June 1992. [34] The only aspect Barwood was not involved in at all was the production of voices for the enhanced "talkie" edition released on CD-ROM in May 1993, which was instead handled by Tamlynn Barra. [26] [35] The voice-over recordings for the approximately 8000 lines of dialogue took about four weeks, and were done with actors from the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists. Harrison Ford was not available to record Indiana Jones's voice, so a substitute actor Doug Lee was used. [36] The "talkie" version was later included as an extra game mode in the Wii version of the 2009 action game Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings, [37] and distributed via the digital content delivery software Steam as a port for Windows XP, Windows Vista and Mac OS X that same year. The versions on the Wii and available on Steam have improved MIDI versions of the soundtrack, along with both voices and text. [38] [39]

The package illustration for Fate of Atlantis was inspired by the Indiana Jones movie posters of Drew Struzan. [31] It was drawn by Eaken within three days, following disagreements with the marketing department and an external art director over which concept to use. [26] [31] [32] Clint Bajakian, Peter McConnell and Michael Land created the soundtrack for the game, arranging John Williams' main theme "The Raiders March" for a variety of compositions. [1] The DOS version uses sequenced music played back by either an internal speaker, the FM synthesis of an AdLib or Sound Blaster sound card, or the sample-based synthesis of a Roland MT-32 sound module. [40] During development of the game, William Messner-Loebs and Dan Barry wrote a Dark Horse Comics series based on Barwood's and Falstein's story, then titled Indiana Jones and the Keys to Atlantis. [41] In an interview, Eaken mentioned hour-long meetings of the development team trying to come up with a better title than Fate of Atlantis, though the staff members could never think of one and always ended up with names such as "Indiana Jones Does Atlantis". [31] [32] The final title was Barwood's idea, who first had to convince the company's management and the marketing team not to simply call the game "Indy's Next Adventure". [26]

LucasArts developed a port of the enhanced edition for the Sega CD, [42] but the release was eventually canceled because The Secret of Monkey Island failed to be much of a commercial success on the platform. [43] The arcade-style game Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis: The Action Game designed by Attention to Detail was released almost simultaneously with its adventure counterpart, and loosely follows its plot. [44]

According to Rogue Leaders: The Story of LucasArts, Fate of Atlantis was "a commercial hit." [51] Noah Falstein reported that it was LucasArts' all-time most successful adventure title by 2009, at which point its lifetime sales had surpassed 1 million units. He recalled that the game's player audience was 30% female, a higher figure than most LucasArts titles had achieved before its release. [52]

Reviewers from Game Informer, Computer Game Review, Games Magazine and Game Players Magazine named Fate of Atlantis the best adventure game of the year, and it was later labeled a "classic" by IGN. [53] [26] [54] Patricia Hartley and Kirk Lesser of Dragon called it "terrific" and "thought-provoking". They lauded the "Team, Wits, Fists" system for increasing the game's replay value, but believed that the Team option was the best. The reviewers summarized it as a "must-buy". [45] Lim Choon Wee of the New Straits Times praised the game's graphics and arcade-style sequences. About the former, he wrote, "The attention to detail is excellent, with great colours and brilliant sprite animation." He echoed Hartley's and Lesser's opinion that "Team" was the best mode of the game. Wee ended his review by calling Fate of Atlantis "a brilliant game, even beating Secret of Monkey Island 2." [55]

Charles Ardai of Computer Gaming World in September 1992 praised its setting for containing the "right combination of gravity, silliness, genuine scholarship and mystical mumbo-jumbo", and called it a "strong enough storyline to hold its own next to any of the Indy films." He highly praised the game's Team, Wits, Fists system, about which he wrote, "Never before has a game paid this much attention to what the player wants." He also enjoyed its graphics and varied locales. Although he cited the pixelated character sprites and lack of voice acting as low points, Ardai summarized Fate of Atlantis as an "exuberant, funny, well-crafted and clever game" that bettered its predecessor, The Last Crusade. [56] QuestBusters also praised the game, stating that it "is not only the best adventure ever done by LucasArts . but is also probably the nicest graphic adventure ever . just about perfect in all areas". The reviewer wrote "Atlantis shines in 256 colors" and that "the musicians and sound effects specialists deserve a tip of the hat", stating that the audio "completes the effect of playing a movie". He described the puzzles as quite creative and certainly fair" and liked the multiple solutions. The reviewer concluded that the game was "a must-buy for all adventurers" and "gets my vote . for 'Best Quest of the Year'", tied with Ultima Underworld, "both of which redefine the state-of-the-art in their respective genres". [57]

The following year, Ardai stated that "Unlike many recent CD-ROM upgrades, which have been embarrassing and amateurish", the CD-ROM version "has the stamp of quality all over it", with the added dialogue and sound effects "like taking a silent film and turning it into a talkie . It's hard to go back to reading text off a monitor after experiencing a game like this". He concluded that "LucasArts has done an impeccable job . a must-see". [58] In April 1994 the magazine said that "the disk version of Atlantis is fun, but in many ways, it's just another adventure game", but speech made the CD version "a fine approximation of an Indiana Jones film, with you as the main character", concluding "If you want a good reason to purchase a CD-ROM, look no further". [59] Andy Nuttal of Amiga Format wrote, "The puzzles are very well thought-out, with some exquisite, subtle elements that give you a real kick when you solve them." He noted that the game is "littered with elements that are genuinely funny". His sole complaint was about the game's linearity compared to Monkey Island 2 but he finished by saying, "It's a minor point, anyway, and it shouldn't put you off buying what is one of the best Amiga adventures ever." [48] In 2008, Retro Gamer Magazine praised it as "a masterful piece of storytelling, and a spellbinding adventure". [26]

In 1992 Computer Gaming World named Fate of Atlantis as one of the year's four best adventure games. [60] It was nominated for an award at the 1993 Game Developers Conference. [61] In 1994, PC Gamer US named the CD-ROM version of Fate of Atlantis as the 38th best computer game ever. The editors wrote that the floppy release was "a terrific game", but that the CD-ROM edition improved upon it by "set[ting] a new industry standard for voice acting." [62] That same year, PC Gamer UK named it the 13th best computer game of all time. The editors called it "a sumptuous feast for adventure and Indy fans alike." [63] In 1996, Computer Gaming World declared Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis the 93rd-best computer game ever released. [64] In 2011, Adventure Gamers named Fate of Atlantis the 11th-best adventure game ever released. [65]

In 1998, PC Gamer declared it the 41st-best computer game ever released, and the editors called it "a milestone achievement for LucasArts, this genre's greatest exponent, and it remains required playing for adventurers everywhere". [66]

After the release of the game, a story for a supposed successor in the adventure genre was conceived by Joe Pinney, Hal Barwood, Bill Stoneham, and Aric Wilmunder. [67] Titled Indiana Jones and the Iron Phoenix, it was set after World War II and featured Nazis seeking refuge in Bolivia, trying to resurrect Adolf Hitler with the philosophers' stone. [29] The game was in development for 15 months before it was showcased at the European Computer Trade Show. [29]

However, when the German coordinators discovered how extensively the game dealt with Neo-Nazism, they informed LucasArts about the difficulty of marketing the game in their country. [68] As Germany was an important overseas market for adventure games, LucasArts feared that the lower revenues would not recoup development costs, and subsequently canceled the game. [68] The plot was later adapted into a four-part Dark Horse Comics series by Lee Marrs, [67] published monthly from December 1994 to March 1995. [69] [70] In an interview, Barwood commented that the development team should have thought about the story more thoroughly beforehand, calling it insensitive and not regretting the cancellation of the title. [68]

Another follow-up game called Indiana Jones and the Spear of Destiny was planned, which revolved around the Spear of Longinus. [68] Development was outsourced to a small studio, but eventually stopped as LucasArts did not have experience with the supervision of external teams. [68] Elaine Lee loosely reworked the story into another four-part comic book series, released from April to July 1995. [71] [72]

Detailed book overview

When homeless man Jack Curtis rescues the life of young policewoman Amy Tom from a lunatic, killing the man in self-defense, he unintentionally saves the lives of six other people—all youthful, famous and accomplished New York City residents who had been marked for death.

But Death will however not be denied his prize.

With the number of victims continuously rising, Jack and Amy make a desperate attempt to save as many lives as possible before it is too late.

Spies don’t come any better than Adam Gray.

The lead agent of the US government's top-secret Persona project, he is the government's most valuable asset.

Thanks to experimental technology, Adam can take on the character and memories of anyone whether it’s a Russian arms dealer, a high-stakes gambler or a nuclear scientist. He gets to know every secret they know.

Nevertheless, the most dangerous secrets Adam knows are his own.

As he goes on the chase of a terrorist hell-bent on killing millions, Adam realizes that, despite his ability to get into the minds of others, his own memories are a mystery.

Masked in his past is the key to a destructive conspiracy, one whose masterminds won’t rest until they cover up their crimes.

Grim. Courageous. Unshakeable. Merciless. Damaged. Lethal.

None of those words can adequately describe Leviticus Gold.

Instead, try "celebrity". From rock star to actor, from author to explorer, from sportsman to fashion icon, raconteur to libertine and hedonist, he has tried it all.

When a shocking murder however takes place in the middle of a flight, the Jack of all trades and master of none now attempts to wear a new hat—one of a detective.

He is quite determined to catch the killer. Why wouldn’t he, given that he is the prime suspect?

Murder On The Orient Excess is a short story by international bestselling author, Andy McDermott.

The Hunt for Atlantis: Nina Wilde, a committed archaeologist, is convinced that she can find the lost city of Atlantis. And she is willing to go to all extremes just prove her theory.

With the help of sequestered billionaire Kristian Frost, his stunning daughter, Kari, and former SAS bodyguard Eddie Chase, Nina embarks on a dangerous mission to prove the existence of the ancient civilization.

The Tomb of Hercules: Archaeologist Nina Wilde and her ex-SAS bodyguard, Eddie Chase, once again find themselves in the midst of another dangerous mission, one that entails proving the existence of a tomb containing the remains of the mythical hero Hercules.

Should they find it, it will without question be the biggest discovery in history.

The Secret of Excalibur: American Archaeologist Nina Wilde and her fiancé, ex-SAS bodyguard Eddie Chase, are hoping to unwind and share some intimate time together when their plans are immediately thwarted after a meeting with an old acquaintance.

A global race has begun to reclaim the mighty and legendary sword of King Arthur, for it is believed that whoever carries the sword will wield immeasurable strength and dominance.

His name is Alex Reeve, codenamed Operative 66.

An ex-special ops soldier and one of the UK's most lethal assets, Reeve is part of the covert SC9 - an elite security service tasked with defeating the country's most dangerous enemies.

Reeve now however finds himself on the wrong side of things.

Accused of treason, he becomes a fugitive, with his team members under strict instructions to do everything they can to eliminate the 'rogue asset'.

Why is the loyal soldier being targeted? Who exactly stabbed him in the back?

Reeve is facing overwhelming odds, given how all state machineries are being used to pursue him.

But if there is one man capable of not just surviving but also uncovering the truth, then it’s Operative 66.

Rogue Blades Author: In a Dark Place: The Influence of Robert E. Howard on the Malazan World

At first glance, and given the subject of this essay, it might seem I am invoking an echo of Robert E. Howard’s sword-and-sorcery tales. That first warrior might well be Conan, leading a band of Cimmerians into the Border Kingdom. At least until we come to the last sentence, the question asked. What runs through their minds?

Howard would have an answer. It was a theme he revisited again and again. In his mind, there was something pure, unsullied, in the barbarian. And something insipid, corrupt and decadent in civilization. If the Celtic or Pictish warrior was the hero, the villains were Romans. At times, he would twist and turn away from that theme, muddy the waters a bit, even occasionally drawing on some ancient, pre-human, primal horror against which humanity must contend. And eventually, he would crown a barbarian king of one of those civilized nations, ruling by the notched edge of his axe, and in so doing, impose the barbarism of tyranny—a cold, singular justice to cut through all the grey shades of complexity that comes with civilization.

As a twelve-year-old, jumping with both feet into the fantasy realms of Howard, Burroughs and Leiber, I was fine with all that. Civilization? Who needs it. I spent most weekends out in the wilds of Manitoba, all year round, as my family fished the lakes and rivers to keep the freezer stocked with enough food to keep us from going hungry. I wandered through untamed places where Picts might lurk in the thickets, where at any moment the prow of a Viking ship might come into view where the river bends, iron weapons glinting as painted shields were readied.

And in seeing the ongoing destruction of those wild places, the relentless taming of the world in which I lived, I shared Howard’s disgust for all things civilized. Although utterly unknowing at the time, I was living another man’s nostalgia, in the same manner that young fans of J.R.R. Tolkien lived his, through reading THE HOBBIT and THE LORD OF THE RINGS. All too young, we became imbued with melancholy, a sense of things lost, the regrets piling up. We were innocents bemoaning the loss of innocence. It was heady stuff.

It is difficult for me to gauge the full measure of Howard’s influence on me, since it goes way beyond my career as a writer of Epic Fantasy. That damned map in the Conan books planted the seed of my becoming an archaeologist, of minoring in both history and classics, writing essays on the fall of Rome and the ‘Barbarian Invasions’ of Europe in the 5th and 6th centuries A.D.

The hidden legacy of the past infused Howard’s map of the Hyborian Age. The connections to history were obscure, yet detectable. Everything was steeped in mystery, so many secrets lost. How I pored over that map!

That sense of mystery haunts me to this day. The notion of fallen civilizations sent me into landscapes all over the world, wandering among ruins, and in those ruins, why, my imagination simply catches fire. From this come all the questions of ‘What if.’ What if the Picts were the original indigenous population of the British Isles? What if the Romans had been driven from the beaches of England in 55 B.C.? What if Caesar bought the big one at Alesia? What if the Varangian Guard had thrown back the Turks at the walls of Constantinople? What if Atlantis wasn’t just a story?

I can imagine Howard studying old history books, perhaps in his small hometown’s crappy library, and I’m there with him, riding the same waves of wonder and conjecture and lingering over every turning point in history. What if the Christians hadn’t burned down the Great Library at Alexandria?

And walking the sites of past civilizations, past cultures, witnessing the seeming madness of the final days of the Mayan civilization, my mind’s eye filling with scenes of blood sacrifice and unmitigated slaughter, standing at the edge of cenotes where they threw young women into the water, drugged and weighed down in some travesty of Joseph Campbell’s illustrious cycle of life and death. And still the rains refused to come.

Archaeology is all about fragments, the barest remnants of past lives and past worlds. If I could conjure up Howard’s ghost, I’d lead him onto a scrubby hill in Puglia, to wander among shattered Greek pottery from the 5th century B.C., along with the occasional Neolithic potsherd from the people their colony displaced. I’d show him the caves nearby with their Byzantine frescos and forgotten altars. I like to think he’d be smiling, fascinated by whatever detail I offered, and in his ethereal gaze there would be strange peoples wandering the landscape, the flames of burning settlements, pirates plying the coast, Turkish warships bombarding the citadel of Otranto, and heroes emerging from the smoke and ashes.

It’s what lies beyond the tales themselves, whispering between every word. When I eventually set to creating the Malazan world, alongside my co-conspirator, Ian C. Esslemont, we conjured up the almost ineffable impulses that both drive and haunt archaeologists, and we made that the heart of the fictional world we created. There is a quality to ruins, to abandoned places, to ancient sites of ritual, worship and evocation. To walk such places is to fall into silence, the eyes scanning the ground, reading the signs, to pause again and again, seeking that elusive sense of… something.

In our creation of the Malazan world, we took that something and made it this thing.


“ ” Saint Paul's Epistle to the Galatians had transmitted God's promise to the Jewish patriarchs, as an unbroken patrimony, to the Christians, and in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries you could hardly throw away an orange peel in the Holy Land without hitting a fervent excavator. General Gordon , the biblical fanatic later slain by the Mahdi at Khartoum , was very much to the fore. William Albright of Baltimore was continually vindicating Joshua's Jericho and other myths. Some of these diggers, even given the primitive techniques of the period, counted as serious rather than merely opportunistic. Morally serious too: the French Dominican archaeologist Roland de Vaux gave a hostage to fortune by saying that "if the historical faith of Israel is not founded in history, such faith is erroneous, and therefore, our faith is also." A most admirable and honest point, on which the good father may now be taken up.

While — in modernity — the archeology of the near and middle east has become a serious and respectable academic field in itself, without which our understanding of the spurious and man-made nature of various religious texts would be severely diminished, prominent scholars in the field of "biblical archaeology" such as Professor of Ancient History and Archaeology Eric H. Cline , author of Biblical Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction (published by Oxford University Press and winner of the 2011 Biblical Archaeology Society's "Best Popular Book on Archaeology"), Α] takes the time to warn and warn again of the rampant interest in the field from well-funded pseudoscientific cranks out to prove whichever of the abrahamitic myths they happen to subscribe to personally, stating: Β]

While biblical archaeologists working today are generally more interested in learning about details of daily life in the ancient biblical world than proving or disproving the accounts in the Bible, many lay people have these priorities reversed. They want to know: Did the Flood take place? Did Abraham and the Patriarchs exist? Were Sodom and Gomorrah destroyed by fire and brimstone? Did the Exodus occur? These were some of the original questions in biblical archaeology that intrigued the earliest pioneers of the field. They still resonate today but are far from being answered by biblical archaeologists.

In fact, solutions and answers to such questions are more frequently proposed by pseudo-archeologists or archaeological charlatans, who take the public's money to support ventures that offer little chance of furthering the cause of knowledge. Every year, "scientific" expeditions embark to look for the Garden of Eden, Noah's Ark, Sodom and Gomorrah, the Ark of the Covenant, and the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. These expeditions are often supported by prodigious sums of money donated by gullible believers who eagerly accept tales spun by sincere but misguided amateurs or by rapacious confidence men.

These ventures, which usually originate outside the confines of established scholarly institutions, engender confusion about what is real and what is fake. By practicing pseudo-archeology rather than by using established archeological principles and real science, the archaeological charlatans bring discredit to the field of biblical archaeology.

Eminent biblical scholar Michael Coogan and author of The Old Testament: A Very Short Introduction (published by Oxford University Press) also chimes in to underscore the inherent fail in pursuing pseudo-archaeology to try and prove the patently false myths recorded in scripture: Γ]

Correlating the meager textual references with the extensive archaeological discoveries has been controversial, to say the least, and similar problems exist for almost every excavated site whose ancient identification is known. As a result, it is now clear that archaeology cannot "prove" the Bible's historicity.

A textbook example of this exact crankery is the slow but steady stream of nonsensical Noah's Ark sightings every few years.

The Harmful Pseudoarchaeology of Mythological Atlantis

Having made its recent debut, Lost City Explorers is a brand new comic series by Aftershock Comics. In this series, siblings Helen and Homer Coates find themselves reeling from the sudden death of their archaeologist father, Dr. Tom Coates, who they believe has died in an underground work accident. That is until they find out from a former colleague of his that he didn’t die in an accident, as they were told, but rather disappeared after opening up a doorway into a city hidden beneath New York City. After searching their father’s basement office, Helen and Homer find out that the hidden city their father was searching for just might be the city of Atlantis. Together, and with help from partners and friends June, Maddi, and Edwin, the siblings set off to find out the truth behind their father’s disappearance and find out if Atlantis really exists. Atlantis has a long history of mystery, adventure, and exploration behind it, and it’s exciting to imagine this legendary city sitting underneath New York City! But Atlantis has another history, a darker history, that readers might not know about. And it’s this history of racism and colonialism that we really need to be aware of. Now that Atlantis is back in the forefront of comics thanks to Aquaman and the rumored forthcoming appearance of Namor in the MCU, it’s time to talk about it, and how the popularization of a historical Atlantis was motivated by racist ideologies of the 19th century.

This article is not an indictment of the comic itself, its creators, or even the inclusion of Atlantis. Rather, its purpose is to challenge the unquestioning acceptance of a particular kind of historical Atlantis, which has implications far beyond the imaginative. The overall storyline is a fun, adventurous read. If you’re interested in comics full of adventure, myth, and exploration than you’ll like Lost City Explorers. The characters are diverse and enjoyable, and the illustrations simple but effective. There was just enough detail in each page to give you the sense of a cityscape, office building, subway, cavern, etc. without going overboard into details that could distract you from what was happening. And where you needed extra artistic detail (e.g. anything related to Tom Coates’s work and Atlantis, such as the walls in Coates’s office in issues #1 and #2 with detailed drawings of maps and artifacts), it was there.

For the most part, I liked that the extra details were seemingly used in a way to connect the storyline to reality and encourage readers to become their own researchers. For example, many of the detailed images of maps and artifacts we see on the walls of Coates’s office have actually been used by explorers, historians, and authors engaged in the search for Atlantis. Other details, however, served as stark reminder of the colonialist uses of Atlantis, such as the depiction of a human skull wearing a First Nations headdress in issue #5, which made it difficult for me to truly get lost in the storyline.

This is why we really need to talk about Atlantis itself. It is, after all, the core of the series. And it’s a bit problematic. As an archaeologist who spends a lot of my time examining pseudoarchaeology, the myth of Atlantis is a story I’m quite familiar with. Most people are, thanks to things like Disney’s Atlantis: The Lost Empire, DC’s Aquaman, and the popular television show Stargate: Atlantis, in addition to other documentaries and books produced about the city. But there’s one important fact about Atlantis’s history which is conveniently left out of the books and documentaries — Atlantis was never a real city. And because of growing concerns around the increase in misappropriations of the past by nationalistic and supremacist movements in particular, this is a fact archaeologists are paying more attention to and trying to make better known.

Atlantis comes from the writings of Greek philosopher Plato. Sometime between 380 and 360 B.C., Plato wrote The Republic, Timaeus, and Critias. All of these books feature fictional, allegorical conversations in which Plato, Greek philosopher Socrates, and a few other characters discuss the state of justice as a thought experiment. A “what if” conversation. What if Athens is the perfect society, the pinnacle of justice? What if there existed a city that was the exact opposite of Athens, what would it be like? That’s where Atlantis comes in, invented by Plato as the antithesis to Athens. Atlantis is described as having been technologically advanced, orderly, and law-abiding in its early days when it belonged to the god Poseidon. But over time as the city began to grow it became corrupt and unruly. Wanting to expand their empire, the Atlanteans began to spread out and conquered parts of Libya, Egypt, and Europe. But the mighty Athenians lead a resistance against the disorderly Atlanteans, beating them and liberating the occupied lands. After the Gods decided that Atlanteans had lost their way, they sent three powerful earthquakes to Atlantis and the city sank and disappeared into the ocean.

So if the city of Atlantis was always a fictional story, what changed? Why today do we think Atlantis was a real place? It’s a transformation spanning several centuries, beginning with Europeans finding out about the Americas and culminating in Ignatius Donnelly’s Atlantis: The Antediluvian World.

When Donnelly published Atlantis: The Antediluvian World in 1882, Atlantis was truly transformed from myth into reality. Inspired by the works of archaeologists, historians, and scholars before him, Donnelly was convinced Atlantis was real and he was determined to add some science to the argument to convince everyone that it was real. The purpose of Atlantis: The Antediluvian World was not to reveal Donnelly had found the ruins of Atlantis, because he hadn’t. Instead it was more of a “Hear me out for a moment” kind of book. Donnelly made 13 claims about Atlantis, all revolving around his core theory that human civilization had originated in Atlantis (in fact, this was literally #3 on his list). But his idea of “civilization” only included select nations around the world (#4 on the list). He described how his evidence from fields including geology, botany, history, linguistics, and archaeology could link these nations to Atlantis. If these theories could be proven true, Donnelly said, then the mystery behind the origins of human civilization would be solved. As an added bonus, the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis would also be be proven true (“antediluvian” means “the time before the biblical flood”). And since not a lot was known about human origins at this point in time, it was an easy argument to buy. Atlantis: The Antediluvian World quickly became hugely popular and built the foundation for the Atlantis theories we see today.

Donnelly had laid the groundwork on how and where to find the proof that Atlantis had not only existed, but that it was the origin of human civilization. He called on others to take up the challenge to find the physical proof of his claims, and many did. Unfortunately, Atlantis became intertwined with human evolution and the idea of superior (those descended from Atlanteans) versus inferior (those not descended from Atlanteans) nations. In 1888 Helena Blavatsky, founder of the Theosophical Society, published The Secret Doctrine, which was inspired by Donnelly’s arguments with an added splash of esotericism and spiritualism. In The Secret Doctrine, Blavatsky discussed her theories of evolution and what she called the “root races”, in which Atlantis was considered the fourth root race. She believed Atlanteans were the ancestors to the fifth and most superior race – the Aryans.

The Secret Doctrine had been drafted with help from Edward Fawcett, whose brother Percy Fawcett disappeared in 1925 while searching the Amazon for the city of Z, which he believed was a colony of Atlantis. In the early 1930’s, Edgar Cayce claimed to have been able to psychically connect to what Theosophists called the Akashic Records, which allowed him to see detailed images of Atlantis and Atlanteans. Atlantis also played a large role in 1930’s Nazi Germany when Heinrich Himmler and Herman Wirth founded the Institute for the Study of Atlantis. The institute’s purpose was to find proof Atlantis had once existed to prove the superiority of the Aryan race, because Himmler believed Blavatsky’s claims about Atlantis. Today, Atlantis and the idea of hyperdiffusion is still continually brought up in both discussions looking for explanations of the achievements of people in the past and discussions of nationalistic superiority.

Comics and graphic novels impact society. They can reflect current trends, interests, and issues in society and also draw interest to trends, interests, and issues in society in an almost cyclical relationship. As interest in a topic rises, it appears more often in comics. In turn, that increased appearance of a topic in comics will draw the attention of those who might not know much about it. Comics can also become positive learning tools and foster critical thinking skills of their readers. This becomes especially important as comics and graphic novels today are concerned with accuracy, whether through accurately portraying a historical event or the cultural and societal experiences of their characters. That’s why, after knowing about the racist and colonialist history of the myth of the city of Atlantis, it became difficult for me to appreciate the way Atlantis was presented in Lost City Explorers.

From Brasseur de Bourbourg and Le Plongeon to Donnelly and Blavatsky and the modern theories of today, we see direct reference to and inspiration from these pseudoarchaeological arguments throughout Lost City Explorers. Most notably in Coates’s journal entries at the back of each issue, describing “evidence” for the existence of Atlantis in a style very similar to Donnelly’s Antediluvian World. The problem is that these theories were built off the idea of one group of people being superior to another. Early Atlantis proponents like de Sigüenza y Góngora, Brasseur de Bourbourg, and Le Plongeon all laid the groundwork for Donnelly by claiming that there was no way the Indigenous peoples of Mexico could be responsible for their own incredible architecture and mythologies. They erased and rewrote the histories of Mexico to incorporate Atlantis, because Atlantis was easier to believe than the fact that Indigenous peoples were responsible for their own histories.

Donnelly expanded these ideas even further in his book, the ideas of which become part of the storyline in Lost City Explorers. In fact, we see direct reference to this idea of cultural erasure through a statement from Coates’s colleague Dr. Leigh Whipple in the very first issue, who tells Helen and Maddi that there was an ancient civilization on Manhattan “even before Native Americans settled here.” Now that the Lenape and Wappinger Nations histories have been erased, readers are able to use the information in the journal entries to understand a new history, one that is designed to lead them to believe Atlantis is underneath Manhattan.

Just like Donnelly, the five journal entries are drawing together various lines of evidence and trying to find some connection between them to convince the readers that Atlantis was real. For example, entry one suggests the idea of shared traits by arguing that cultures all around the world have similar stories regarding earthquakes and floods (the idea of shared memory is #5 on Donelly’s list). Other lost cities are mentioned, like Brasseur de Bourbourg’s Mu, and Lemuria, which was described by Blavatsky in The Secret Doctrine as being the third root race and ancestral to Atlantis. The entry also includes mention that Egyptian fables and First Nations myths share too many details to be coincidence (Donnelly’s #7 states that Egyptian and Peruvian mythology represent the original religion of Atlantis), and shared beliefs revolving around floods (Donnelly’s #13) are mentioned repeatedly throughout the five journal entries.. The entries attempt to tie these all to Plato’s description of Atlantis, stating we must take his accounts at face value and that the use of science will help fill in the blanks to prove these accounts true (#2 on Donelly’s list).

And we do see lots of talk of real-life science in the entries being used to support the storyline. Gluons and electro-magnetic radiation (mentioned in journal entry one) are real fields of scientific study. Dr. Masaru Emoto (mentioned in journal entry five) was a real researcher who actually conducted research, which has now been discredited, into the effect of vibrations on water molecules and who claimed water could react to human consciousness. As I mentioned earlier, many of the maps shown in Coates’s office at the end of issue #1 and beginning of issue #2 were developed and used by real historians and explorers looking for Atlantis. Honestly, I think it’s really cool that Lost City Explorers strives for accuracy in their pages. But that’s also what frustrates me. The comic writers put in a lot of effort to include actual science and theories about Atlantis. But in Lost City Explorers it doesn’t matter that these theories are all pseudoscientific and pseudohistorical, what matters is that they’re being presented to the readers as legitimate. And the writers add legitimacy to them by presenting them alongside legitimate scientific fields of study, like gluons and electro-magnetic radiation. If readers spend even a little bit of time of Google, it becomes easy to believe Lost City Explorers is based on truth. In fact, in 2018 57% of Americans believed ancient, highly advanced civilizations like Atlantis once existed. And because these theories now appear to be legitimate, it becomes easier to ignore the cultural erasure, colonialism, and racism they have contributed to.

My disappointment in Lost City Explorers is in the way the line between fiction and non-fiction is being blurred and opening the door of misinformation for their readers. I find myself thinking a lot about how comics in North America have a history of reflecting the world around them. Wonder Woman in the 1940’s and 50’s reflected the women’s rights movements of the time, as did Captain Marvel in the 1970’s. The introduction of the X-Men in 1963 reflected the Civil Rights Movement. Like many other comics, Lost City Explorers is simply reflecting the world we live in. We live in an incredibly diverse society, and in response we see wonderfully diverse characters in this series. But we also live in a society which finds itself still under the shadow of colonialism, where history continues to be challenged, erased, and retold. We see that reflected in the 57% of Americans who believe in the existence of civilizations like Atlantis, and in response we see a comic series about Atlantis built off the very theories which give us that 57%.

Now that Lost City Explorers is being adapted for television, we’ll see even more of that 57% being reached by these stories. Comics aren’t static they’re changing and readapting themselves all the time. My hope is that creators spend some time learning a bit more about Atlantis as they move along, and re-adapt their stories to be more conscientious of the ways in which Atlantis has been used through history. Because detaching Atlantis from this history perpetuates the harms it has caused. Talk to archaeologists and historians, as there are many of us who would genuinely love to talk about Atlantis. Because there’s no reason comic creators can’t use Atlantis in both an entertaining and conscientious way. For example, why not put Atlantis in its own universe? It doesn’t need to be used as a justification for the awesomeness of people. Atlantis sounds like an awesome city in and of itself, so why not give it its own world to exist within? Like Maya Angelou once said, “Do the best you can until you know better. Then when you know better, do better.”


Born in France to American parents, and raised in Colorado and Montana, United States, Childress went to University of Montana–Missoula to study archaeology, but left college in 1976 at 19 to begin travelling in pursuit of his archaeological interests. [1] [3] After several years in Asia and then Africa, Childress moved in 1983 to Stelle, Illinois, a community founded by New Age writer Richard Kieninger Childress had been given one of Kieninger's books while touring Africa. [1] Childress chronicled his explorations in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s in his Lost Cities and Ancient Mysteries series of books.

Childress's first book, A Hitchhikers Guide to Africa and Arabia, was published in 1983 by Chicago Review Press. In 1984, Childress moved to Kempton, Illinois, and established a publishing company named Adventures Unlimited Press, [1] [4] which is a sole proprietorship. His company published his own works and then those of other authors, presenting fringe-scientific theories regarding ancient civilizations, cryptozoology, and little-known technologies. [1] [4] In 1992, Childress founded the World Explorers Club, which occasionally runs tours to places he writes about, and publishes a magazine called World Explorer. [1]

Childress has appeared on NBC (The Mysterious Origins of Man), Fox Network (Sightings and Encounters), Discovery Channel, A&E, and History (e.g. Ancient Aliens), to comment on subjects such as the Bermuda Triangle, Atlantis, and UFOs. Since first entering the industry in 1984, Childress has been involved in two lawsuits regarding publishing one, concerning the Kennedy assassination, failed after expiry of a statute of limitations and the other, involving an unpublished master's thesis about UFOs written in 1950, was settled out of court. [1] Childress writes humorously about these suits in his 2000 autobiography A Hitchhiker's Guide to Armageddon. Childress has been interviewed on several radio programs. [5]

Patrick D. Nunn, a professor of geography at the University of the Sunshine Coast has noted that Childress is a proponent of pseudoscientific claims such as the lost continent Mu and megaliths on the Pacific islands built by levitation. Nunn has written that "the disappearance of Mu is very convenient because it means that theorists like Childress can say what they like and appear convincing to people who are comparatively uninformed, as many naturally are, of the huge body of scientific information on Pacific geology and cultures." [6]

Historical archaeologist Charles E. Orser (editor of International Journal of Historical Archaeology) has criticized Childress's writings:

Pseudo-archaeologists continue to perpetuate the idea that Atlantis was a racialized place. David Hatcher Childress, one of the most flagrant violators of basic archaeological reasoning, has provided perhaps the most outrageous racialized vision of Atlantis. In discussing Tiahuanaco in Bolivia—as a palace built long before any Native South Americans were present—Childress proposes that the majestic site could only have been constructed by the "Atlantean League." The league was composed of mythic seafarers who "sailed the world spreading a megalithic culture, and wore red turbans over their blond hair" (Childress 1986: 139, emphasis added). Nowhere did Plato, the only actual source on Atlantis, mention the blond hair of the Atlanteans. Plato did mention that the men and women of Atlantis, being semi-divine, were inherently good . . . The correlation between goodness and whiteness is thus obvious in Childress's formulation and in much else that has been written about Atlantis.

Childress's company has published nearly 200 books (many translated into foreign languages) over the course of two dozen years. Childress himself has authored and co-authored over a dozen books, from his first in 1983 to his most recent in 2013. His influences include Erich von Däniken, Thor Heyerdahl, and Charles Berlitz. [1]

Watch the video: Why Atlantis Definitely Did NOT Exist