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Famed for its conquering hordes under Genghis Khan in the early 1200s, Mongolia came to dominate a good portion of the known world, though its heydey lasted for only about two centuries. After the Mongol empire broke up, China came to dominant both Inner and Outer Mongolia. Outer Mongolia tried to assert is independence from China in 1911 (the attempt failed) and in 1924, with Soviet support, a Mongolian People's Republic was formed. Soviet-sponsored purges of Mongolian leaders coupled with poorly considered attempts to institute centralized planning, made for dark early years of the republic. In 1990, the communist government ceded its constitutional power (although they were returned to power in 1992, running on a reform platform). In 1993, a coalition of opposing parties beat the communists once more. Mongolia faces enormous problems as it makes the progression to democracy and a free market economy but its youthful and growing population and financial support from countries such as the US will doubtless help.
Mongolian history: From Genghis Khan to socialism - Mongolia Trip
When you think of Mongolia, the first thing that probably comes to your mind is Genghis Khan and the Mongolian Empire. There is a widespread belief among foreigners that nothing of importance happened in Mongolian history after the empire's fall. And it's mostly true. Mongolia was rarely mentioned or participated in major world events after the conquests of Genghis Khan. But like most things, if you actually dig, A LOT has happened before and after the Mongolian Empire. So, to save you from reading the entirety of a Wikipedia article, we wrote this (relatively) short article about the history of Mongolia.
Prehistory (Before the Mongol Empire)
We won't bore you with the prehistoric part too much because, well, it's prehistoric. In short, nobody knows much about primitive Central Asian nomads. All we know is that before Genghis Khan was born, there were actually a few empires, with the Xiongnu empire being the first. First founded in 209 BCE, the empire conducted destructive raids on lands of the Qin dynasty. These raids resulted in the construction of the Great Wall of China for protection. Unfortunately, the ethnic core of the Xiongnu Empire remains muddy. They could've been Huns, Mongols, or Turks. The Xiongnu people didn't really write much because they were nomadic people at constant war with China. So keeping track of their history probably wasn't really a top priority.
After Xiongnu came the Xianbei Empire, which was founded in 93 CE. Unlike Xiongnu, they lacked organization and were assimilated into China. Next up is the Rouran Khaganate. They were a little more advanced than the previous two confederations. However, it is said that the Khaganate was an aggressive, militarized society. So it was probably similar to the ancient Greek city-state Sparta in that it wasn't really a great place to live peacefully. After the eventual decline of the Rouran Khaganate, the First Turkic Khaganate succeeded them. But, as the name implies, they were Turks, and the Khaganate eventually collapsed in a series of civil wars.
Temüjin (Chaos of the warring tribes)
Genghis Khan is the most critical figure in Mongolian history. He is basically Mongolia's George Washington. But to understand how the Mongol Empire was founded, we have to mention the Khamag Mongol. They were basically a predecessor state to the Mongol Empire. Genghis Khan's father actually was the 4th khan of the Khamag Mongol. And like most rulers, he was poisoned by his enemies. This left the then nine-year-old Temüjin (Genghis Khan) without much power. After his father's death, the tribe abandoned Temüjin and their family, essentially leaving them to die.
For the next several years, they lived in extreme poverty, mostly eating fruits and squirrels hunted by Temüjin and his brothers. Speaking of brothers, his older half-brother Begter repeatedly tried to exercise power over the family and wanted to marry Temüjin's mother. Temüjin did not like that. So while hunting for food, he killed him with a bow and arrow. During this time, Mongolia was completely fractured without a central power.
Around 1177, Temüjin was captured by a tribe and enslaved. A sympathetic guard is said to have freed Temüjin, and he escaped at night. The guard's son eventually became a general of Genghis Khan. He also married the woman he was supposed to marry at nine years old before his father's death. Unfortunately, that wife, Börte, was kidnapped by yet another tribe. Temüjin then gathered 20,000 soldiers with the help of his father's friend and completely annihilated that tribe. This event became a stepping stone to more power. Eventually, after much death and betrayal, he earned the title 'Genghis Khan' or universal leader in 1206 and readied for conquest.
Genghis Khan (Mongol Empire)
Before we get to the war and destruction part, Genghis Khan was actually a pretty competent and progressive ruler (by 13th century standards). He organized his army using the decimal system. 10 soldiers basically functioned as a squad (arban). 100 soldiers were platoons (zuuns) 1,000 - battalions (mingghans) and 10,000 soldiers were an army (tumen). He also highly valued loyalty and friendship. People who were loyal to him were placed in high positions. Being surrounded by highly skilled and loyal people was crucial to his conquest.
While merciful with his allies, Temüjin was brutal with his enemies. He swiftly defeated neighboring countries. Almost every city the Mongol army attacked was utterly destroyed, and its populace slaughtered. Every single Mongol soldier was expected to execute 24 people each battle. The Mongol Empire ravaged the entirety of Asia. Soldiers of the empire committed large-scale massacres, which were horrific. These atrocities made the Mongol Empire infamous for its brutality. Genghis Khan famously invaded and decimated the Khwarezmian Empire, poured molten silver into a governor's eyes and ears for killing his messengers. In the end, he roughly slaughtered 40-60 million civilians, causing a drastic decline in population and an increase in famine.
Even though Genghis Khan was a ruthless warlord to his enemies, his influence is more nuanced. He practiced meritocracy and encouraged religious tolerance, which was mostly unheard of at the time. After Temüjin's death, his sons and grandsons made the Mongol Empire the largest contiguous empire in history. Kublai Khan, one of his grandsons, founded the Yuan dynasty and became emperor of all China. Unfortunately, the descendants of Genghis Khan started a succession war amongst each other that tore the massive empire apart.
The Rise of Socialism (Contemporary Mongolian history)
After the fall of the Mongol Empire, a period of factional conflict started. In the 17th century, the Qing dynasty absorbed Mongolia, and Tibetan Buddhism spread rapidly. After the fall of the Qing dynasty, Mongolia achieved independence from the Republic of China in 1921. Russian Bolsheviks were crucial in Mongolia's independence, and in 1924 Mongolia became a socialist state. During the socialist rule, thousands of monks were executed without trial. Like most socialist countries, religious practices were prohibited. Freedom of the press was on its deathbed, and people who opposed the government were executed. In short, life was pretty bleak for the Mongolian people. Like other countries under Soviet rule, Mongolia conducted a peaceful democratic revolution and, in 1990, became a semi-presidential republic. Mongolia has experienced unprecedented peace and economic growth since.
Today, Mongolia is a lower-middle-income country with a market-based economy. Although not a developed country, Mongolia has progressed at a remarkable pace since the fall of communism. Even though Mongolian history has a , current day Mongolia has become one of the safest countries in the world.
Mongolian Ancient Empires
Hunnu state: (Hsiung-nu, 3rd century BCE - 2nd century CE)
Mongol, Turk and Jurchen races had been living in the Mongolian territory from ancient times. They alternatively ruled over each other. However the first politically organized community was the Hunnu State. It was the prototype of the states of Mongolia. According to the chronicles, there was a nomadic tribe Khu in the 5th century BCE. The people were engaged in animal husbandry and each tribe had its chief cleric.
They formed a confederation of tribes. Those were the Hunnu people who became particularly prosperous in the 4th century BCE. The confederation annexed 24 Hunnu aimags. Tumen was named the Khaan of the Hunnu. Tumen belonged to the aristocratic family of the Khian tribe.
It was since that period that Khaan ceased to be elected at the conference, but became a dynastic title. Hunnu people fell victims of the aggressive policy pursued by the Ching dynasty, and aimed at expanding the territory to the North. The Hunnus were driven far from the Ordos territory. The Chinese fortified their new Great Wall.
Tumen Khaan made unsuccessful attempts to unite various Hun aimags and organize the state. Tumen Khaan, induced by his young wife, made his son by his youngest wife, the heir to the throne. But his elder son Modun, assassinated both his father and his younger sibling and seized the throne in 209 BCE. The Hunnu State was not a merely Mongol State. It was the first organized State among the nomadic people of the Central Asia.
Cianbi state: (Hsiung-pi) (2nd - 4th centuries CE)
The South Hunnu was under a strong Chinese influence and the North Hunnu people moved farther to the North. The remaining 100 thousand families, or over 500 thousand Huns, joined the Cian-bi people, who formed the Cian-bi State. Tanishikhuai (136-181) played an important role in organizing and consolidating the Cian-bi State. The Cian-bi State grew stronger and expanded its territory in the east and occupied the territory stretching as far as to the Korean peninsula.
The Cian-bi State was situated on the territory stretching from the lake of Baikal to the Chinese wall, and from the Korean peninsula to the He Tarbagatai. Tanishikhuai divided his State into 3 parts: eastern, central and western. In 181 СЕ Tanishikhuai passed away and his son Khelyang took over. The State affairs deteriorated under his rule. The Cian-bi State broke up.
However, Kebinen, lord of one of the aimags, gathered over 10 thousand soldiers and reunited the Cian-bi State. In 235 СЕ Kebinen died. As a result, in the middle of the 3rd century CE, after his death, the Cian-bi State was divided into the East and West Cian-bi States, and gradually collapsed.
Jujan state (Rouran):
Tureg State (580-745 CE):
The policy of Tureg (Turkic) State was aimed at taking control over the great trade road. By 580's CE, Tureg State expanded to annex numerous aimags with people of diverse nationalities. They defeated the Ephtalit State in the West and subdued the Kirghiz people living in the Enisei basin of Siberia in the North. During the period of Tureg State its territory expanded to reach the Korean peninsula.
By the end of 4th century CE, the Turkic State was divided into the eastern and western parts. And Uighur people, who were a part of the Turkic State, defeated the eastern Turkic State in 745 CE. Thus the Uighur State became the successor of the Turkic State.
Uighur State: (745- aprox 900 CE)
Kidan State (10th-12th Centuries)
Ogedai’s death in 1241 led to succession struggles, a pattern for the empire from then on. Genghis had four sons, Jochi, Chagatai, Ogedai and Tolui. After Ogedai died, his widow wrangled to get her son, Guyuk elected as khan. Guyuk, however, was weak and died after only two years. During the next few years, Sorkhaqtani, Tolui’s widow, worked to keep the empire together until the election of Mongke Khan, Tolui’s son. The empire continued to expand, into Bulgaria, Eastern Europe and Iraq in the west and into Vietnam in the east.
Mongke’s brother Halagu defeated and occupied Baghdad. Kublai, brother of Mongke and Halagu, campaigned in Song, the south China state. In 1260, after the death of Mongke, Kublai and Ariqboke, another brother, both claimed to be Great Khan. A war for succession ensued, which Kublai eventually won in 1264. By this time, the great Mongol Empire was weakening.
Mongol Empire Timeline
This Mongol Empire timeline features such information as the life of Genghis Khan, the major achievements of the Mongol military, and the growth of the empire and expanse of its massive trade networks.
Mongol Empire Timeline
- 1162(?) Genghis Khan was born into the Borjigin tribe under the name Temujin. His childhood was poor and his family struggled to survive. Temujin, however, thrived and made many political alliances among other Mongol tribes.
- 1177? Temujin was captured by a rival tribe and imprisoned. With the help of a guard, he escaped by hiding in a river crevice.
- 1178? At around the age of 16, Temujin married Borte who became his empress.
- 1178-1206 Temujin makes allies and works to unite the disparate Mongol tribes under his rule. Mongolian tribes had never united before. The various Chinese dynasties usually schemed to keep them divided and fighting each other.
- 1206 Mongol and Turkic tribes united under Temujin, proclaiming him Genghis Khan, the Oceanic or Universal Ruler of all the Mongols.
- 1207-1210 Mongol wars against the western Xia which ruled northwest China and parts of Tibet. The Xia surrended to Genghis in 1210.
- 1209 The Uyghur Turks joined Genghis peacefully and many of them became administrators of the new and growing empire.
- 1211 Genghis and his army cross the Gobi Desert to battle the Jin Dynasty in northern China.
- 1215 The Mongol army conquers Zhongdu, the Jin Dynasty capital.
- 1218 Genghis sends an envoy to the Khwarezmid empire under Shah Muhammad. The Shah has all the envoys put to death.
- 1219 Genghis and his army go to war against the Khwarezmid Empire. He sent special troops to find and kill Shah Ala al-Din Muhammad II, the shah who murdered Genghis’ envoys. The Mongol army split its forces in order to attack from many directions at once.
- 1219 Mongols begin a campaign against Transoxiana, comprising parts of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan.
- 1221 Khwarezmid Empire destroyed.
- 1223 While Genghis led the main Mongol army through Afghanistan back to Mongolia, a Mongol army division of 20,000 under the generals Jebe and Subutai headed over the Caucasus. They attacked the kingdom of Georgia and won. They spent the winter on the Black Sea. On the way back to Mongolia, the generals attacked and won over an 80,000 strong army of the Kievan Rus at the Battle of the Kalka River. They then headed back to Mongolia.
- 1227 Genghis and his army went on campaign against the rebellious Tangut, Xia and Jin, capturing the city of Lingzhou and putting its leaders to death. In August, still on campaign, Genghis Khan died. He was 65 years old, a ripe old age for a military commander who spent his life at war.
- 1227 Mongol leaders all return to Mongolia for a mass meeting, the kuriltai, where the next khan would be elected. Before his death, Genghis had already chosen his son Ogedai as his successor. His other sons, Jochi, Chagatai and Tolui would be khans with Ogedai as the Great Khan.
- 1229 Ogedai elected Great Khan. At this point, the Mongol Empire comprised almost 24 million square kilometers, four times as large as the Roman Empire.
- 1229-1234 Under Ogedai, the war in northern China continues with sieges at Kaifeng and Caizhou against the Jin dynasty. Fire arrows or missiles were launched against the Mongols by the Jin.
- 1235-1238 Ogedai constructs a Mongol capital city at Karakhorum.
- 1236 Mongols invade Korea and begin a war against the southern Chinese Song dynasty.
- 1237 Batu Khan, a son of Jochi, Genghis’ first son, begins campaign to conquer the Kievan Rus.
- 1237-1242 Mongols sack Kiev, invade Armenia, Georgia, Hungary and Bulgaria.
- 1241 Battles of Sajo and Legnica, with Mongols crushing all enemies.
- 1241 Ogedai dies.
- 1241-1246 Odegai’s wife, Toregene, becomes regent. Toregene works in the background to get Ogedai’s eldest son, Guyuk, elected as Great Khan.
- 1246 Guyuk elected Great Khan.
- 1247 First census of the empire.
- 1248 Guyuk dies.
- 1251 Mongke, eldest son of Tolui, Genghis’ fourth son, elected Great Khan. Some of his relatives rebel and Mongke kills all who would challenge him from the Ogedied and Chagataid families. Mongke sends his brothers Hulagu to war in the Middle East and Kublai to war in China. His other brother, Ariq Boke remains in Karakhorum.
- 1256 Hulagu attacks the Hashshashins, an order of assassins, establishes the Ilkhanate.
- 1257 Mongols invade Vietnam.
- 1258 The Abbasid Caliphate falls to the Mongols, who capture Baghdad.
- 1259 Mongols invade Syria. Mongke dies.
- 1260 Mongols defeated by Egyptian Mamluks in the battles of Ain Jalut and Homs.
- 1260 Both Ariq Boke and Kublai, grandsons of Genghis Khan, declared Great Khans. Civil war between the two breaks out.
- 1262 Golden Horde (Russia) and Ilkhanate (Iraq) go to war in Caucasus.
- 1264 Kublai becomes the Great Khan.
- 1269 Mongolian language school founded by Kublai Khan.
- 1271 Yuan Dynasty established and paper money issued by Kublai Khan.
- 1274 Japan invaded by Mongols for the first time.
- 1276 Song Dynasty (southern China) falls to Yuan Dynasty.
- 1281 Mongol’s second invasion of Japan.
- 1281 In Western Syria, Mongols again defeated by Eqyptian Mamluks.
- 1284 Second invasion of Vietnam fails.
- 1288 Third invasion of Vietnam fails.
- 1293 Mongols raid Java.
- 1294 Kublai Khan dies. Oljeitu Temur, Kublai’s grandson, becomes khan of the Yuan Dynasty.
- 1295 Ghazan, ruler of the Ilkhanate, converts to Islam.
- 1299 Mongols win over the Mamluks in Syria.
- 1303 Mamluks defeat Mongols at Battle of Marj al-Saffar, Mongols leave Syria.
- 1305 The Yam postal routes and trade routes reopened between the Khanates, which had been closed when the Khanates warred with each other.
- 1315 Golden Horde turns to Islam. Ozbeg Khan persecutes non-Muslim Tartars.
- 1323 Mamluks make a truce with the Ilkhanate, ending a long war.
- 1327 Rebellion in Golden Horde against Mongol rule. Ozbeg crushes the rebellion.
- 1335 Ilkhanate dissolves.
- 1368 Ming Dynasty overthrows the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. End of Mongol Empire, although elements of it continues to the 1600s.
For more information similar to this Mongol Empire timeline, please see our comprehensive resource on the Mongol Empire.
Following the unification of the Mongol tribes, Genghis Khan launches a campaign of conquest. His sons and grandsons create the world's biggest land empire.
The Manchu (Qing) empire conquers southern Mongols, creating inner Mongolia.
The Qing empire offers protection to the northern Mongols, creating Outer Mongolia.
The Qing dynasty falls Russia and the Republic of China recognize Outer Mongolia's autonomy after it declares independence.
With Red Army support, Mongolian revolutionaries drive out Chinese and Tsarist forces and install the Mongolian "people's government".
Yalta conference preserves the Soviet's control in Mongolia, and Mongolians vote for independence in a UN plebiscite.
Railway built across Mongolia linking Russia and China.
The IMF approves $40 million for low-interest loans for three years to help reduce poverty and boost economic growth.
Russia writes off all but $300 million of Mongolia's debts.
Mongolia and Rio Tinto-owned Ivanhoe Mines reach an agreement on stakeholding in the massive Oyu Tolgoi copper mine.
Mongolia reaches an agreement worth over $5 billion with the IMF and other international partners on the condition that it will implement fiscal reforms and strengthen its banking system.
A History of Mongolia
In 209 BC a great leader called Modun united the people of Mongolia. This early state was called Hunnu. The Hunnu was a powerful empire and they were often at war with China. However, the Hunnu state broke up in the 4th century AD.
From the 6th century to the 9th-century tribes speaking Turkic languages ruled Mongolia. Then in 1162, the most famous person in the history of Mongolia was born. His name was Temujin. He soon proved to be a remarkable leader. By 1206 Temujin made himself the leader of all the Mongols and he took the name Chinggis Khan.
Under Chinggis Khan and his successors, the Mongols conquered a vast empire. They conquered China and Russia and advanced into Europe as far as Poland and Hungary. They also conquered Persia. However, the Mongol Empire soon fragmented. Mongol rule in China was overthrown in 1368. Mongolia became split between different groups and China came to dominate the country.
However in 1911 revolution broke out in China which gave Mongolia the chance to regain its independence. In 1915 the Treaty of Khyata between Mongolia, China, and Russia allowed the country limited autonomy. However, in 1919, the Chinese occupied Mongolia again. They were driven out in 1921 and Mongolia became completely independent. It then became a Communist country. The Peoples Republic of Mongolia was created in 1924.
Mongolia then came under Russian domination. In 1939 the Russians and Mongolians fought the Japanese in eastern Mongolia. Meanwhile, the Communists introduced a totalitarian regime in Mongolia and they cruelly persecuted religion. However, Communism collapsed in 1990 when demonstrations were held demanding democracy in Mongolia. The Communists caved in and elections were held. Mongolia gained a new constitution in 1992. Furthermore, Mongolia changed to a market economy.
Although Mongolia suffered in the recession of 2009 it soon recovered. Today the economy of Mongolia is growing rapidly. Mongolia has great mineral wealth. In 2020 the population of Mongolia was 3.2 million.
Famous Mongolian Queens
There are 34 great queens in the history of the Mongolia. We rarely talk about mothers, queens of Mongolia. Because they were always behind of too powerful Khaans and heroes supporting them. Here are written five of the queens who have made a significant contribution to the history of the Mongolian state during the historical period in which they lived.
Oulun is Olkhonuud person, in Hongirad tribe. She is the birth mother of Temuujin (Genghis Khan), the queen of Yesuhei hero. She gave birth four sons, Temujin, Khasar, Khachigun and Temuge, and 1 daughter named Temulen. Once Yesukhei hero poisoned to death by Tatar tribe, his own tribes left Oulen with her orphan children. Oulun raised her sons alone in extremely difficult lives and making them far-sighted, intelligent heroes. Thanks to the efforts of Oulun mother, in 1189 Temujin was proclaimed the King of Mongolia
Toregene was the queen of Khudug, the eldest son of Togtoa Bekh, the leader of the Naiman tribe, and in 1204 he was captured in the war and Genghis Khan gave his son Ogedei as his 6 th queen. Queen Toregene gave birth to five sons, Guyug, Godan, Khulgen, Khuchu and Hadaan. Toregene queen ruled the Great Mongol Empire between 1241-1246 after the death of Ogedei Khan. She was a queen and an indomitable hero, but she went down in history as a one who took part in the state conspiracy and provoked the internal crisis of the Great Mongolia.
Ogul Haimish is the daughter of Khutuga Bekh of Oirat province. Ogul Haimish had two sons, Nagu and Hodja. She was one of the few queens who took the rule of Mongol Empire. After the death of Guyug Khaan, his widowed queen, Ogul Haimish, traditionally took over the affairs of state in 1249-1251 with the consent of Batu and many other princes. Sorkhugtani Bekh and Qinghai officials played an important role in the rule of Ogul Haimish.
Sorkhagtani Bekhi, the queen of Tolui, was the daughter of Jaha Khambu, the younger brother of Tooril Khan of Hereid. She gave birth four sons, Munkh, Khubilai, Hulegu and Arigbukh. Among Genghis Khan’s sons, the Tolui’s descendants had the greatest influence on Mongolian history. His son Möngke became the fourth king of the Great Mongol Empire, his son Kublai conquered all of China and established the Yuan Dynasty, his son Hulegu conquered southwest Asia and established the Hulegu Kingdom, or El Khanate, and his son Arigbukh became the fifth Mongol emperor. She is said to have been Genghis Khan’s favorite daughter-in-law and died in 1252.
She was called “Wise Queen Mandukhai” because she was beautiful and intelligent. Mandukhai was born in 1448 as the daughter of Tsorosbai Tumur in Tumed province. Manduul Khan, who ruled Mongolia at the time, had no descendants, so he married 17-year-old Mandukhai in 1465 when he was 40 years old. When Manduul Khan died in 1467, Queen Mandukhai ruled the country for three years until a new king was appointed. She found Batmunkh at the age of 7, the last descendant of the Genghis khan, orphaned by his parents, and enthroned him in 1470, reunited Mongolia.
By virtue of Queen Mandukhai, Batmunkh Dayan Khan ruled all of Mongolia for 40 years and brought peace to Mongolian people. She wisely rebuilt the Mongolian state during the difficult period of the disintegration of the Great Mongol Empire.
Ger, Mongolian Traditional Dwelling
Ideally suited to Mongolia's harsh terrain and lifestyle, the ger is called yurt by many foreigners. But, Mongolians don't particularly like this Russian labeling of their national dwelling . so call it a ger. A round felt tent covered in durable, waterproof, white canvas seems to be the most simple description of this portable home. White modern and expensive houses are being built in UB, many rural Mongolians have retained their traditional lifestyle, of which the ger is an integral part.
Ancient gers were not collapsible and had to be wheeled from one location to the next sometimes pulled by up to 22 yaks. But nomads need to move across the country in all four seasons. So gers that could be packed onto the back of their livestock were designed and are still used.
The Mongolian ger has to key components: the wooden framework and the felt cover, the wooden framework is known as khana, the central support columns as uni, the smoke hole is toono. Eighty - eight separate wooden poles each measuring around 1,5 meters are used for the ger frame, with just to central columns supporting the entire structure. Without its felt and canvas covering the naked frame looks something like an umbrella without its sheath. Once the framework has been erected it is covered with felt and mounted onto a wooden floor sometimes the ger goes directly on the ground and then overlaid with feeling. The door is always on the southern side facing the sun, providing more light inside the windowless home.
Your average ger is divided into three areas. There are male and female sections and khoimor area at the rear of the ger. The male area is on the western or left side of the ger. Here is man keeps his bridles, airag and arkhi (vodka). Women traditionally have the eastern side of a ger, where they keep kichen utensils, their own and childrens belongings. It is customary for a man entering a ger to step the western side and women to the east. The khoimer, which is directly opposite the door, is where valuable objects are stored or displayed, as well as a small Buddhist shrine. Most families also keep a collage of photographs of relatives and close friends at the back of the ger. This is the most important part of the ger and guests are often invited to sit at the khoimer.
The two central columns are the only things propping up the whole structure and no matter how many people are in ger ( you would be amazed how many can fit in and even sleep in a ger), no one ever leans against either of the support columns. This is considered very bad form. It's around shape keeps the Ger.
Resilient to Mongolia 's ferocious winds, while it felt is rapidly drying material for when it rains or snow melts. In UB and more recently, in towns across the country, people are setting into large, faceless apartment blocks. Ger districts usually occupy poor quality land on the outskirts of town. But in summer, urban Mongolians head to the outskirts where they spend as much time as possible in small wooden houses or gers where they can enjoy the beautiful Mongolian summers away from the uncomfortably hot urban apartments.
Kublai Khan as Yuan Dynasty Emperor
As Great Khan, Kublai set his sight on unifying all of China. In 1271, he established his capital at modern-day Beijing and named his empire the Yuan Dynasty – one of several efforts to win over his Chinese subjects.
His efforts paid off, with much of the Song imperial family surrendering to Kublai in 1276, but the war continued for another three years. In 1279, Kublai became the first Mongol to rule all of China when he conquered the last of the Song loyalists.