Lemuel Schofield

Lemuel Schofield

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Lemuel Bradley Schofield was born in 1893. He became a lawyer and eventually became Philadelphia's director of public safety (then the fire and police departments), and as U.S. commissioner of immigration and naturalization. He was married with four children.

Princess Stephanie von Hohenlohe was arrested as a Nazi spy. On 7th March 1941 President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave a direct order to US Attorney General Francis Biddle: "That Hohenlohe woman ought to be got out of the country as a matter of good discipline. Have her put on a boat to Japan or Vladivostok. She is a Hungarian and I do not think the British would take her." The following day Major Schofield ordered the arrest of Princess Stephanie.

A few days later Schofield visited her at the detention centre. According to Jim Wilson, the author of Nazi Princess: Hitler, Lord Rothermere and Princess Stephanie Von Hohenlohe (2011): "As she had done so successfully so often before, she switched on her undoubted sexual charms and flirted with her captor. Schofield was hardly a handsome catch. He was obese with large, ugly features, but he had authority and influence. Despite his senior position of trust in the American immigration service, Schofield succumbed willingly to the princess' seductive wiles. In the way so many influential men had done before him, he found he could not resist her." On 19th May 1941, in a move that contradicted the President's specific order, Schofield released on $25,000 bail on "condition she informed the immigration service of where she was living; made no contact whatsoever with Wiedemann in San Francisco; or had any contact with any other foreign government; and gave no interviews nor made any public declarations."

Princess Stephanie and her 89 year-old mother had moved into the Raleigh Hotel in Washington. Schofield also took a room at the hotel. Schofield wrote to Stephanie: "Everything about you is new and different and gets me excited. You are the most interesting person I have ever met. You dress better than anyone else, and every time you come into a room everyone else fades out of the picture... Because of you I do so many crazy things, because I am mad about you."

On 8th December 1941, the day after Japan carried out its surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Princess Stephanie and her mother went to visit friends in Philadelphia. While leaving a cinema, Stephanie was arrested by the FBI. She was refused permission to phone Lemuel Schofield and was taken to the Gloucester Immigration Centre in New Jersey. Soon afterwards US Attorney General Francis Biddle signed an order citing that Princess Stephanie was a potential danger to public security and peace. The FBI searched her home and found the Nazi Party's Gold Medal of Honour given to her by Adolf Hitler in 1938. Her son, Prince Franz Hohenlohe, was also arrested and interned.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt was furious when he discovered that Princess Stephanie had not been deported. He wrote to J. Edgar Hoover on 17th June 1942: "Once more I have to bother you about that Hohenlohe woman. The affair verges not merely on the ridiculous, but on the disgraceful... If the immigration authorities do not stop once and for all showing favour to Hohenlohe, I will be forced to order an inquiry. The facts will not be very palatable and will go right back to her first arrest and her intimacy with Schofield. I am aware that she is interned in the Gloucester centre, but by all accounts she enjoys special privileges there. To be honest, this is all turning into a scandal that requires extremely drastic and immediate action."

The Attorney General took immediate action and transferred Princess Stephanie to a more remote internment centre, Camp Seagoville, near Dallas. Lemuel Schofield attempted to obtain special privileges for her, including the right to make telephone calls outside the camp. When this was discovered Schofield was forced to resign and he returned to New York City where he developed a successful law practice. An FBI agent reported that she was "distraught and emotional" when she heard the news. However, he added that he felt she was "a consummate actress" and her "emotions were artificial and designed to win my sympathy."

Princess Stephanie went to live with Lemuel Schofield in New York City. Every so often details of her Nazi past appeared in newspapers. In March 1947, leading newspaper columnist, Robert Ruark, with a column syndicated throughout the United States, pointed out that Princess Stephanie was a former close friend of Adolf Hitler and had been "his most trusted female spy". In July 1947 The San Francisco Examiner published a story saying that she was being feted in Long Island society: "The Princess is pretty well known locally. Not favourably. She was once an ardent and well-subsidised Nazi good-will ambassador."

They lived on a farm near Phoenixville in Pennsylvania, as man and wife.

Lemuel Schofield died of a heart attack in 1954.

Once more I have to bother you about that Hohenlohe woman. To be honest, this is all turning into a scandal that requires extremely drastic and immediate action.

After an absence of eleven years, Stephanie returned to Europe to show "Brad", as she called Schofield, her Austrian homeland. The following year the couple travelled to Europe again, this time with Schofield's two daughters. They had a chauffeur who drove them through France, Germany, Austria and Italy. Schofield's daughter Helen later married the internationally respected Hungarian historian, John Lukacs, and Stephanie was a witness at the ceremony.

On the second trip Stephanie could not resist revisiting her beloved Schloss Leopoldskron. It brought back many memories. But her home was now Anderson Place, Schofield's beautiful farm. Sadly, this happiness only lasted until 1954, when Schofield suffered a heart attack and died. He was only sixty-two.

The death of the celebrated attorney had major consequences. The Philadelphia Reporter published a lengthy story which created an uproar in the city, with its revelation that the late Lemuel B. Schofield had been evading taxes for the past six years and that the sum owed to the Internal Revenue Service, including interest, was in the region of one million dollars. The tax inspectors went to work and checked out other "prominent citizens" who had known the attorney: his family, his business partners and, of course, the woman in his life. In the course of their investigations the IRS established that since her arrival in the USA. Stephanie had earned no money at all, but that for the years 1971, 1952 and 1973 she had made no tax declaration. An initial inspection revealed unpaid taxes of $250,000.

The princess now had the guile to make a voluntary declaration, and in fact managed to show she did not have a single dollar of back taxes to pay. She claimed that her famously luxurious lifestyle was "financed by the sale of jewellery, works of art and antiques," which had been in safe keeping during her internment, some in Britain and some with her mother. In this way she had made "a few hundred dollars a month". This could well be true. And in any case, during the years which the IRS were scrutinising, she had been living with a wealthy lawyer.

In mourning after Schofield's death, the princess left that part of her life behind her, and moved to another beautiful farm. Cobble Close, near Red Bank, New Jersey. The property had originally belonged to Herbert N. Straus, owner of Macy's, the world's largest department store. Living nearby was another multimillionaire, Albert Monroe Greenfield, the richest man in Philadelphia. With him as an agreeable new lover, Stephanie would spend the next three years at Cobble Close.

King Lemuel

Concerning Proverbs chapter 31, who is King Lemuel and his mother?

Proverbs 31:2-9 [2] What, my son? and what, the son of my womb? and what, the son of my vows? [3] Give not thy strength unto women, nor thy ways to that which destroyeth kings. [4] It is not for kings, O Lemuel, it is not for kings to drink wine nor for princes strong drink: [5] Lest they drink, and forget the law, and pervert the judgment of any of the afflicted. [6] Give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish, and wine unto those that be of heavy hearts. [7] Let him drink, and forget his poverty, and remember his misery no more. [8] Open thy mouth for the dumb in the cause of all such as are appointed to destruction. [9] Open thy mouth, judge righteously, and plead the cause of the poor and needy.
See All. is introduced as the words of King Lemuel from prophecy that had been taught to him by his mother. Proverbs 31:1 The words of king Lemuel, the prophecy that his mother taught him.
See All. states, "The words of king Lemuel, the prophecy that his mother taught him." Lemuel is mentioned only in this passage in the Bible ( Proverbs 31:1 The words of king Lemuel, the prophecy that his mother taught him.
See All. , 4). This has left the door open to all kinds of speculation as to his true identity. He has been thought by interpreters to be imaginary, to be Solomon himself, to be Hezekiah, to be a Lemuel who was king of Massa (a play on the Hebrew words), or just some petty Arabian prince. In other words, no one really knows.

The name means "to God" and has the implication of "belonging to God." El (the basic name for God in Hebrew) on the end of Lemuel shows the name to be a compound of God. Personally, I think the name and context points to a poetic reference to Solomon. In Ecclesiastes, Solomon never uses his own name but presents himself seven times as the "Preacher" ( Ecclesiastes 1:1 The words of the Preacher, the son of David, king in Jerusalem.
See All. , 2, 12 7:27
See All. 12:8
See All. , 9, 10). The shift in emphasis in Proverbs would call for a different construction. Through most of Proverbs, Solomon is giving words of wisdom to his son. In Proverbs 31, King Lemuel is repeating the words of wisdom given to him by his mother.

The advice is clearly advice that Solomon needed to hear. Lemuel's mother warned her son against giving his strength unto women ( Proverbs 31:3 Give not thy strength unto women, nor thy ways to that which destroyeth kings.
See All. ). This problem directly led to Solomon's decline in later years ( 1 Kings 11:1-4 [1] But king Solomon loved many strange women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites: [2] Of the nations concerning which the LORD said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall not go in to them, neither shall they come in unto you: for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods: Solomon clave unto these in love. [3] And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines: and his wives turned away his heart. [4] For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods: and his heart was not perfect with the LORD his God, as was the heart of David his father.
See All. ). She also warned against strong drink ( Proverbs 31:4-7 [4] It is not for kings, O Lemuel, it is not for kings to drink wine nor for princes strong drink: [5] Lest they drink, and forget the law, and pervert the judgment of any of the afflicted. [6] Give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish, and wine unto those that be of heavy hearts. [7] Let him drink, and forget his poverty, and remember his misery no more.
See All. ). This is something we know Solomon toyed with from his testimony in Ecclesiastes 2:3 I sought in mine heart to give myself unto wine, yet acquainting mine heart with wisdom and to lay hold on folly, till I might see what was that good for the sons of men, which they should do under the heaven all the days of their life.
See All. --"I sought in mine heart to give myself unto wine, yet acquainting mine heart with wisdom and to lay hold on folly, till I might see what was that good for the sons of men, which they should do under the heaven all the days of their life." Finally, she twice admonished her son: "Open thy mouth" ( Proverbs 31:8 Open thy mouth for the dumb in the cause of all such as are appointed to destruction.
See All. , 9). He is to open it in the cause who cannot speak for themselves (v.8) and to judge righteously (v.9). We know of Solomon's initial hesitancy and concern in this matter of judging the people from his own testimony in 1 Kings 3:7-9 [7] And now, O LORD my God, thou hast made thy servant king instead of David my father: and I am but a little child: I know not how to go out or come in. [8] And thy servant is in the midst of thy people which thou hast chosen, a great people, that cannot be numbered nor counted for multitude. [9] Give therefore thy servant an understanding heart to judge thy people, that I may discern between good and bad: for who is able to judge this thy so great a people?
See All. . He saw himself as a child (v.7) and desired God's help to "judge this thy so great a people" (v.9).

The words are also presented as "prophecy" given to Lemuel from his mother ( Proverbs 31:2 What, my son? and what, the son of my womb? and what, the son of my vows?
See All. ). Prophecy does include the proclamation of God's truth, but it normally has at least an element of foretelling the future. If this refers to Bathsheba and she is telling Solomon how he will need to act when he is king, then it definitely includes a strong element of prophecy, for Solomon was a younger son and therefore not the natural one in line to be king. When David drew close to death and Adonijah set himself up as king, Bathsheba approached him with this plea: "My lord, thou swarest by the LORD thy God unto thine handmaid, saying, Assuredly Solomon thy son shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon my throne" ( 1 Kings 1:17 And she said unto him, My lord, thou swarest by the LORD thy God unto thine handmaid, saying, Assuredly Solomon thy son shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon my throne.
See All. ). David and Bathsheba had talked about it. The choice was to be Solomon. Bathsheba could prophesy the coming reign of her son as she spoke to the young prince Solomon.

One other internal evidence that Lemuel might be a poetic name for Solomon is in the mother's address to her son. Proverbs 31:2 What, my son? and what, the son of my womb? and what, the son of my vows?
See All. states, "What, my son? and what, the son of my womb? and what, the son of my vows?" Lemuel is the son of her vows. The first son to Bathsheba and David was a son of broken vows. Because of those broken vows, that son had to die ( 2 Samuel 12:14 Howbeit, because by this deed thou hast given great occasion to the enemies of the LORD to blaspheme, the child also that is born unto thee shall surely die.
See All. ). However, when Solomon was born, David's sin had been revealed, confessed, and forgiven. God accepted the marriage and the son Solomon.

Notice, at the birth of Solomon, the Lord loved him. Then, he is called by the "name Jedidiah, because of the LORD." This is the only occurrence of the name Jedidiah in the Bible. It means "beloved of God." Truly, Solomon was the son of Bathsheba's vows. And, the one who was "beloved of God" could also be said to be the one "belonging to God" (meaning of Lemuel). So, although the identity cannot be nailed down with absolute certainty, there is good reason to think that Solomon is here referring to himself.

File:Schofield appointed to Immigration & Naturalization Service. Washington, D.C., June 14. Attorney General Robert Jackson assumed control of the Immigration and Naturalization Service today. LCCN2016877753.tif

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You've only scratched the surface of Schofield family history.

Between 1943 and 2004, in the United States, Schofield life expectancy was at its lowest point in 1944, and highest in 1992. The average life expectancy for Schofield in 1943 was 36, and 75 in 2004.

An unusually short lifespan might indicate that your Schofield ancestors lived in harsh conditions. A short lifespan might also indicate health problems that were once prevalent in your family. The SSDI is a searchable database of more than 70 million names. You can find birthdates, death dates, addresses and more.

Five members of the 1st Wisconsin Infantry, Company C, who enlisted in 1861, were captured at the Battle of Chickamauga, and escaped together from a Confederate prison. From left to right standing: Joseph Leach and Lemuel McDonald. From left to right sitting: Chauncey S. Chapman, Thomas Anderson, and John R. Schofield. This photograph was probably taken after their escape, when they were reunited in Cincinnati at the soldiers' home there. View the original source document: WHI 33518

The 1st Wisconsin Infantry was organized into a regiment of three-month service at Camp Scott in Milwaukee, and then mustered into service on April 27, 1861. Following that it reorganized for three-year service at Camp Scott, and mustered in again on October 19, 1861.The regiment left Wisconsin for Louisville, Kentucky, October 28-31, 1861, and moved through Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia during the war.

It participated in the Battle of Chickamauga and the Siege of Atlanta, and mustered out on October 13, 1864.

The regiment lost 300 men during service. Six officers and 151 enlisted men were killed. One officer and 142 enlisted men died from disease.

View a longer history
View the roster
View a list of casualties
View original documents
View assignments to brigades, divisions, corps and armies

[Source: Estabrook, Charles E, ed. Records and sketches of military organizations: population, legislation, election and other statistics relating to Wisconsin in the period of the Civil War. (Madison, 1914?)]

Schofield Revolver: S&W’s Most Famous Top-Break

The Schofield revolver originated with the efforts of Col. George Schofield to improve the American Model Three for military usage. The American was the first cartridge revolver adopted by the military in 1870, with a purchase of 1,000. However, in 1874 the Army purchased 8,000 Colt Single Action Army models, noting a preference for their strength and simplicity. In Army tests of this era, S&W Americans and Russians passed the firing and functioning criteria, but were criticized for their complexity and number of parts. The greater ease and speed of reloading was noted, but was not given much credence as a tactical advantage. The Russian model was criticized for the awkwardness of its grip, hammer, and trigger-guard spur.

As early as 1871, Schofield had been working on improvements to the S&W American that he felt would render it more suitable for military usage. The most obvious of these consisted of changing the latch from barrel mounted to frame mounted. The Schofield model was tested and met with military approval. They requested that it be produced for the .45 Colt cartridge. S&W demurred, noting that the rim of the .45 Colt was inadequate for positive extraction in the S&W design, and no doubt considering that the cylinder and frame of the Model 3 would have to be lengthened to accommodate the long round. Instead, S&W offered to redesign the military cartridge to a .45-caliber round that would function in both types of revolvers. This was found acceptable, and 3,000 S&W Schofield’s were initially ordered in 1875. Further minor modifications were made, and an additional 5,000 in the Second Model configuration were delivered in 1877. By the end of 1877, the Army had purchased around 8,000 S&W Schofield’s, and around 15,000 Colt SAAs. A few guns were made for the civilian market, but the vast majority of Schofields were military guns.

Military Usage

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Many Schofields were issued to active units, reportedly including the 4th, 9th, and 10th Cavalry. The 4th was involved in the Geronimo campaign. The 9th and 10th comprised the famous “Buffalo Soldiers” – African American troops stationed in the American Southwest. There they fought in the Indian Wars, including campaigns against the Apaches, and served in civil disturbances such as the Lincoln County War.

Other Schofields went to state militias. New York received 2,000 in 1877 Michigan 536 in 1878 and 1879 Indiana 300 in 1878 and 1879 Territory of Washington 180 in 1882 and 1891 California at least 100 and possibly 300 in 1880 Kansas 100 in 1879 West Virginia 79 in 1878 with lesser quantities going to Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, and Tennessee. Florida, Maine, Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania received fewer than seven guns each. It’s probable that some of the guns sold to state militias had been previously issued to regular army units.

A Schofield revolver believed to have been used at the Battle of the Little Big Horn is owned by the Smithsonian Institution, although it has never been clear which side its owner was fighting on. After the annihilation of Custer and his men, there was some argument in print that the outcome might have been different had the troops been armed with Winchester repeaters and the fast loading Schofields instead of single-shot Trap doors and slow-reloading Peacemakers.

Col. Charles Pate, noted authority on S&W military revolvers, writes that the big S&W was still in use by regular army units as of 1887. Several Pate articles on Schofields will be found in the 25th Anniversary reprints of the SWCA Journal. Springfield Research Service reports that some Schofields were apparently still in service with volunteer units in 1898 during the Spanish American War. However, many had been retired earlier.

The Old West

Many of the surplus Schofield revolvers were purchased by dealers such as Bannerman and Schuyler, Hartley & Graham. They were then offered for sale, often with the barrel cut to a handier 5-inch length and the gun nickel plated to withstand the rigors of Western usage. The combination of quick reload-ability and big .45-caliber power made them popular with lawmen, outlaws, and others who were serious about their sidearms.

Schofield revolvers were reportedly favorites of the James Gang, with serial numbers 3444 and 5476 attributed to Frank James and serial number 2341 to Cole Younger. Jesse James carried serial number 366, and serial number 273 is reported to have been used by a James Gang member, possibly Jesse. Famous lawman Bill Tilghman and Frank McLowery of O.K. Corral fame are among others who are reported to have carried Schofields.

Wells Fargo

It’s estimated that several hundred Schofields with the cut down 5-inch barrels were purchased by Wells Fargo to arm its messengers. The guns were marked by the company on the right side of the under barrel ejector housing by stamping over the Schofield patent. The marking reads “W.F. & COS EX” along with a re-stamping of the guns serial number. The S was dropped from the company name in 1898, and guns are found marked both ways, suggesting the period of use. It’s believed that all authentic Wells Fargo Schofields known to date have serial numbers under 6000. Schofield serial number 1 was among those used by Wells Fargo.

Variations of Wells Fargo markings believed to be authentic on these Schofield revolver examples, top to bottom. 1) Late italic, singular “CO.” company marking, with small type numerals. Wells Fargo repeated the gun’s serial number as their company number 2) Early block letter, plural “CO’S” companies marking with medium size numerals. 3) Early companies marking with largest size numerals.

Three different sizes of numerals have been reported in the Wells Fargo serial number markings. Most common is the small size, about the same size as the company name abbreviation. A medium size was reportedly marked by the Chicago office, with a large size numeral being the scarcest.

Unfortunately, whenever a relatively simple marking adds interest and value to a gun, there is a temptation to forgery. This is the case with Wells Fargo Schofields, with faked markings not uncommon. A quick tip off to some fakes is the stamping of the company name. It is believed that on all authentic WF guns a line stamp was used. W.F. & CO EX stamped in uneven individual letters should raise immediate suspicion. The numerals in the stamping, on the other hand, were individually stamped, and their spacing may be uneven.

San Francisco Police

Schofields are sometimes found with a large two- or three-digit number, usually under 300, stamped on the backstrap. These have been called “San Francisco Police” Schofields. It is believed that these guns were shipped to San Francisco at the time of the Sandlot Riots, and eventually wound up with the California militia. An article by Charles Pate in Man at Arms magazine discusses this variation.

Smith & Wesson Model No. 3 Schofield

In service: 1870-1898

Type: Single action cartridge revolver

Caliber: .45 Schofield

The S&W Schofield Model 3 revolver. Remington Model 1858

In 1870, the U.S. Army adopted a new type of revolver, the .44 S&W American caliber Smith & Wesson Model 3, making it the first standard-issue metallic cartridge-firing revolver in U.S. military service.

Until then, every issued sidearm was a cap-and-ball revolver, which were incredibly slow to reload, even with paper cartridges, and susceptible to weather and moisture of all kinds. The use of metallic cartridges that contained the propellant, projectile, and primer made revolvers more durable and reliable, as the tight fit of the components often prevented moisture from getting to the powder and soldiers didn’t have to deal with paper cartridges, or loose powder, in the rain. Their use also made reloads exponentially faster and easier.

The Model 3 was a top-break revolver. A catch under the rear sight on top of the frame held the gun together while in use. For reloading, the catch was released and the cylinder and barrel swung forward on a hinge located in front of the trigger guard. This meant that all six chambers could be accessed at the same time, and that lighting-fast reloads were suddenly possible.

The drawback of any top-break design is that it limits the strength of the frame to the strength of the locking mechanism, and if that mechanism isn’t up to snuff, the gun can come apart when fired.

The Model 3s made for the Army were dubbed S&W Schofield Model 3 because they incorporated design improvements suggested by Major George W. Schofield, mostly to the locking system. The Schofield Model 3 had a reputation for reliability, with some continuing in service until the Spanish-American War and the Philippine-American War.

The revolver was originally supposed to fire the .45 Colt ammo that was already in service by 1875, but S&W instead developed their own, slightly shorter .45 caliber round dubbed the .45 Schofield or the .45 S&W.

Both cartridges would work in the newer Colt Single Action Army pistol, but they weren’t interchangeable in the Schofield. Consequently, the Army attempted to move to the .45 Schofield as its standard cartridge, but large stocks of .45 Long Colt ammo and political pressure eventually caused the Army to drop the use of most of its Schofields and continue with the Colt SAA.

The Schofield gained massive popularity throughout the U.S. and was reportedly used by such famous characters as Jesse James, Robert Ford (who used one to kill James), John Wesley Hardin, Pat Garrett, Theodore Roosevelt, Virgil Earp, Billy the Kid, and many others. A Smith & Wesson No. 3 revolver was used by Wyatt Earp during the famous OK Corral Gunfight.

One of the most notable non-military purchasers of the Schofield was Wells Fargo and Company, who purchased the revolvers for use by Wells Fargo Road Agents. They had the barrels shortened from 7.5 inches to a more manageable and concealable 5 inches.

Oddly enough, Lieutenant Colonel Schofield shot himself on December 17, 1882 with an S&W Schofield revolver, after suffering a bout of “mental illness, stress, and isolation.”

In The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford (2007), Ford (Casey Afleck) accurately uses a Schofield to shoot Jesse James (Brad Pitt). photo from imfdb.org web photo

Lemuel Amzi Donnell was born in Tennessee on March 6, 1839. Like so many other Missouri settlers, the Donnell’s family moved to Missouri from Tennessee before 1850 in search of new land. Calvin and Martha Donnell, Lemuel’s parents, started a farm and raised their five children. Donnell still lived with his parents in Hickory County, Missouri in 1860. He studied Theology before enlisting in the Missouri State Guard on August 20. Donnell was elected 1st Lieutenant of Company F, 4th Infantry Regiment, 8th Division, Missouri State Guard. After the Battle of Wilson’s Creek (August 10, 1861) the Missouri State Guard marched north to Lexington, MO and laid siege to the town from September 13 through 20. Donnell recorded in his diary that his company had a leave of absence during that time and was in camp at Warsaw, Missouri, 90 miles from Lexington.

Donnell’s company spent several days drilling and preparing themselves for life as a soldier. He equated himself “as ignorant of military tactics as an Ouran Outang is of a cotillion, or an Esquimaux is of an Indian war-dance.” Camp life did not sit well with Donnell. He wrote, “I find camp life very unpleasant, in consequence of bad diet, and irregular meals, as none knew much about cooking.” Company F received orders to rejoin the main body of the Missouri State Guard after the Siege at Lexington. They met Sterling Price and the rest of the guardsmen near Greenfield, Missouri.

As far as I could see the face of the earth was covered with tents. Some of the men were cooking, some reading, some playing, some lounging around, while others were engaged in various industries or idleness as suited their convenience. It was an interesting scene to me, being a novice in this business.

Lemuel Donnell Diary – October 4, 1861

Donnell was astonished that Price retreated southward after his victory at Lexington, not realizing that the Missouri State Guard was heavily pursued by Federal Forces from Jefferson City. Eleven days later the Missouri State Guard marched to Neosho, where they remained for the duration of the Neosho Convention. Donnell wrote, “We come to Neosho, where Gov [Claiborne F.] Jackson convened the Legislature, which after some days of deliberation declared in favor of secession and elected members to represent Missouri in the Congress of the Confederate States.” Legislators gathered at the Newton County Courthouse in Neosho on October 21, and passed an ordinance of secession.

After the Neosho Convention, Donnell’s company marched through several towns in Southwest Missouri, and was permitted to return to Hickory County to “drive the ‘Home Guards’ out of the county.” Donnell’s company reached Springfield, Missouri around December 30, 1861. There, they erected tents in the snow and endured the bitter cold. The Missouri State Guard occupied Springfield until mid February, before they were forced to retreat from the town by Federal troops. Springfield was a crucial strategic position, as it served as a supply distribution center for Southwest Missouri and Northern Arkansas. General Samuel R. Curtis’s Army advanced down the wire road determined to engage Confederate forces yet again. Price abandoned his position in Springfield on February 12, and retreated southward to join forces with Benjamin McCulloch in Arkansas. “The Federals cause us to retreat towards the South by hard marching day and night, fighting almost daily in the near, passing through Cassville, Keytsville, Mo, Mudtown, Fayetteville and Cane Hill in Arkansas.” The Missouri State Guard joined McCulloch’s forces who were encamped south of the Boston Mountains. On March 4, the Confederates began their march north to meet the Union Army.

The Confederate’s rapid advance exhausted their infantry. Donnell noted he had one biscuit for breakfast and nothing for dinner during the march. He ate nothing on March 6, when they finally reached the outskirts of Bentonville. On March 7, the 8th Division Missouri State Guard moved north to engage the Union line. “The engagement lasts till sunset just before sunset we lay for ½ hour in front of our battery till it selanced the enemy’s battery & then we charge the enemy, capturing their Commissaries, and many prisoners.” Among the captured prisoner’s was one of Donnell’s cousins, Sam Reynolds. Donnell and the rest of the 8th Division slept on the battlefield and resumed the engagement the following morning. The Confederates withdrew from the battlefield and retreated towards Van Buren. Company F was discharged from the Missouri State Guard, and Donnell re-enlisted in Company H of the 6th Infantry Regiment, 8th Division, Missouri State Guard.

After the Battle of Pea Ridge, Confederate Commanders transferred the majority of their forces east of the Mississippi River. Donnell and his company were transported to Memphis to assist with the Battle of Shiloh. He learned that his brother, Alexander L. Donnell, was very ill and visited him in the hospital. Lemuel remained in the hospital until Alexander died around May 24, 1862. He was buried in Elmwood Cemetery in Memphis, Tennessee. Donnell’s service term expired in early June 1862 and he received pay for his service and his brothers. He then reenlisted in the 11th Missouri Infantry. Donnell spent the remainder of the War with this company, which as he stated, seemed like a life time.

While on furlough in Carroll County, Arkansas Donnell and John W. Murray were captured at Huntsville, Arkansas by Federal Scouts and taken to Cassville, MO and then to Springfield. He was eventually released and traveled home. During that time, his father was killed on September 15, 1862 by the Missouri Home Guards, or as Donnell called them, “Home Despoilers,’ in the name of the US.” Donnell remained in Hickory County until early October when he decided to return to the 11th Missouri Infantry, camped in Benton County, Arkansas. Donnell noted he received another pass to visit family in Texas, and began a five month absence from the military. He spent the entire time in Texas visiting family and doing various jobs. He returned to the 11th Missouri Infantry on February 26, 1863 and reported for duty to Company D at Little Rock, Arkansas. Donnell compared service in the Missouri State Guard to the regular Confederate Army. “I find the regular Confederate service much better regulated and disciplined, in as much as we drill 4 hours almost daily, except for Sundays, when we have preaching or other religious service.”

Donnell marched throughout Arkansas in the spring of 1863. On June 10, he became very ill, and “so reduced in flesh I can scarcely walk.” Ten days later, the Regiment marched towards Helena, Arkansas, but Donnell was so ill that he left his company and traveled 8 miles into the country side. He ate a diet of vegetables and rapidly improved. He started his returned to the Army on June 28th, which held a defensive position in Helena. Donnell stayed outside of Helena on June 3, the following morning he was woken by the sound of cannon fire. The battle waged and eventually on July 4 the Union Army claimed victory. Donnell rejoined the 11 Missouri Infantry on July 5, as the Regiment retreated from the town. Donnell and the 11th Missouri Infantry took position near Little Rock and prepared for the Federal’s advance. “Breastworks completed, consisting of 2 ditches 4 ft wide & deep and 12 ft apart, and dirt thrown between extending from the river below to Camp Anderson above. We now wish an attack to be made as we believe we could withstand any number.” However, the 11 Missouri Infantry retreated from their position, much to the dislike of Donnell and his regiment. Donnell spent several following weeks traveling across Arkansas with the regiment drilling and preparing winter quarters. He made one visit to family in late January 1864, and was gone for nine days. In February, Donnell joined the Knights of the Golden Circle, which he defined as “a secret order of Southern sympathizers in the North during the war.” At the meeting, Donnell noted they discussed how they might recognize each other in battle.

In March 1864, the 11th Missouri Infantry marched south into Louisiana to support Confederate troops against Union General Nathaniel Bank’s Red River Expedition. Donnell noted several towns and the total number of miles marched during each day. The 11th Missouri Infantry participated in the Battle of Pleasant Hill in Louisiana, and Donnell’s company suffered minimal casualties (1 killed, 4 wounded). Following the battle, the 11th Missouri Infantry returned north to Arkansas, and Donnell recorded activities at Camden, Arkansas and Jenkins Ferry. Donnell wrote about Jenkins Ferry,

Battle began at 8 o’clock A.M. and lasts till 1 o’clock P.M. The engagement took place in the low lands on the river almost entirely under water and rained all the time of the battle, and Gen’l [Edmund K.] Smith said the hardest small arm firing he ever heard. Three in Co “D” were slightly wounded in this engagement.

Lemuel Donnell Diary – April 30, 1864

Donnell noted he traveled 500 miles in little over a month and participated in two battles. The 11th Missouri Infantry was exhausted, and the spent most of May marching across southern Arkansas. Towards the end of his diary Donnell began reciting poetry, including an acrostic poem about camp life. He used the alphabet to describe activities around camp, and ended the poem with,

Let all who read these lines of mine
E’er think there’s truth in every line
Much more than this may yet be true
Unless there’s drill or something else to do.
Even if they should not know the author’s name
Let me tell them how they may find the same

Let the first letter of of each line be combined
And in the word my name you shall find


Lemuel Donnell Diary – June 10, 1864

Summer of 1864 was fairly uneventful for Donnell. He noted most of his time was in camp, and finally in August 1864 he noted marching orders for the regiment. They traveled across southern Arkansas, and noted Prices leave for Missouri. “Gen’l Price has taken all the Cavalry and gone to Missouri, and we are left alone without pickets.”
He later wrote,

Gen’l Price, with the cavalry, has made a successful raid as far North as Jefferson City in Missouri, thence West to Kansas, thence back to the army again, and having come to town (Shreveport) last night almost the entire brigade went to serenade him. He bears the appellation of “Old Pap” and “Grand Pap” to signify that we esteem him as our father in war, and the high regard we have always entertained for him.

Lemuel Donnell Diary – March 25, 1865

Donnell reported that he received a 44 day furlough on November 30, 1864 and started on foot for Texas. He traveled approximately 180 miles to his uncle’s home in Wood County, Texas. Donnell visited several family members in Texas before beginning his voyage back to the army. He entered Camp Bragg on January 14, 1865 and wrote, “having walked the greater portion of the way through mud & water and barefooted too. I was in good condition to appreciate a good rest, even with hard dirt, and after one day’s rest resume my old business of making details for camp duty.”

The remainder of the war was calm for Donnell. He wrote poems in his diary and recorded his perspective of camp life as a soldier. He noted President Abraham Lincoln’s assassination, and commented that Ford’s Theater was “an unseemly place for a Christian President to be killed.” He wrote about the surrender of the Trans-Mississippi Theater, and General Price’s farewell to his troops. “Price return to-day [from New Orleans], paroled, and bid us adieu, and has gone to his family in Texas, and from thence to Mexico.” Donnell dedicated the following poem to his comrades:

Comrades! Order arms.
Now stack your arms,
This conflict has no further charms
Surrender is the word we hear.
From foremost van-guard to the rear.
Here let us pause and drop a tear,
For the lost cause we loved so dear
With down bowed heads and saddened hearts,
Till its silent shade departs.
Four years ago you heard the call
To patriotic men and all
You shouldered arms and marched away
Like gallant soldiers to the fray.
We had “Old Pap” then for our guide
To-day he still is by our side.
He loved us then, he loves us still.
As witness many a battle field.
Now muffle the “drum” we’ll need no more.
The “Long Roll” beat, when cannons roar:
Neither “Tattoo,” nor the loved “Retreat,”
Nor “Revellie” to rouse us up from sleep.
Now place the “Fife” here with our arms
We need no more its music’s charms
And “Dixie” too our native air
To chant or sing, we must forbear
And now break ranks, and let us go.
To homes once dear four years ago
Be this our motto all through life
We’ll ne’er engage in deadly strife

Lemuel Donnell Diary – June 4, 1865

On June 21, 1865, the 11th Missouri Infantry turned in their arms, boarded a steamboat for St. Louis, marched to Schofield Barracks, and were paroled.

This closes my record as a soldier, and I return to the quiet, and much more desirable, pursuits of civil life, having served as a soldier 4 years, lacking two months, being 26 years, 3 months & 15 days old.

Lemuel Donnell Diary – June 21, 1865

Throughout his diary, Donnell provided his perspective of camp life and “the business of soldiering.” His distaste for rough living conditions did not change yet, he learned to endure the conditions in his four years of service. Also interesting is the frequency he received “furloughs.” The timing and duration of Donnell’s leave seems contradictory to most soldiers’ experiences during the War. He missed several engagements and was gone for multiple weeks on end, which leads one to question the authenticity his furloughs. Desertion was common during the Civil War, particularly among the Missouri State Guard. Perhaps Donnell truly did received numerous furloughs but if they were indeed unexcused absences, then he conceivably documented them as issued leave to protect his honor for all of history to remember.

View this collection

  1. Lemuel Amzi Donnell, Lemuel Donnell Diary, Aug. 1861 – Jul. 1865. S-89-114-67. Shiloh Museum of Ozark History, Springdale, Arkansas, Page 1, http://mdh.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/mack&CISOPTR=4187&REC=1&CISOSHOW=4187 . S-89-114-67. Shiloh Museum of Ozark History, Springdale, Arkansas. . S-89-114-67. Shiloh Museum of Ozark History, Springdale, Arkansas. . S-89-114-67. Shiloh Museum of Ozark History, Springdale, Arkansas.
  2. A Samuel Reynolds served in the 8th Indiana Infantry, and that regiment was at the position overrun by the 8th Division, Missouri State Guard. . S-89-114-67. Shiloh Museum of Ozark History, Springdale, Arkansas. . S-89-114-67. Shiloh Museum of Ozark History, Springdale, Arkansas. . S-89-114-67. Shiloh Museum of Ozark History, Springdale, Arkansas. . S-89-114-67. Shiloh Museum of Ozark History, Springdale, Arkansas. . S-89-114-67. Shiloh Museum of Ozark History, Springdale, Arkansas. . S-89-114-67. Shiloh Museum of Ozark History, Springdale, Arkansas. . S-89-114-67. Shiloh Museum of Ozark History, Springdale, Arkansas. . S-89-114-67. Shiloh Museum of Ozark History, Springdale, Arkansas. . S-89-114-67. Shiloh Museum of Ozark History, Springdale, Arkansas. . S-89-114-67. Shiloh Museum of Ozark History, Springdale, Arkansas.

©2009-2021 Springfield-Greene County Library District. All Rights Reserved. Site by Schilling/Sellmeyer.

Commissioners and Directors

The Immigration Act of 1891 stated that a Superintendent of Immigration would oversee federal immigration law under the Department of the Treasury. An 1895 law changed the title of Superintendent to Commissioner General of immigration. This title remained the same in 1903 when Congress approved the transfer of immigration work to the newly created Department of Commerce and Labor and upgraded the Office of Immigration to the Bureau of Immigration.

In 1906, after citizenship policy became a federal responsibility, the Commissioner of Immigration headed a combined Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization. This continued until 1913, when the Bureau transferred to the new Department of Labor and divided into two separate bureaus: The Bureau of Immigration, under direction of the Commissioner General of Immigration and the Bureau of Naturalization, under direction of the Commissioner of Naturalization. In 1933 an Executive Order again combined the two Bureaus forming the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), led by a Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization.

News Inside

“I don’t care what their defense is,” he said. “They are guilty and they are going to get the limit.”

“It is certainly not your practice to pre-determine the guilt of a defendant in a criminal case,”said Capone’s lawyer. “I am only asking that these men be given a fair opportunity to prove their case. They were certainly entitled to a fair trial, and you know, in the presence of this mob, with the newspaper agitation, the presence of the Director of Public Safety, all the assistant district attorneys, and all these policemen, that these men cannot receive a fair trial today.”

“I told you to go to trial, now go to trial!” the judge retorted. “This case will be tried now, defense or no defense.”

Anyone who has stood before a fulminating judge, and surely Capone’s lawyers had, understood this to be the final word in the exchange. There would be no continuance, no witnesses for the defense, a hostile judge, and a jury well-informed of Capone’s reputation. Even then the lawyers struggled to decide how to proceed, but finally the decision was made that the men should plead guilty. The judge, good to his word, immediately sentenced both men to the maximum one year incarceration. There was nothing left to do but appeal.

A month and a half later, the lawyers were back in Courtroom 650 seeking a new, and fair, trial for Al Capone. He was now represented by a congressman from Philadelphia, Benjamin Golder, who had specifically requested that his client be brought from jail to attend the hearing but the judge, having seen first hand the havoc created by Capone’s presence in a courtroom, denied the request. Golder took an exception to the judge’s ruling, to which the judge responded, “I grant you that exception, all the exceptions you want.” It didn’t take a fortune teller to portend that things might not go Capone’s way.

The hearing itself was remarkable for its honesty. Magistrate Carney testified and pulled no punches, going so far as to say that he took the actions he took “to railroad them.” This comment irritated the judge, who interrupted Carney to ask him why he was “volunteering” information. Carney’s apologetic response was that he didn’t “mean to be insulting.”

As for the Honorable John E. Walsh, he defended his behavior as well. When confronted with the affidavits the two defense attorneys had written about their representation of Capone, Walsh agreed that their narratives were accurate—except for the accusation that he had prejudged the case: “That I cannot stand. All the other parts I will agree are true. What about it?”

The district attorney was aghast at what his former law partner had just conceded:

“But Your Honor cannot admit those facts to be true? He wants you to include the fact that everybody in the courtroom was pointing a finger at the defendant, calling him “murderer.” Your Honor certainly does not admit that to be true. This courtroom was regularly and properly conducted, and I heard nothing here detrimental to this defendant, nor was he accorded any other insults from the audience or anybody else that anybody could complain of. Certainly Your Honor does not admit those facts contained in the affidavit?

Judge Walsh did not back away from his admission rather, he saw nothing wrong with the way he had conducted the proceedings. “The Court still feels in its conscience that it made no error,” he declared.

Capone’s attorneys attempted some further appeals, but no higher court ever addressed the circumstances of the arrest or guilty plea. It was reported that he closely followed his own coverage in the newspapers, and that references to himself as a “killer” would “arouse his ire.” Although he was transferred to several different prisons to serve his sentence, his time passed without significant consequence. He suffered tonsillitis, he pitched for the prison baseball team, he minded his own business, and on March 17, 1930 he was released from custody. He had served exactly 10 months in jail, saving himself two months incarceration by good behavior.

Capone was in a hurry to leave Philadelphia, and a few days after his release he was back in Chicago. He told the press he wasn’t staying, however: “I need the sunshine for a month or two. I shall take a little trip to Florida after I get things straightened out here. You see, I haven’t had much sunshine for the last 10 months.” This prompted the governor of Florida—who quite clearly had been paying attention to developments in Philadelphia—to telegraph all 67 sheriffs in the state that Capone was to be arrested and escorted to the state’s border should he attempt to return to his residence. But Capone’s lawyers had been paying attention as well. They sent an immediate telegram to the governor:

We would respectfully request you to advise us under and by what authority you or the sheriffs of the state may seize and banish from this state a citizen of the United States who is not charged with any crime…Is constitutional government still in existence in Florida, and if it is, are you cognizant of the oath you have taken to support, protect and defend the constitutions of the United States and of Florida? Lawlessness is no way to combat lawlessness.

A federal judge agreed with his lawyers, and imposed a restraining order stopping the sheriffs from “transporting, banishing or expelling” Capone from Florida without the authority of the law. This did not stop the Miami police from arresting him four times for vagrancy, a law that had been rewritten to allow anyone known or suspected of being a “crook [or] gangster” to be arrested on sight. Capone was harassed in this way until, a year and a half after leaving a Philadelphia jail, he was convicted of income tax evasion and went to federal prison. He eventually succumbed to syphilis, and died 71 years ago at the age of 48. In the end, Capone’s notoriety and larger-than-life status proved not to be his salvation, but his undoing.

And of course, those men who besieged and incarcerated Capone—Deputy-Inspector Connelly, Magistrate Carney, his prosecutors, Judge John E. Walsh—are dead as well, as is the Florida governor. They rounded him up, denied him bail, pursued his prosecution in a forum that resembled less an American courtroom than a star chamber and then barred him from entering a state because of who he was. Not exactly what the Founding Fathers had in mind.

Almost 90 years later, two lessons are evident from the Philadelphia experience. The first—that we can bring down even the most powerful racketeer if we simply deprive him of his constitutional rights—is alive and well. In the past year a former sheriff from Arizona, who had gained a certain amount of celebrity by conducting “sweeps” of random cars to find illegal immigrants, and was then found in contempt for his refusal to stop racial profiling of Latinos, has been pardoned by the president. The Attorney General of the United States has endorsed an aggressive stop-and-frisk policy that only five years ago a federal judge declared unconstitutional by endorsing this quote: “The idea of universal suspicion without individual evidence is what Americans find abhorrent.” And the President has advocated the rough treatment of those accused of crime (“Please don’t be too nice”), condemned legal immigration to the United States from “shithole countries,” and declared an Indiana-born federal judge unfair because he was a “Mexican.” It is the world we now live in, and it is not so very far from 1929 as we might think. But the second lesson from the Capone case is more enduring and justice, always a slow learner, would be well served to remember it: lawlessness is no way to combat lawlessness.

Marc Bookman is co-Director of the Atlantic Center for Capital Representation, a nonprofit specializing in death penalty cases.

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