Larthia Seianti

Larthia Seianti

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The sarcophagus of the noble lady Larthia Seianti, from the necropolis of Poggio Cantarello, Chiusi, Siena province, Italy

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Larthia Seianti - History

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The National Archeological Museum of Florence, located in Florence’s Palazzo della Crocetta, dates to the age-old art collections of the Medici and Lorraine families. The structure displays treasured Etruscan and Roman artifacts from archeological digs in Tuscany, not to mention its beautiful Egyptian and Greek collections. The museum’s central thread concerns the Etruscans: the topic was of much interest to Cosimo the Elder de’ Medici in the 14th century, but it wasn’t until Cosimo I that the current collections were assembled, later expanded by his successors (including Cardinal Leopold).

Here, you can admire the Chimera of Arezzo, one of the most famous works of Etruscan art, a mythological bronze figure found near Arezzo in 1553. And don’t miss the Arrigantore, a statue dating to the 1st century that presents an Etruscan nobleman dressed in a Roman toga. This statue was also found in the 16th century near Lake Trasimeno. The museum also houses the Etruscan bronze Minerva of Arezzo, the Greek Sarcophagus of the Amazons and Larthia Seianti’s sarcophagus, a colored terracotta work from Chiusi displaying a noblewoman as she adjusts her veil. Besides these famous pieces, you won’t want to miss the museum’s wealth of gold jewelry and garden, a space featuring Etruscan tomb reproductions, including the Inghirami tomb in Volterra vaunting its original alabaster urns.

On the palace’s first floor you’ll find the Egyptian Museum, a part of the Archeological Museum complex. The second-largest Egyptian collection in Italy (after Turin), it displays vases, portraits, bas-reliefs (such as a piece featuring the goddess Maat), goblets, sarcophagi, statuettes and an array of objects from everyday life.


Women about to bathe, bronze mirror cover

Hera, goddess of marriage and the ability to procreate, and Venus, goddess of the youthful and virginal beauty that attracts the male gaze and gives sexual pleasure, symbolize the twin cultural expectations of women's bodies from the perspective of the elite Roman male. Roman history bears witness to the fact that women's bodies were not their own but, lying at the intersection of public interest as they did, were constitutionally entrusted to males to regulate and administer for the good of the state. Body is at the crux of male and female biological and cultural difference, thus setting conservative gender and sex role ideals that make female silence nearly impenetrable. Numerous examples testify to the impact of the female body on civic well being: the rape of the Sabine women and its result in new citizens the rape of Lucretia which ended the monarchy the arranged marriage of Julia which brought Caesar and Pompey into an alliance, while her death in childbirth -- all too common an occurrence for women in antiquity -- caused its dissolution. Female fertility and health were of concern for Romans as they affected family life (see the occupation of midwifery, the practice of medicine in connection with menarche, pregnancy and birth, and extant gynecological writings). Despite the advice for women's health issues to be found in medical texts and the writings of Cato the Elder, Columella, and Pliny the Elder, it is probable that women --slaves, family, friends -- and folk medicine/magic were more significant to their bodily care. Women's sexuality, however, of interest principally to Roman writers of satire, elegy, and genres of invective, was targeted as the source of transgressive female behavior. Augustus proposed laws that awarded coveted personal and civic privileges to women who produced three children. Seneca (c. 4 BCE–65 CE) praises his mother for being unashamed of her fertility, unlike most women of the time who hid the effect of pregnancy on their appearance or resorted to abortion (ad Helviam 16.3). Tacitus (56–117 CE), contrasting the common practice of Roman mothers, at least among the upper classes, of giving their newborn children to wet-nurses, praises German women for breast-feeding their own children (Germania 20). In matters of adornment and dress, women claimed the right of visual self-expression from the time of their fierce opposition to the Lex Oppia (215 BCE), a regulation limiting women's public display. Beginning with Livia and Octavia, imperial women set the fashion for hairstyles, visible on statues and coins, for women of all classes to emulate, as portraits on funerary monuments illustrate. Although in practice women gained greater control over their persons and destiny during the Empire, before the law their bodies remained subject to male oversight. For more on the topic, see Braund & Gold (1998), Caldwell (2015), Dixon (2001), Edmondson & Keith (2008), Flemming (2000), Kapparis (2001), Koloski-Ostrow & Lyons (1997), Olson (2008), Pandey (2018), Richlin (2014), Sebesta (2001) in the Bibliography, Stephens' Ancient Hairstyles Recreation, and Images of the World of Body: Clothing, Hairstyles, Jewelry, Cosmetics, Health.

The link between Castiglione and Perugia was severed in 1550 by Pope Julius III. He was born at Monte San Savino, a small town in the Tuscan section of Val di Chiana and for a time he lived at Montepulciano, a larger town still in Tuscan Val di Chiana where Antonio da Sangallo the Elder built a fine palace for him. Pope Julius III, following the steps of his predecessor Pope Paul III who managed to provide his relatives with many possessions, obtained the fiefdom of Monte San Savino for his brother Baldovino from Cosimo I, Duke of Florence and he assigned Castiglione and its territory to his sister Jacopa and her son Ascanio della Corgna.

Larthia Seianti - History

and women who
acted as regents
of Kingdoms and Empires
from the year BCE 1200
Female rulers of principalities, duchies, counties, baronies are not included

Around 1200 Legendary Q ueen Camilla of Lathium (United Kingdom)
Ruled of one of the British tribes.

After the murder of Frana in 586 BCE, the people wanted the "borugh maid " Adela to be their new Earth Mother , but she refused because she wished to resign from her citadel and marry, which she did. For the next thirty years no Mother could be elected because each state supported the its own Maiden. More land was lost to the Magy of the Finns and Magyars but not by conquest of arms. He used propaganda on children and bribes on the nobles, promising them permanent hereditary offices with special privileges. These were long term plans that undermined the very foundation of Friesland society. During Adela&rsquos unofficial reign, nobles were then being mentioned but the meaning of such offices was changing. A count took the public inventory he counted, initially the market sales which were taxed and the profits of the ships which were shared and later on, the military levy of armed men. It eventually became a position of privilege, even an hereditary one. A duke was a hearer of disputes like a local judge and it has already been mentioned that a king was an elected short-term commander.

Before 512 Queen Hypsipyle of Lemnos (Greece)
In the ancient realm of myth there is the account that in prehistoric times the island Lemnos was only inhabited by women. This island was called gynaikokratumene, which means reigned by women. In the Greek myth about the Argonauts , a group of men comes to this island on their way to the land of Colchis (in the East of the Black Sea) , which was ruled by Hypsipyle . These women of Lemnos lived as self-confident Amazons on this island, their aim of life was not focused on fighting against men. It is likely that this myth reflects former matriarchal life on this island.
Before 512 Queen Hypsipyle of Lemnos (Greece)
Circa 480 Queen and Admiral Artemisia I of Caria-Harlikarnassos and Kos (Turkey)
As a vassal of Persia, Artemisia was obliged to recruit her own small force when Xerxes invaded Greece - in fact, Artemisia commanded five ships in her own right. Artemisia alone of his commanders advised Xerxes against a naval battle with the Greeks but Xerxes, however, chose to follow the advice of his male advisors, and met the Greeks on the sea in the channel of Salamis on 20th September 480 BCE. Artemisia was aboard one of her ships, commanding their movements. After the initial confusion, the Persians took the offensive. Though she only had one ship left, Artemisia herself disabled the ship of King Damasithymus of Calynda. At a council, Artmesia spoke her mind - she had opposed the war from the beginning and opposed its continuation. She advised Xerxes to leave his trusted commander Mardonus to pursue the Greeks whilst Xerxes himself return home, and would still maintained his dignity whether in victory or defeat. For her wisdom, Xerxes entrusted Artemisia with the care on his sons, and returned home to a kingdom racked by rebellion and conspiracy, to which he ultimately became a victim. Her kingdom prospering from her good relations with Persia.
Around 401 Joint Ruler Queen Epyaxa of Cilicia (Turkey)
She is known from references to her in Xenophon's Persian Expedition, where she gives considerable aid to the rebel Cyrus. The comments about her do not explicitly state that she was a co-ruler with Syennesis III, simply that she was "Queen" - but she acted in a very independent fashion.
Years 400 Military Leader Telessilla, of Argos (Greece)
A warrior poet, she rallied the women of the besieged city of Argos with war hymns and chants and led them in defending the city against the invading forces.
Circa 353-50 Queen Artemisia II of Caria, Rodhos and Harlikarnassos (Turkey)
Also Satrap of Asia Minor or Vice-Reine of the Persian King. Circa 377-53 she had been co-ruler with her husband and brother, King Mausolos of Caria and Rodhos, who died 353. After Mausolos' death in 353, she became ruler in her own right, and constructed the 49 meters high monumental tomb "Mausoleum" at the center of the city which is a magnificent piece of art in the Hellenistic world and one of the Seven Wonders of the antique era.
344-30 Regent Queen Cleopatra of Macedonia of Epirus (Greece)
Sister of Alexander the Great, Married to Alexander of Epirus. In 309 she was murdered.
340-35 and 334-20 Queen Ada I of Caria (Turkey)
Co-ruler with her brother and husband Idrieus in succession to their sister, Artemissa II. After his death she ruled alone for three years until her younger brother, Pixadarus (341-335), deposed her. She moved to her fortress Alinda, where she held out for several years. His daughter, Ada II, married a persian nobleman, Orontobates, who became satrap of Caria. Even after the death of Pixodarus, her son-in-law kept her a prisoner in Alinda. Seizing the opportunity afforded by Alexander&rsquos invasion, Ada I opened negotiations with him offering the surrender of all of Caria if she were placed upon her rightful throne. She further offered to adopt him as her son making him at once the legal heir to the throne of Caria by Carian law. Alexander turned inland to face the armies of Orontobates and Memnon who stood ready to defend Halicarnassus. The siege was a short one as Alexander&rsquos army was joined by the Carian forces loyal to their Queen and with Ada at the head of her armies given the honor of taking the acropolis. Though Orontobates and Memnon escaped by sea, Ada sat again on the throne of Halicarnassus and stayed there until her death sometime after the death of Alexander.
334-circa 323 Regent Princess Barsine of Persia of Pergamon (Turkey)
Ruled in the name of her and Alexander the Great's son Herakles. She was the daughter of king Artabazos IV of Syria. Barsine was married to Mentor, her second husband was her brother Dariusz Memnon, since 333 she was the wife of Alexander the Great.
334-330 Co-Regent Queen Olympias of Epiros (Greece)
330-323 Regent of Epiros

323-16 Regent Dowager Queen of Macedonia (Greece)
Since around 357 she was married to king Philip II of Macedonia, and she later acted as regent for him during his military campaigns. Since 331 she was in exile in Epiros. After her brother's death in 330, with her daughter Cleopatra, she was regent of Epirus for her grandson Neoptolemos. Since 323 she was regent of Macedonia for her second grandson Alexander IV. Murdered during a rebellion and lived (375-316).
Until early the 300's Queen Regnant Tirghetau of Circassia (Russia)
She was head of the region in the foothills north of the Caucasus. Its inhabitants, a sturdy, handsome folk with many often rapacious neighbors, have developed a warrior culture as a response to repeated invasions and slaving raids.
322-317 Politically influential Queen Eurydice II of Macedonia
319-317 Co-Ruler of Macedonia (Greece)
Daughter of Kynane and Amyntas IV of Macedonia, and influential during the reign of her husband, king Philippos III Arrhidaeus of Macedonia. 319-317 de facto co-ruler of Macedonia with Nicanor. She fought for the power with Olympias. Killed in 317. She lived (337-317).
322-287 Politically influential Queen Phila of Macedonia
294-287 Co-Ruler of Macedonia (Greece)
The daughter of Antipater I, regent of Macedonia. She was influential during the reigns of her husbands Crateros ( 322-319) and Demetrius I (319-287), and was active in diplomacy until she killed herself in 287.
314-13 Ruler Kratesipolis of Korinthos and Siyon (Greece)
In 308 she handed over Korinthos to Ptolomy I of Egypt.
306-285 Regent Dowager Queen Amastris of Herakleia, Pontica and Pontos (Turkey)
Pontos is also known as or Pontoiraklaia. She was a niece of Dariusz III Kodoman, she was married to tyrant Dionizos, Krateros and since 300 to Lysimachus, king of Thrace and Macedonia, whom she divorced in 298 and returned Herakleia. After her death Lysimachus give Herakleia to Arsinoe II. Amastris lived (?-285).
Around 300 Celtic Chiefess in Reinheim (Germany)
Known from her very elaborate grave.
298/97-95 Regent Dowager Queen Thessalonica of Macedonia (Greece)
Regent for her son Philippos IV
285-281 Ruler Arsinoe II Piladelphos of Herakleia, Pontica, Kassandria and Ephesos (Turkey)
281-279 Resided in Kassandreia
277-70 Co-Regent Queen of Egypt
The daughter of Ptolemy I Soter, she was married to King Lisymachus of Tracia 299-281. He gave her Herakleia, Pontica, Kassandria and Ephesos. After his death in 281 she resided in Kassandreia. She had been married to her half brother Ptolomy Keraunos of Macedonia, but after he murdered one of her sons in 279 she escaped to Egypt. Before 274 she was wife of and co-ruler of her, brother Ptolomy II Piladelphos. She lived (around 316-270).
Circa 262-35 Regent Dowager Queen Olympiada of Epiros (Greece)
After the death of Pyrrhus II, she was reigned in the name of Ptolemy (circa 262-235).
253 Sovereign Lady Laodike III of Egypt of Propontis (Turkey)
247-246 Regent of Syria
Politically active during the reign of her husband-brother (or cousin, King Antiochiaos II of Syria (267/66), and after their divorce, she became Lady of Propontis. Later regent for Seleukos II Kallinikos and after he came of age she remained politically active until she was murdered. She lived (287/84-237/36).
250 Regent Dowager Queen Etazeta of Bithynia (Tyrkey)
After the death of her husban, king Nicomedes I, she continued to rule on behalf of their infant sons. Zialas, a grown-up son by an earlier wife, Ditizele, had previously fled to Armenia. Now Ziaelas returned, at the head of some Galatians. Although she was supported by neighbouring cities and Antigonus, Ziaelas conquered first part, then all of Bithynia. Etazeta and her sons, including another Ziboetes, fled to Antigonus&rsquo court in Macedonia.
248-233 Queen Deidamia of Epiros (Greece)
Ptolemy was king (circa 262-235). Pyrrhus III succeeded as king in 235.

245 Dowager Tyrant Nikaia of Korinthos and Euboia (Greece)
Married to the uncle of Alexander the Great, Antigonos Gonatas, Governor of Macedonia etc., and was his co-ruler until he was deposed in 250. She then married his son Demetrios II.
231-28 Regent Dowager Queen Teuta of Arcliano (Illyrian State) (Albania)
She had practically been co-ruler with her husband Agron, and after his death in 230 BCE, she was regent for son Pinnes. The state covered Northern Albania and part of Montenegro.
Circa 215-175/76 Co-Reigning Queen Kamasayre Philoteknos of the Bosporanian Realm (Crimean) (Georgia)
Ruled jointly with husband, Pairisades II, who died around 190.
200's Queen Martia Proba of a Celtic Tribe (United Kingdom)
Her seat of power was in London, and she was holding the reins of government so wisely as to receive the surname of Proba, the Just. She especially devoted herself to the enactment of just laws for her subjects, the first principles of the common law tracing back to her the celebrated laws of Alfred, and of Edward the Confessor, being in great degree restorations and compilations from the laws of Martia, which were known as the "Martian Statutes".
Late 200s-early 100s Legendary Queen Amage of the Roxolanoia (Russia)
The Roxolanoia tribe was probably deriving their name from the proto-Iranian Raokhshna, or &ldquoshining&rdquo. The name may also derive from a term meaning, essentially, &ldquoThe Western Alans&rdquo. They were among the most powerful of the Sarmatian tribes, inhabiting much of the region north of the Black Sea. The ruling dynasty of the Bosporan Kingdom (see Crimea) from the end of the 1st century BCE on was Sarmatian in origin, and probably belonged to the Roxolanoi originally.
138-before 127 Regent Dowager Queen Ri-'nu of Parthia (Turkey)
Other versions of her name is Riinu or Rihinu, and she was regent for son Phraates II.
130 De Facto Ruler Queen Laodike of Cappadocia (Greece)
The widow of Ararathes V of Cappadocia, she poisoned 5 (step)sons and ruled in the name of the 6th.
130-126 Regent Dowager Queen Nysa of Cappadocia (Turkey)
Widow of Ariarathes V Epiphanes Philipator and regent for their son Ariarathes V (130-116). In 190 her husband had secured that the state became an independent kingdom. Formerly it was a satrapy under the Persian Achaemenid Empire. It was incorporated by Alexander the Great into the Macedonian Empire, and on Alexander's death became a client state of the Selecucid Empire.
125/24 Regent Dowager Queen Ghadani of Iberia (Georgia)
After the death of her son Rhadamiste I (or Ghadam), she assumed the regency for her grandson Pharasmenes III (135-185) in the ancient country in Transcaucasia, roughly the eastern part of present-day Georgia. It was inhabited in earliest times by various tribes, collectively called Iberians by ancient historians, although Herodotus called them Saspirams. The kingdom was allied to the Romans, ruled by the Sassanids of Persia, and became a Byzantine province in the 6th century. She was widow of King Pharasmenes II Kveli (circa 116-32), and daughter of King Sanatroukes a Parthian King of Armenia. She was (b. circa 100).
120-115 Regent Dowager Queen Laodice of Pontus (Turkey)
Following the death of her husband, king Mithradates V, she ruled in the place of her 11 years old son, Mithradates VI. Eupator Dionysos. About 115 BCE, she was deposed and thrown into prison by her son. She was daughter of king Antiochus IV Epiphanes of Syria and Queen Laodice.
100s Queen Larthia Seianti of the City State of Caere in Etruria (Italy)
Her splendid sarcophauge has lead historians to speculate that she might have been Queen of the City State of Chiuisi or Caere. Even if Caere did not have kings and Queens at this time (as did Rome, or as Caere certainly did in the 5th century), it is clear that society had become sharply differentiated, not only in regard to wealth but also in division of labour. Many scholars hypothesize the existence of a powerful aristocratic class, and craftsmen, merchants, and seamen would have formed a middle class it was probably at this time that the Etruscans began to maintain the elegant slaves for which they were famous.

The daughter of Zenofantes, tyrant of Cilicia, and Olbe was a city in this principality.

Until BCE 13 and BCE 8-7/8 CE Reigning Queen Dynamis of the Bosporanian Realm (Georgia)
A grandchild of King Mithridatis of Persia, she inherited the country from her father. In 17/16 her first husband, Asander, died. Her second husband was deposed by the third, the king of Pontus. They divorced and she was in exile until his death. Died circa 70 years old. and was succeeded by fourth husband, Spurges, who had not previously been co-ruler.
BCE 10-5, 4-2 and BCE 6-12 CE Queen Regnant Erato of Greater Armenia
Her father, Tigran III had been force to accept the supremacy of Rome, but the dynasty still used the title of "King of Kings." She first married her half-brother Tigran IV, who was disposesed by Augustus because of suspected treachery, and Tiberius came again to Armenia to replace him with their cousin Artavazd. This led to discontent and finally to civil war, partly instigated by Tigran, whom Phraates, King of Parthia, was secretly backing. Augustus sent his godson, Caius Caesar, to bring about an appeasement, but before his arrival, Tigran IV was killed in a riot, while she took to flight. The revolt was supressed, and in the year 1 CE, the Armenian throne was bestowed upon Ariobarzan, a Mede by origin, who was accepted because of his eminent qualities. But he very shortly was killed by accident, and Augustus nominated Artavazd, his son, as his successor. But the opposition to foreign rule soon found expression in the assassination of the King. Augustus thereupon abandoned his ill-conceived policy and sent Tigran V, a descendant of the national dynasty, to occupy the throne. But the nation's tranquility, apparently restored by this concession, was soon disturbed. The nobles recalled Queen Erato, but also her second reign was short, and her overthrow marked the end of the dynasty of Artashes and Tigran.
BCE 8-23 CE Queen Regnant Pythodorida of Pontus (Turkey)
She succeeded Polemon I, and in 23 the kingdom was reincorporated into the Roman Empire.
BCE 3- 6 CE Regent Dowager Queen Thea Ourania of Parthei (Turkey)
Took over the regency for son Pharaateces after the death of her husband, Phraates IV.

Around year 1 Queen Medb of Connaught (Ireland)

Also known as Maeve, she was daughter of the high king of Ireland, Ouchu Feidlich, and married King Ailill mac Mata of Connaught. It seems that she was once married to Conchobor mac Nessa, the king of Ulster. She was powerful enough to be euhemorized in myth as a triune goddess of fertility and nature.

3-40 Regent Queen Antonia Thryphaena of Pontus (Turkey)
38-40 Regent of Thrace

Ruled in the name of son King Polemos who succeeded her mother in Pontus in Asia Minor. He succeeded a brother, Rhoemetaces, who had become king after the murder of her husband, Kytos.

7/8-23 Queen Pythodoris I Philometer of Pontus (Turkey)

Also known as Pantos Pythodorida, she succeeded husband, Polemon I, and married King Archelaos of Cappadocia. Succeeded by daughter and her son.

14-29 De-facto Co-Regent Augusta Livia of the Roman Empire

Livia Drusilia Augusta was a member of the ancient, wealthy and powerful patrician gens claudia, the Claudian family. Octavian divorced his first wife Scribonia and forced Livia to divorce Tiberius so they could marry in 38 BCE. It was a political marriage in the tradition of the Republic, intended to bring together the wealth and might of the gens claudia and the gens julia, the Julian family, into which Octavian had been adopted by Julius Cæsar. The marriage thus formed an important part of Octavian's strategy in the intense power struggles of the late Republic. The dynasty they founded is known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Though their union was political in nature, there were warm feelings between the two, at the very least a profound sense of mutual loyalty. Their marriage lasted 52 years, until the death of Augustus in 14 CE. Livia never bore him any children, but Augustus Adopted Tiberius after a number of other possible heirs all died. Livia's son Drusus died in an accident in 9 CE. Livia was quite influential, through her personal wealth, through her intelligence and political sense, and through her marriage. She played a central role in the establisment of the Principate, along with Augustus and M. Agrippa. Livia's influence continued when her son Tiberius became emperor, until her death in 29 CE at the age of 85. She was deified by her grandson Claudius in CE 41, and lived (BCE 58-CE 29).

Circa 40-60 Queen RegnantCartimandra of The Brigants (Brigantia) (United Kingdom)

Brigantia was a British tribe in Yorkshire. She signed a treaty with the Romans, placing herself under their protection. Her tribe was opposed to this treaty and there were several revolt. In 48, she asked for and received Roman help in fighting the rebellion. Cartimandua's consort, Venutius attempted to have her overthrown but he was unsuccessful after the Romans came to her aid. For a while Cartimandua ruled jointly with Venutius, but when he made another attempt to overthrow her, she took Vellocatus, a royal armor-bearer, as her consort. She sent Vellocatus to fight Venutius and, again, asked for Roman help. Ca.69, Cartimandua "retired" and in 71, Rome annexed Brigantia after they easily defeated Venutius, Vellocatus and the Brigantes in battle.

54-56 Regent Augusta Iulia Agrippina of the Roman Empire

She was the younger of three daughters of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. She was 34 years old when she married emperor Claudius, who was nearing the end of his life. During the last five years of Claudius&rsquo reign, she grew more and more powerful. Her son Nero succeeded her husband at the age of 17 and could not legally rule in his own name. Agrippina acted as his regent and was a powerful controlling influence on him even after he came of age. After about a year, Nero moved her out of the imperial palace. She began to denounce her son more and more in public. After the tension between mother and son grew to a critical level, Nero determined to be rid of her, and had her killed. She lived (16-59).

Around 60 Queen Regnant Phytodoris of Colchis (Georgia)

Colchis was an ancient country on the eastern shore of the Black Sea and in the Caucasus region. Centered about the fertile valley of the Phasis River (the modern Rion), Colchis corresponds to the present-day region of Mingrelia in Georgia. She was a vassal of the Roman Empire.

60-61 Queen RegnantBoudicca of the Iceni-Tribe in Norfolk (United Kingdom)

The Iceni was a people who lived in the present-day counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. She led a rebellion against the Roman authorities as a result of their mistreatment of her family and people after the death of her husband, Prasutagus, who may have been a Roman client-ruler, in 60 AD. She and other disaffected tribes, sacked the cities of Colchester, St. Albans and London and, it is estimated, massacred approximately 70.000 Roman soldiers and civilians in the course of the glorious, but ill-fated rebellion. The rebels were finally defeated in battle by a force led by the Roman governor of Britain, Suetonius Paulinus, after which she took her own life by ingesting poison together with her two daughters, Camorra and Tasca or, according to legend, Voada and Voadicia. She lived (15-61).

112-? Regent Dowager Queen Gespaepyris of Pontus (Turkey)

Gespaepyris was born as Princess of Thrace and ruled on behalf of her son Mithridates VI. in the kingdom in Asia Minor.

130-? Reigning Dowager Queen Laodike II Nysa of Cappadocia (Turkey)

After the death of her husband, Ariarathes V, she poisoned 5 stepsons and ruled in the name of her own son.

135-49 Regent Dowager Queen Ghadana of Iberia (Georgia)

The widow of King Pharasmenes II Kveli (circa 116-32), she reigned for grandson Pharasmenes III (135-185) after the death of her son Rhadamiste I (or Ghadam). She was daughter of King Sanatroukes of Armenia (b. circa 100).

193-217 Joint Ruler Iulia Domna of the Roman Empire

She was one of the most powerful people in the Roman Empire. While her emperor husband, Septimius Severus, was fighting rivals, pursuing rebels, and subduing revolts in the far corners of the empire, she was left to administer the vast Roman Empire. She played one powerful general or senator against another, while keeping herself from falling into the many traps set by political enemies at court. Caracalla had murdered his brother Geta in her private apartments even as the younger son sought protection in her arms. After Macrinus had murdered Caracalla and seized the throne in 217, he sent her away from Antiochia after it was reported that Julia was inciting troops to rebel against him. At this time, she was believed to be about fifty years old and was suffering from a painful illness, probably cancer of the breast. Rather than face exile and the humiliation of being reduced to the status of a private citizen, she decided to commit suicide by starving herself.

218-222 (&dagger) Joint De-facto Ruler Iulia Soaemias Bassiana of the Roman Empire

She plotted together with her mother, Julia Maesa, to substitute the ursurpor, Macrinus, by her son Varius Avitus Bassianus (Heliogabalus) (203-218-222). As the emperor's mother, with the title Iulia Soaemias Augusta, she played a great role in government and administration and was infact the de facto ruler of Rome, since her son was concerned mainly with religious matters. Their rule was not popular and soon discontent arose. Julia Soaemias and Heliogabalus were killed by the Praetorian Guard in 222, and she was declared public enemy and her name erased from all records. She lived (circa 180-222).

218-222 Joint De-facto Ruler Iulia Maesa of the Roman Empire
222-225/26 (&dagger) Joint Regent
of the Roman Empire

First she plotted together with her daughter, Julia Soaemias Bassiana to have her grandson Elagabaleus placed on the throne and later she was joint regent with her other daughter, Julia Masaea and her son, Alexander Servus. She was sister of Julia Domna and closely related to the Imperial family and grew up in Syria.

222-228 (&dagger) Regent Dowager Empress Iulia Mamaea of the Roman Empire

She was behind the plot that ousted her sister, Julia Soaemias Bassiana, and her son and had her infant son, son Alexander Servus, placed on the throne. She ruled together her mother, Julia Mamesa and 16 senatorsm but as they were unable to defend the empire from the attacking Germans, the Army killed both her and her son.

238-41 Regent N.N. of the Roman Empire

Her name is not known, but she was the daugter of Emperor Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (Gordian I) and married to a senator, whose name is also not known. After Emperor Maximus I Thrax was murdered, her 13 year old son, Emperorr Gordianus III (225-38-44) was placed on the throne with her in charge of the regency.

275 Sole Regent Dowager Empress Ulipia Serverina of The Roman Empire (March-September)

Reigned alone after her husband, Aurelianus' death until Tacitus was named emperor.

350 Augusta Constantina of East Roman Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

She roclaimed Vetranio as Cæsar during a riot - acting in her own right with the authority of the daughter of the Emperor with the title of Augusta in the Byzantine or East Roman Empire.

375-83 Joint Ruler Dowager Empress Iustiana of the Roman Empire
383-? Regent

Joint ruler with son Gratianus and regent for Valentianus II (383-92), who ruled the Western division of the Empire, encompassing Rome itself together with Italy, Gaul, Britain, Iberia, and northwestern Africa, though the state was already disintegrating faced with the babaric invasions.

378 Queen Regnant Zarmandukht of Greater Armenia

Her name is also spelled Zarmandux, she was widow of King Pap, who was known to have been gay and was killed on the orders of the Byzantine general Terent. In the first instance his cousin, Varazdat was king until 378. She took power, but from 378 until his death in 385, Manuel Mamikonean, was the real ruler of Armenia. He ruled as a "trustee" of the monarchy in the name of her son, and kept both of them in the king's place and causing them to circulate around in honor. He nourished her two sons Arshak and Vagharsha as his foster-children and honoured her.

378 De-facto Regent Dowager Empress Domnica of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

She held the City of Byzanz after the death of her husband, Valens and defended the city against the attacks of the Goths, before the arrival of the successor, Theodosios.

449/50 Augusta Justa Grata Honoria of the Roman Empire (in the West)

The sister of Valentin III, she acted in her capacity as Augusta.

400-04 De-facto Ruler Empress Eudoxia of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

She was a significant figure in the government because she had the ear of her husband Emperor Arcadius of the East Roman Empire until her own death in 404. She was strong and strident, dominating her weak and passive husband.

414-55 De-facto Ruler Augusta Pulchera of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

At the age of 15 Princess Aelia Pulcheria was crowned Augusta and assumed a dominant role in guiding the affairs of state. In 420/22 she may have organized the Byzantine campaign against Persia, she replaced the emperor as director of power, but the ultimate power resided with her brother. In the mid-420s she engaged in a power struggle with her sister-in-law, Eudokia, and Pulchera was forced into semi-retirement. She established herself as a holy virgin dedicated to God, and this gave her access into the altar to receive the communion with priests and deacons, something normally barred to women. When her brother died in 450 she took control of the government of the Eastern Empire, and married Marcian, Army Chief of Staff, and named him co-Emperor. She spoke Greek and Latin and had a deep interest in medicine and natural science lived (399-453).

423-50 Regent Dowager Empress Galla Placidia of the Roman Empire (Covering Italy, Spain, France and Northern Africa)

She was in Rome at the time of its sack by Alaric and the Visigoths, and after Alaric&rsquos death in 414, she married his brother and successor as king of the Visigoths, Athaulf. After his death, Placidia returned home in 416 to marry Constantius, who was made co-augustus in the West in 421 and became the Roman emperor Constantius III. He died of pleurisy after a reign of only seven months. In 423 her brother Emperor Honorius died and Galla Placidia was made Augusta and regent for her six year old son Valentinian III. Placidia proved to be a hard-nosed ruler who knew how to manage a declining economy and rebellious subjects. Even after her son's death, she managed the Roman government in the West for twenty years during one of the most perilous periods of its existence. She lived (388-450).

491 Regent Dowager Empress Ariane of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

Also known as Aelia Ariadane, she was the daughter of Leo I (447-74). She was married to Tarasicodissa who became Emperor Zeno, and after his death in 491 the Senate officially requested her to choose another candidate to rule and she married Anastasios I, who became emperor.

518-65 Co-Ruler Empress Theodora of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

526-34 Regent Princess Amalasuentha of the Ostrotoths (Italy)
534-35 Joint Reigning Queen

She was the daughter of King Theodoric and Audofleda, a sister of King Clovis. Exceptionally well educated, she studied both Greek and Latin and took a keen interest in art and literature. Married to Eutharic at the age of 17, she found herself Queen in 522, following the deaths of both her father and her husband. She served as regent for her 10-year-old son, Athalric. Like her father, she maintained a pro-Byzantine policy, which was not popular with the Ostrogothic nobles. She suppressed a rebellion and executed three of its leaders. She also purged her lands of dishonest office holders and limited the power of grasping landowners. After her son died, in 534, she shared the throne with her cousin, Theodahad who later led a palace revolution and caused her to be exiled to an island, where she was strangled in her bath as an act of vengeance by relatives of the nobles she had executed.

565-572 and 574-578 Co-ruler Empress Sophia of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
572-574 Sole Regent

The niece of Empress Theodora and married to emperor Iustinus II (565-578), and sole regent during her husband's mental illness. She nominated his two successors without marrying either, and continued exercise a high degree of influence on the government and is believed to have played a major role in various financial measures and took an active part in foreign politics, mainly in her dealings with Persia.

584-94 Regent Dowager Queen Fredegundis of France

Fredgunde or Fredegunda was a slave-girl at the court of Neustria when she came to the attention of Chilperic I, Merovingian King of Soissons (Neustria). She became his mistress and then eventually third wife. She persuaded Chilperic to repudiate his first wife Audovera and was said to be the driving force behind the murder in 568 of Chilperic's second wife Galswintha. Fredegunda also engineered the murders of Audovera's three sons and Sigibert of Austrasia, Chilperic's brother. Finally her husband was murdered or assassinated, shortly after the birth of their son Lothair in 584. Fredegunda seized her late husband's wealth and fled to Paris with her remaining son Lothair (Clotaire II), and persuaded the Neustrian nobles to recognize her son as the legitimate heir to the throne and she took over the regency and continued her longtime power struggle with Guntrum of Burgundy (d.593) and Brunhilda, Queen-Mother of Austrasia (d.614), whom she defeated around 597. Fredegunda (d. 598).

590 Reigning Dowager Queen Theodolina of the Lombards (Italy)
615-25 Regent of the Kingdom

Co-ruler with husbands, king Autharis (584-90) and Agilulf (591-615) and regent for son King Adololdo of the Lombards or Langobards, who was deposed by her son-in-law. She was instrumental in restoring Athanasian Christianity - the ancestor of modern Roman Catholicism - to a position of primacy in Italy against it's rival, Arian Christianity. With a stable base in Italy thereafter, the Papacy could begin subduing those it regarded as heretics elsewhere.

639-42 Regent Dowager Queen Nanthildis of Neustrasia and Burgundy (France)

Also known as Nanthilde, Nanthechilde or Nantechildis, she was a former servant and married the Merovingian king Dagobert I (604-29-35) after he had divorced his childless consort, Gomatrud. After Dagobert's death her son, Chlodwig II was appointed king of Neutrasia and Burgundy and his older half-brother, Sigibert III king of Austrasia. She received 1/3 of the royal treasure. She acted as regent together with the Major Domus Aega. As he attacked the Burgundfarons she protected them and 642 she reformed the office of Major Domus of Burgundy and appointed the Frankish Flaochad to the office. She lived (circa 610-642).

641 Regent Dowager Empress Martina of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

After the death of her husband, Herakleios, she was first co-ruler with stepson, Constantinos III , whom she was accused of poisoning. She took power but was deposed together with son Heraklonas, who was still a minor. They were both mutilated and sent into exile.

642-49 Member of Regency Council Dowager Empress Gregorina of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

She was the widow of Herakleios-Constantinos and her son, Constans, was chosen as Emperor after Martina and Heraklonas, and though the sources does not mention the members of the Regency Council it can be assumed that she was one of the members. She was a niece of Emperor Herakleios II.

657-64/65 Regent Dowager Queen Bathildis of Neustrie, Bourgogne and Austrasie (France)

Also known as Bathilde or Baldechildis, she was born in England, and taken to Gaul as a slave and about 641, she was bought by Erchinoald, mayor of the palace of Neustria. She married Clovis II in 648. The future Lothair III was born in 649, and she had two more sons, Theoderic and Childeric, who also eventually became rulers. Balthildis' influence during her husband's reign was considerable, since she controlled the court and the allocation of charity money, and had strong connections with Church leaders. After Clovis' death in 657 she took over the regency for her son Lothair III and embarked on a policy of unifying the Frankish territory by controlling Austrasia through imposing her son Childeric as Prince and absorbing Burgundy. She lost her political power when Lothair came of age and was forced to retire to the convent of Chelles, which she had founded and endowed with much of her personal wealth in 664. She died in 680 in Chelles, and was later declared a saint.

662 Regent Dowager Queen Himnechilde of Austrasia (France)

After the death of her husband, Sigebert III, she was joint regent for her son, Childéric II together with the Major Domus (Major of the Palace) Wulfoald.

664-66 Regent Dowager Queen Sexburga of Kent (United Kingdom)

The eldest daughter of King Anna of East Anglia and his second wife, Saewara. She married King Erconbert of Kent, and after he died of the "yellow plague", she reigned on behalf off her son, Egbert I. After he came of age, she became abbess of Minister-in-Sheppey and later of Ely, where her sister, St. Etheldreda of Ely had been Abbess. Another sister and both of her daughters Ermengilda and Ercongota were Saint and the sam was the case of her grandchildren St. Werburga of Chester, St. Wulfade and St. Rufinus. She lived (circa 636-around 700).

Circa 669-74 Regent Empress Aelia Sofia of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

Handled the affairs of state for her insane husband Justinos II (58-95 and 705-11), who was killed.

672-74 Queen Regnant Seaxburh of Wessex (United Kingdom)

She succeeded her husband, Cenwealh, who was king (642-72), and was followed by Centwine, son of former king Cynegils.

692 Regent Queen Dowager Clothilde of Neustria and Bourgogne (France)

Regent for a few months for son Childéric. She is also known as Rothilde, Chrothéchildis or Doda (d. 694/9).

685-99 Regent Dowager Princess Spram of Girdyaman (Azerbaijan)

Ruled in the name of Varaz-Tiridat I of the Mihranid Dynasty, who ruled (680-699). She was succceded by Sheraye.

714 Acting Major Domina Plectrudis von Ecternach of Neustraia, Austria, Aquitania and Burgundy (France)

Also known as Plectrud or Plectrude, she engaged in a power-struggle with her stepson, Carles Martel after the death of her husband, Pipin II d'Heristal. She favoured the succession of one of her grandsons to the office of Major Domus. Her forces were finally defeated in 719. She was daughter of Count Palantine Hugobert von Ecternach (d. 697/698) and inherited "The Lands between the Rhine, Moselle and Meuse" after her mother Irmina von Oeren, and was later declared a Saint. She lived (Before 665-ca.725).

According to legend her father, king Krak was succeeded by one brother, but was killed by another. The Councillors broke with tradition in asking Wanda to rule over her people. Peace and prosperity prevailed over Krakow, but in the west, the Germans grew in strength and began attacking Polish hamlets and cities. The German commander, Rytygier, wanted to make Wanda his wife, and to avoid this and save her people, she wandered to the top of a cliff over the Wisla river, she threw herself into the river.

Circa 750 Legendary Queen Wanda of Poland

According to legend her father, king Krak was succeeded by one brother, but was killed by another. The Councillors broke with tradition in asking Wanda to rule over her people. Peace and prosperity prevailed over Krakow, but in the west, the Germans grew in strength and began attacking Polish hamlets and cities. The German commander, Rytygier, wanted to make Wanda his wife, and to avoid this and save her people, she wandered to the top of a cliff over the Wisla river, she threw herself into the river.

Circa 772-98 Joint Reigning Queen Cynethryth of Mercia (United Kingdom)

She was the wife of Offa II, the Saxon King of Mercia (757-96), and acquired notoriety as a tyrannical Queen. She was the only Queen consort ever allowed to issue coins in her own name, and they carry vivid portraits, the earliest portrait of an Englishwoman. Her daughter, Eadburgh, acquired a still worse reputation.

780-90 Regent Dowager Empress Eirene of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
787 Presiding over the 7th Ecomenical Synod (Council)
792 Joint Ruler of the Empire
797-802 Reigning Empress

Also known as Irene, she dominated her husband Emperor Leo IV (775-780), and after his death she took over the regency for son, Constantine VI. Irene generally undermined Constantine's authority when he tried to push her aside, she deposed him in 797 - he was seized, flogged and blinded. Irene began her reign as the first Byzantine Empress, and did not recognize Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor in 800. After the death of his wife, Liutgard, the same year, Charlemagne sought her hand in marriage - but nothing came out of this proposal. Soon revolts against Irene rule broke out and she was deposed by the leading Patricians. Irene was then exiled to island of Lesbos, where she supported herself by spinning. Irene died the following year and her former finance minister succeeded as Emperor Nicephorus I. She lived (752-803).

Before 825 Regent Dowager Queen Angharad Ferch Maredudd Llewelyn of Powys, Holderness, Skipton and Cockermouth (Wales and England in the United Kingdom)

Reigned in the name of her son.

829-30 Member of Regency Council Dowager Empress Euphrosyne of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

She was daughter of Emperor Constantinos VI who divorced her mother, Maria of Amnia (circa 770-circa 830) and send both of them to a monestary, where they stayed until 820 when Michael II of Amorion ursurped the throne and married Euphrosyne in order to legitimize his reign. After his death, she was probably member of the regency council for his son, Theophilos, though the sources are not clear about this. After she helped select his wife, Theodora, she retired to a convent, though she did not stay totally out of politics. She (circa 790-after 840).

842-56 Head of the Regency Council Dowager Empress Theodora of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

The widow of Theophilos (829-42), she was leader of the regency for her son Michael III (838-42-67). She restored the veneration of icons, brought back the deposed holy Patriarch Meletios and convened a Council, at which the Iconoclasts were anathematized. When Michael came of age, she spent 8 years in the monastery of Saint Euphrosynia, in ascetic deeds and the reading of Divine books (a copy of the Gospels is known of, copied by her hand). She died peacefully in about the year 867. Later declared a saint.

842 Member of the Regency Council Princess Tekla of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

The sister of Michael III, she was in theory co-regent with Theodora

914-919 Regent Dowager Empress Zoë Karbonopsina of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

The fourth wife of Leon IV, who died 912. After his death the guardian of her son, but Constantinos VII (b. 905) sent her to a convent. She later managed to become regent for son, but was deposed in 919.

927-30 Regent Dowager Queen Oneca de Navarra of León (Spain)

Ruled in the name of her son, Alfonso IV (926-31) who abdicated.

Until 931 Co-Regent Margravine Ermengard di Lucca of Ivrea (Italy)

She was daughter of Adalbert II of Tuszia and Berta, illegitimate daughter of king Lothar II. As co-regent she secured the Italian throne for her brother, Hugo d&rsquoArle, against the claims of Raoul II de Haute-Bourgogne.

945-59 Co-ruler Empress Helena Lecapena of the Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

Married to Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitu (913-59), who raised her father, Romanus Lecapenus, to the rank of cæsar and the status of co-emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire and actual ruler of the state. In 944 two sons deposed him, but they were executed, and finally Constantine took over the reigns himself - though with heavy guidance from Helena. She retired to a convent after her husband's death, to please his son, Romanus, who was under the spell of his wife, Theophano.

961-62 De-facto in charge of the Government Dowager Empress Mathilde von Sachsen of Germany

She had withdrawn to the convent of Quedlinburg which she founded after the death of her husband, King Heinrich I in 936, but took over the reigns in Germany when her son, Otto I, went to Italy after having appointed his infant son, the later Otto II as regent. She had devoted her time to charity and founder of numerous convents and she was later declared a saint (Mathilde die Heilige). She was mother of 3 sons and 2 daughters (among whom Geberga was regent in the West-Frankish kingdom from 954), and lived (circa 895-968).

963-69 Regent Dowager Empress Theophano of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

Very powerful during the reign of her husband, Emperor Romanos II (959-63) and regent for sons Basileios II and Constantinos VIII. Married to the FieldMarshall Nikephoros Phokas, who was emperor 963-69. He was deposed by Jean Tzimikskes who married Theodora, daughter of Theophano.

966-75 Regent Doña Elvira Ramírez of León and Asturias (Spain)

The daughter of Ramiro II, she left the convent take over the regency for her nephew, Ramiro III, after the death of her brother, Sancho I. She made treaties with Caliph Al-Hahen II and orgaised the defence against the Normans In 968-69. In 975 she was replaced as regent by her sister-in-law, the Dowager Queen Teresa.

966-99 Princess-Abbess Mathilde I von Sachsen of Quedlinburg (Germany)
997-99 Guardian of the Realm of the Holy Roman Empire
Daughter of Emperor Otto I, she was appointed the first Princess-Abbess - Reichsäbtissin - of Quedlinburg. She also acted as "domina imperialis", and followed her brother Otto II on journey to Italy and acted regent with the title of Matica (Reichsverweser) for her nephew, Otto III during his stay in Italy. She was also named as his representative in Sachsen with the additional titles of Metropolitana of Quedlinburg and Matrixcia of Sachsen (Substitute and Representive of the Emperor). She lived (955-999).

973-75 Joint Ruler Queen Ælfthryth of England
978-84 Regent Dowager Queen

Sources indicated that after her consecration she was considered to been sharing the royal lordship with her husband, King Edgar, who was first succeeded by his son of the first marriage, Edward, then by a brother, and finally by his son by Ælfthryth, Edmund II Ironside (968-78-1016), and was in charge of the government during his minority, and continued to be a dominant force after he came of age.

975-80 Regent Dowager Queen Teresa Ansúrez of León and Asturia (Spain)

The widow of Sanchos I, she replaced her sister in law, Princess Elvira as regent for son, Ramiros II, after his troops was beaten by the Arab forces by Gormaz in 975. From 977 the kingdom was systematically attacked by al Mansur, and in 981 Ramiros was deposed after a riot, and replaced by Vermundo II in Asturia, and was now only king in Leon until he was deposed here too, and killed.

She succeeded Theodosius III the Blind and reigned jointly with king
Bagrat III Bagrationi the Unifier (King of Georgia 1008-14) of the mountainous district along the east coast of the Black Sea.

97 8-94 Queen Gurandukht of Abkhazia (Georgia)

She succeeded Theodosius III the Blind and reigned jointly with k ing
Bagrat III Bagratio ni the Unifier (K ing of Georgia 1008 -14 ) of the mountainous district along the east coast of the Black Sea .

983 Regent Dowager Empress Adelheid in Italy
985-94 Regent of the Holy Roman Empire

As the widow of Duke Lothar of Burgundy, she married to Otto I at the age of 20. He let her control the lands she brought into the marriage, and even added some he owned. In 976 and 985 she Presided over the hearings of the Royal Court in Italy. When her husband died, she became regent for her son Otto II, who included her in his decrees, arriving at decisions "with the advice of my pious and dearest mother." After her son's death she became joint regent with her daughter-in-law, Theophano, for the 3 year old, Otto III, and after Theophano died, Adelaide became sole regent. After he came of age at the age of 14, she lived in a nunnery using the title "Adelheida, by God's gift Empress, by herself a poor sinner and God's maidservant&rdquo. She lived (931-999)

983-91 Regent Dowager Empress Theophano of the Holy Roman Empire

A Byzantine Princess who at the age of seventeen was given to the young Saxon emperor Otto II and crowned Coimperatrix as the only German Empress and Consors Regni. Though elegant and a delicate beauty, she was high-spirited and a superb politician who brought with her an intimate knowledge of the intricacies of court life. When her husband died, leaving her with a three year old son, she took the title "Imperator Augustus" and defended her son Otto III&rsquos title for seven years from those who challenged him. For seven years Theophano with tact and firmness administered the empire in her son's name. She was called by a contemporary "a woman of discreet and firm character. with truly masculine strength." Sometimes she used the male title "imperator augustus, and lived (ca.955-991)

986-87 Regent Dowager Queen Emma of France

Daughter of Lothaire III of Italy and Germany and Adélaide who later married Otto I of Germany. Emma took over the regency after the death of her husband King Lothaire as guardian for son Louis V, who was king from 26th of march 986 till 18th May the following year.

987-96 Joint Ruler Queen Alais d'Aquitaine of France

Also known as Adèle, she was married to Hugues Capet, and reigned jointly with him, and after his death 996 she also seems to have played a political role during the beginning of the reign of her son, Robert II. She was daughter of Guillaume II and Adèle de Normandie, and lived (circa 945-1004/06).

995 Possible Regent Dowager Queen Gunhild of Poland of Sweden
It is not known for certain that she was acctually the wife of King Erik, who might have been married to Sigrid Storråda , but she might have acted as regent for son, kin g Olof Skötkonung . Since 996 she was possibly married to Sven d Forkbeard king of Denmark and political active until their divorce in 1000 . In 996 she lead to an alliance between Denmark and Sweden . Daughter of prince of Poland Mieszko I and Dobrawa , she was origianally named Princess Świętosława&ndashSygryda , mother of several children with both husbands, and lived (968/72-after 1014).

999-1008 Regent Dowager Queen Elivra García of León (Spain)

After the death of her husband, Bermudo II (953-84-99), she was joint-regent with Mendos Gonzales for son Alfonso V (989-999-1028). Born as Princess of Castilla and lived (965-1017)

1014-72 Queen Dearbforgail of Munster and Ireland

She was daughter of King Brian Bory, her husband was king Dermont MacMilmamo of Leister was also king of Ireland.

1015-.. Regent Dowager Duchess Gisela von Schwaben of Swabia (Germany)
1024-39 Co-Regent of Germany
1026-39 Co-Regent of Italy
1027-39 Co-Regent of The Holy Roman Empire
1032-39 Co-Regent of Bourgogne
The daughter and heiress of Duke Hermann II von Schwaben and Gerberga de Bourgogne, she reigned after the death of her second husband, Duke Ernst I von Schwaben during the minority of their son, Ernst II, until she was removed from the regency because she and Ernst I was too closely related according to the Canon Law. She later married Konrad II, and she was crowned Queen of Germany, and Holy Roman Empress. The sources indicates that she was a vivid participant in the affairs of the realm and took part in the Imperial Councils and acted as joint regent of her husband, and it was trough her intervention that her relative, Rudolf III of Burgundy transferred the succession to his realm to her husband. She was also interested in the affairs of the church and intervened in the appointments of Bishops and Princely Abbots and participated in various synods. She was not at good terms with her son, Heinrich III, and therefore she was less influential after Konrad's death. She lived (989-1043).

1017-27 Regent Abbess Urraca Garciez de Covarrubias of Castilla (Spain)

The Abbess of Covarrubias, she ruled jointly with bishop Pedro of Burgos during the minority of her nephew, Count Garcia II (1110-17-29), after her brother, Sancho had been killed. She was daughter of Cout Carcia I.

1027-circa 36 Regent Dowager Queen Miriam Artsruni of United Georgia

After the death of her husband, Giorgi I (1014-27), she was in charge of the regency for son Bagrat IV (1027-72). The kingdom was invaded by The Byzantine Empire at the time, but their attack was fought off. In 1031 after the takeover of Iberia, she and heir Minister traveled to Constantinople on a diplomatic mission and negotiated a peace, and had her son recognized as full king (Curopalate) and head of the local princes. Also known as Maria, she was daughter of Sennacherib-John of Vaspurahan.

1028-41 and 1042-50 Joint Reigning Empress Zoë Porphyrogenita of The Byzantine Empire

She was the younger daughter of Emperor Constantine VIII, and succeeded him 1028. Zoë married 60 year old Romanus III Argyropolus and made him co-emperor. The marriage lasted barely six years before Zoë poisoned him, and married the epileptic weakling Michael IV Paphiagonian, who had her cloistered in 1041. This enforced confinement was short-lived as the Byzantine nobles rebelled against Michael. Zoë was released from her confinement, and Michael was himself cloistered in a monastery by the nobles. Zoë now ruled jointly with her older sister Theodora in 1042. Zoë married again, this time to Constantine IX Monomachus aged 42, and both reigned till her death. Zoë was succeeded in Byzantium by husband, who then ruled jointly with her sister Theodora. Zoë lived (986-1050).

1030-35 Regent Dowager Queen Alfiva of Norway

Also known as Lady Ælfgify of Northamton she was regent for her, and Knud the Great&rsquos son, King Svend of Norway. Her rule was harsh and provoked an uprising which removed her from power. When Knud died she returned to England, and persuaded the nobles to recognize her other son Harald Harfoot as king in 1037 but no records of her from then on have survived.

1034-36 Regent Dowager Queen Richeza von der Pfalz of Poland
She was the first polish Queen since 1025 as the wife of prince (since 1025 a king) Mieszko II. She was the eldest daughter of Errenfried Ezzon, &ldquoder rheinische Pfalzgraf&rdquo (palatin) and Matilda, daughter of Emperor Otto II. Rycheza was regent for her son, Kazimierz I Odnowiciel. She lived (996-1063).

1037-65 Co-Queen Regnant Sancha of León (Spain)

In 1029 Count García Sánchez of Castilla was about to be married to Sancha of León, the sister of Vermudo III, an arrangement apparently sanctioned by the king of Navarra, when the count was murdered in the city of León. Sancho el Mayor of Navarra then claimed the county of Castilla in his wife's name and installed in it their son, Fernando, as the new count of Castilla. After he had forced the marriage between Fernando and Sancha in 1032, those lands went to Castilla as part of her dowry. In 1034 he wrested the city of León itself from Vermudo, who retreated into Galicia, and began to style himself "Emperor" on his coinage. He was killed at a battle in 1037 and succeeded by Sancha and her husband. During their reign the kingdom was consolidated and expanded further.

1042 and 1050-55 Joint Empress Theodora Porphyrogenita of The Byzantine Empire
1055-56 Sole Empress

In 1042 she reigned jointly with her sister, Zoe, without success. The sixty-five-year old Zoe married Constantine IX, Monomachus and made him co-ruler. Contemporary sources are unanimous in describing Constantine IX's incompetence. They generously ascribe to him all the blame for the rapidly tarnishing glory of Byzantium. The imperial family at public functions and in royal portraits included three women as long as Zoe lived. Aside from the aged Zoe and her sister, Theodora, but also Constantine's mistress, the niece of his second wife, was always presen. On the death of Constantine IX, Theodora, the only surviving member of Basil II's family, ruled for twenty months, and before her death she had chosen to forward Michael VI as her successor. She lived (978-1056).

1042-66 Joint Ruler Queen Edith of Wesex of England (United Kingdom)
1066 De facto Regent

She was married to king Edward. In 1051 her father, Earl Goodwin of Wessex revolted against the Norman influence, but failed, and was banished. Edward started divorce-proceedings, but they remained married until his death, and during the vacancy at the throne she seems to have been de-facto caretaker. They had no surviving children and there was a succession of rulers, resulting in William the Conqueror of Normandy becoming king and it was her who was obliged to hand over the keys to Winchester, the county town of Wessex. She remained in charge of vast lands, but did no longer participate in politics. She lived (circa 1020-75).

1055-61 Hereditary Duchess Agnes de Pointou of Bavaria (Germany)
1056-62 Regent Dowager Empress of the Holy Roman Empire
1057 and 1059 and 106? Presiding over the Hearings at the Royal Court (Königsgericht)

She was descended from the royal houses of Burgundy and Italy, the daughter of William V of Aquitaine and Poitou, she became the second wife of the German king Henry III in 1043. They were crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Empress by Clement II in 1046. After her husband's death she acted as Regent for her son, Heinrich IV (1050-?) She was not an experienced politician and was influenced by the nobility to part with the duchies of Bavaria and Carinthia, and entered into unwise alliances against the dominant reforming party in the Papacy. By 1062 discontent led to an uprising in which Anno, Archbishop of Köln, took over the regency. Agnes retired to a convent where she remained until her death. She lived (1024-77).

1060-? Regent Dowager Queen Anne de Kiev of France

After the death of her husband, Henri I, she reigned jointly with Baudouin V of Flanders in the name of her son, Philippe I. Her subsequent marriage to Raoul, Comte de Valois caused a scandal, since he was already married. He was excommunicated, and she died in a convent. She was daughter of Jarosla Vladimirovich of Kiev and Indegard of Norway, and lived (1051-89).

1066-69 and 1069-83 Regent Queen Mathilda van Flanders of England in the Normandie (France)

She was married to William I the Conqueror of England (1066-87) and duke of Normandy. He depended heavily on her and she acted as regent whenever he was absent after their marriage in 1051. With him in England 1067-69 until she went back to Normandy, where she remained in charge until her death. In 1077 the oldest son, Robert Curthose, suggested that he should become the ruler of Normandy and Maine. When William the Conqueror refused, Robert rebelled and attempted to seize Rouen. The rebellion failed and Robert was forced to flee and established himself at Gerberoi. William besieged him there in 1080 but Matilda managed to persuade the two men to end their feud. Mother of around 10 children, one of the last being king Henry I. She lived (circa 1031-83).

1067 Reigning Dowager Empress Eudoxia Makrembolitissa of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
1068 and 1071 Regent

Regent for Michael VIII Dukas and Konstantinos after the death of her husband Constantine X Dukas. In 1068 married to Romanos IV Diogenes, who took title of emperor. In 1071 co-ruler with son, Michael, but was deposed and ended her life in a convent.

1088-91 Joint Ruler Queen Jelena Illona Lijepa of Croatia and Dalmatia

Also known as Elena or Helena. She was considered a joint ruler during the reign of her husband Dmitar Zvonimir (1075-1089), who had previously been a ban in Dalmatia and gained the title of king with the support of Pope Gregory VII, after which he aided the Normans in their struggle against the Eastern Empire and Venice between 1081 and 1085. Due to this, in 1085 the Byzantines transferred their rights to Dalmatia to Venice. A rebellion against Zvonimir broke out at the sabor of Knin in 1089 because of discontent with warring in the interest of the Pope, and he was killed. She continued rule parts of the country in opposition to the new king, Stjepan II of the Trpimirović dynasty, who nominally ruled Croatia for 2 years. The army of her brother, Ladislaus of Hungary, penetrated Croatian territory in 1091 and quickly occupied all of Pannonian Croatia, after which they were met with some unorganized resistance in Dalmatian Croatia. The Eastern Roman Emperor Alexius reacted by making the Cumans attack the Magyars, which made Ladislaus retreat from Croatia, but he did leave Prince Álmos to rule over Slavonia. (d. after 1091)

1095-1103 Joint Reigning Queen Bodil of Denmark

Contemporary sources depict her as the co-ruler of her husband, King Erik I Ejegod. She was daughter of the Thurgot, Earl in Jutland, and her nephew, Asser, became the first Archbishop Denmark. In 1103 they went on a prilgimmage to Jerusalem. Erik died on the way and she did in Jerusalem in 1103 or 1104.

1101-12 Regent Dowager Queen Adelisa di Savona of Sicilia (Sicily) (Italy)
1101-1118 Sovereign Countess of Salona

Widow of Roger I, she was a very efficient and successful regent for the sons Simon and Roger II. After having handed over the government to Roger, she travelled to Jerusalem and married Bodouin I, but it was not a success and they divorced in 1117 where after she returned to Sicilia. She lived (1072-1118).

1104-30 Joint Reigning Queen Margrethe Fredkulla of Denmark

Contemporary sources depict her as the co-ruler of her husband, Niels, and considered to be the strongest of the two. She is described her as vise, clever, devote and peace loving. Daughter of King Inge of Sweden, she was first married to the Norwegian king Magnus, who died 1103. (d. 1130).

1109-29 Queen Regnant Urraca I Alfonsez of Castilla and Léon (Spain)

In 1107 she reigned over her Dowry Galicia and Zamora after the death of her first husband Count Raimond de Bourgogne. The following year she inherited the throne from her father Alfonso VI Fernandez of Castile and Leon (1040-1109). Her second marriage in the year 1109 to Alfonso I Perez de Aragon (d. 1134) ended in divorce in 1114. Her reign was disturbed by strife among the powerful nobles and especially by constant warfare with her husband, who had seized her lands. She never remarried, though she took several lovers. Another thorn in her side was her half-sister, Tarasa of Portugal and her husband, Enrique, who allied with her estranged husband, then betrayed him when a better offer came from Urraca's court. After her brother-in-law's death in 1112, her sister still contested ownership of lands. With the aid of her son, Alfonso Raimúndez, Urraca was able to win back much of her domain and ruled successfully until her death. According to the Chronicon Compostellanum, she died in childbirth in 1126. The father was her lover, Count Pedro González of Lara. She was succeeded by her legitimate son, Alfonso VII Raymundez of Castile and Leon "Imperator totus Hispaniae" (d. 1157), She lived (1082-1128/29).

1117-18 Presiding over the Hearings of the Royal Court Mathilda of England of the Holy Roman Empire
1119 Stadtholder in Italy and Superme Commander of the Army and Presiding over Courts
1125 Holder of the Imperial Insignia of the Holy Roman Empire
1135-50 De-facto Sovereign Duchess of Normandie (France)
1141 Queen Regnant (Lady Domina) of England (United Kingdom) (02.02-01.11)

Also known as Maud, she was married the Holy Roman emperor Henry V in 1114, and acted as his co-ruler until his death 11 years later, when she became the holder of the Royal Insignia until a new Emperor was elected. As her only legitimate brother had been killed in the disastrous Wreck her father, King Henry I, had the barons swere allegiance to her and promised her the throne after her father's death. She then married Count Geoffrey V of Anjou and Maine. He was thirteen, she twenty-three. It is thought that the two never got on. Newer the less they had had three sons in four years. Being absent in Anjou at the time of her father's death on 1st December 1135, possibly due to pregnancy, she was not in a position to take up the throne and she quickly lost out to her cousin, Stephen de Blois. With her husband, she attempted to take Normandy. With encouragement from supporters in England though, it was not long before she invaded her rightful English domain and so began a long-standing Civil War from the powerbase of her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester, in the West Country. After three years of armed struggle, she gained the upper hand at the Battle of Lincoln, in February 1141, where King Stephen was captured. However, despite being declared Queen or "Lady of the English" at Winchester, she alienated the citizens of London with her arrogant manner. She failed to secure her coronation and the Londoners joined a renewed push from Stephen's Queen and laid siege to the Empress in Winchester. She managed to escape to the West, but while commanding her rearguard, her brother was captured by the enemy. She then exchanged Robert for Stephen who soon reimposed his Royal authority. In 1148, after the death of her half-brother, Matilda finally returned to Normandy, leaving her son, who, in 1154, would become Henry II, to fight on in England. She lived (1101-67).

1131-41 De-facto Ruler Queen Helene of Serbia of Hungary
1141-. Regent of the Kingdom

Influential during the reign of her husband Beta II the Blind, and after his death she assumed the regency for son, Geza II (1130-41-61).

1137-63 Queen Regnant Petronilla I of Aragón (Spain)
1163-69 Regent of Arágon and Barcelona

Succeeded father, Ramiro II the Monk. She married Count Berenguer IV of Barcelona, who did not become joint-regent. In 1163 she abdicated in favour of her son, Alfonso II. and continued as his regent, and even after he came of age she continued to control the state affairs. Alfonso later named himself king of Aragon and Cataluña. She lived (1136-73/74).

1154-65 Co-Reigning Countess Consort Constance of France of Toulouse (France)

Her first husband, Count Eustache IV.of Boulogne, Duke of Normandie and Heir to the English Throne died in 1153 and the following year she married Raimondo V of Toulouse. She was the first Countess of Toulouse to use the title of Duke, she often signed official documents with the title Regina or Dux Narbonnæ, but at her seal she used the title Ducissa. The couple was divorced 1165. She was daughter of king Louis VI in his second marriage to Adelaide de Savoie, the mother of four children, and lived (circa 1124-circa 80).

1156-66 Joint Ruler Queen Margarita de Navarra of Sicilia (Sicily) (Italy)
1166-72 Regent Dowager Queen of Sicily and Malta

Daughter of King Garcia VI and married to Guillermo I, Prince of Capua, before becoming co-king in 1151. Regent for son Guillermo II (b. 1154-). Since 1167 the sources name her as co-regent and in 1168 a regency council consisting of 10 people was formed, with her has head. She lived (1128/35-82).

1157-ca.58 Regent Dowager Queen Berengela Raimondo de Barcelona of Castilla, Leon and Galicia (Spain)

The widow of king Alfonso II (1105-57), she was in charge of the government in the name of her son, King Fernando II (1137-57-88). She lived (1105-57).

1178-84 Joint Ruler Queen Tamar of Georgia
The Most High Queen, by the will of our Lord, King and Queen of Queens of the Abkhazis, Kartvelians, Ranians, Kakhetians and the Armenians, Shirvanshah and Shahanshah and Master of all the East and West, Glory of the World and Faith, Champion of the Messiah

Member of the royal house of Bagrationi, she was 19 years old when her father Grigori III had her crowned co-ruler, and when he died she became the sole ruler of Georgia. Despite the fact that she was 25 on her accession, Tamar was placed under the official guardianship of her father's sister Rusudani. She dealt with the various factions within the nobility by giving commands of provinces to important generals and prominent nobles. During her reign the kingdom reached the apex of its political, economic and cultural might. A unique Georgian Christian Culture flourished in this multinational state, exalted by great building projects. After the conquest of Byzantium by the Fourth Crusaders in 1204, Tamar sent troops to Trebizond and Kerasund in support of her relative, Alexios Comnenus, who would become Byzantine Emperor 1205. She personally led the Georgian forces and routed the Turks at the battle of Basiani. From here on, she pursued a policy of military aggression - Kars surrendered in 1205 and her son Grigori was made Governor she exerted her hold over the local Muslim semi-protectorates received tribute from some of the southern Russians provinces. In 1209 The Emir of Ardabil attacked Georgia, slaughtering 12.000 Georgians and enslaving thousands more. Tamar took her revenge the following year - she took the Emir of Ardabil by surprise, killing him, and as warnings to others who might threaten Georgi, Tamar's troops began raiding deep into North Persia and other surrounding regions. Married 1185 and divorced two years later to Prince Giorgi of Novgorod and then in 1189 she married King Davit-Soslani of Ossetia (d. 1207). Succeded frist by son, Giorgi IV Lasha, and then by daughter Rusudan in 1223. Tamar lived (1159-1213).

1180-82 (&dagger) Regent Dowager Empress Xenia-Maria de Antiochia of Constantinople (Cowering what is now Greece and Turkey)

She was daughter of Constance of Antiochia (d.1162) and Raymond de Poitiers, and took over the regency for her son Alexius II (1180-82). Maria took a lover, her advisor Alexius Comnenus. But Maria's regency was opposed by her stepdaughter Maria Komnena (daughter of Manuel by a former wife) and her husband Ranier de Monferrato. Andronicus Comnenus was sent for by popular acclaim and was crowned co-Emperor. He eventually assumed total control of Constantinople. Maria was condemned to be strangled, and her son forced to sign the warrant by new Emperor Andronicus. Her son was murdered two months later. She lived (1145-82).

1184-? Regent Princess Rusudani of Georgia

She acted as regent after the accession to the throne of her niece, Queen Tamar, and as her advisor for the first years of her reign.

1190-91 Regent Dowager Queen Alix de Blois-Champagne of France

The third wife of Louis VII (1120-37-80), she was in charge of the government during her son, Philippe II August's participation in the crusades at the time. Louis' first wife was Duchess Eleanore d'Aquitaine, the second Constance of Canstile. Alix lived (1140-1206).

Also known as Berengaria or Berengere, she succeeded her father King Sancho VI and was succeeded by brother, Sancho VII, and married to Richard I Lionhart of England and became known as Queen Berengere or Berengaria. Her sister later Blanca was regent of Champagne from 1201 and later of Navarrawhen their brother went into "retirement". Berenguela did not have any children, and lived (1163-1230).

1194 Regent Dowager Queen Sibylla di Medina of Sicilia (Sicily) (Italy)

Daughter of Count Ruggerio di Accera and Caecile de Madania. Married to Tankredo di Lecce, King of Sicilia (1190-94) and regent for son Guillermo III, who succeeded his brother Roger III in 1193. But the supporters of Queen Constanza gained ground and Constanza&rsquos husband, Emperor Heinrich VI, offered her son the position as Count of Lecce in exchange of the royal insignia. But it seems that she got involved in a conspiracy against Heinrich, and therefore she, Guillaume and her three daughters were imprisoned and deported to Germany, where she and the daughters were placed in a convent. After Heinrich's death, they managed to escape to France.

1194-98 Queen Regnant Constanza of Sicily (Italy)
1195-97 Regent of Sicily
1197-98 (28.98-17.05) Sole Ruer of Sicily

Also known as Constance, she was married to Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich VI and daughter of King Roger II of Sicily. In 1185 she was named possible heiress of Sicily by her nephew King Guillermo II. On his death in 1189, however, the Sicilian nobles, wishing to prevent German rule in Sicily, chose Constance's nephew Tancredo of Lecce as William's successor. Emperor Heinrich VI conducted an unsuccessful campaign in 1191 against Tancred during which Constance was captured but was released because she was pregnant. After Tancred's death in 1194 they were crowned King and Quee of Sicily and she gave birth to her only child, Friedrich. She was named regent in the absence of her husband in 1195 but clearly considered herself to be the rightful heiress and continued the forceful rule of her predecessor. When he died in 1197 she ruled alone for a year. In order to save the throne of Sicily for her infant son, Federico (later Holy Roman emperor as Friedrich II), Constance renounced the German kingship for Frederick and the following year he was crowned as king of Sicily, continuing to act as regent until her death. In her will she had named Pope Inocenz II as guardian for her son. As queen she used the titulatureConstancia dei gracia Romanorum imperatrix semper augusta et regina Sicilie and as regent for her son she added the term una cum carissimo filio suo Frederico eadem gracia rege Sicilie, ducatus Apulie et Principatus Capue. She lived (1154-1198).

1195-1203 De facto Ruler Empress Euphrosyne of the Byzantine Empire (Covering what is today Greece and Turkey)

She was married to Alexus III Angelus, a weakling with a lust for power, who mainly busied himself with diplomatic affairs and left the interior with home affairs to her. She proved to be both extravagant and corrupt.

1201-22 Regent Dowager Countess Blanca de Navarra of Champagne (France)
Until 1229 Regent of Navarra (Spain)

Also known as Blanche de Navarre, she was pregnant when her husband Thibaut III died, and she became regent for her posthumously born son Thibaut IV (1201-53). Her regency was plagued by a number of difficulties. Her brother-in-law, count Henry II had left behind a great deal of debt, which was far from paid off when Thibaut III died. Further, their son Thibaut's legitimacy was not unquestioned, and his right to the succession was challenged by Henry's daughter Philippa and her husband, Erard I of Brienne, count of Ramerupt and one of the more powerful Champagne nobles. The conflict broke into open warfare in 1215, and was not resolved until after Thibaut came of age in 1222. At that time Thibaut and Blanca bought out their rights for a substantial monetary payment. Her brother Sancho VII of Navarre was the last male-line descendant of the first dynasty of kings of Navarre, the Pamplona dynasty, and was childless and when he went into retirement ("el Encerrado") she took administration of the kingdom, though he remained king until her son succeeded him in 1234. She was the youngest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre (who died 1194) and Sancha of Castile. She lived (1170's-1229).

1212-22 Regent Dowager Queen Constance de Aragón of Sicilia (Italy)
She held the reins in the absence of her husband. She was the second wife of Friedrich III, who was Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire 1198-1251, and successor of his first wife was Queen Constanza of Sicily. She was the mother of Konrad IV, who also became Emperor and King of Sicily. She (d. 1222).
1212-17 Sovereign Margravine Yolanda de Flanders of Namur (Belgium)
1216-19 Empress of Constantinople
Also known as Violante or Jolanta. After her brother, Emperor Henri's death in June 1216 the Barons of the Empire offered her and her husband Pierre, the crown, and they both accepted. In 1217 they left for Constantinople, and she seeded the marquisate to her oldest son. They were crowned in Rome by Pope Honrius III, and continued their journey, Pierre over land and was taken prisoner, she was pregant and travelled by sea. In Morea she married her daughter Anges off to Gottfried II, the future Prince of Achaia. In Constantinopel she gave birth to the heir to the throne, Baudouin II. (1228-1261), and took ver the regency. Just before her dath she married her daughter Maria to Emperor Theodor I. Laskaris of Nikæa. She was mother of 9 children and daughter of Count Baudouin V of Flanders and Hainault and lived (circa 1175-1219).

1214 (&dagger) Regent Dowager Queen Leonor de Plantagenet of Castilla (Spain)

1214-15 Regent Princess Bergenguela of Castilla (Spain)
1215-19 Queen Regnant of Asturias-León and Castilla
1219 Regent
1230 Regent in León
First she governed in the name of her brother Enrique I (1204-14-15-17). Later she divorced - under Pope Innocent III's orders - from her second degree cousin King Alfonso IX de Leon (King of Leon 1188 -1230). Her first son, became King Fernando II of Castile by succession and transmission of her rights to the Castilian Crown in 1219. Eleven years later, when his biological father, Alfonso IX de León, died in 1230, he became, too, King Fernando III of Leon. She lived (1180-1246).

The daughter of Queen Isabella of Jerusalem and her second husband Henri de Champagne, she married Hugues of Cyprus in 1208. He took over the reigns in Cyprus in 1210/11 from his sister Burgundia. After his sudden death at Tripoli in 1218, Alice acted as regent for her 8 month old son Henri in Cyprus. In 1223 she married Bohemond V of Antiochia. In Jerusalem, Friedrich II, Holy Roman Emperor was recognized as suzerain but not regent of Cyprus in 1228, because of his marriage to Queen Yolanda. When she died, Alice traveled to Acre to put forward her claim to Crown of Jerusalem - without success. After she and Bohemond divorced because they were too closely related (third cousins), she married Ralph, Count of Soissons. As she was the great-aunt of King Conrad of Germany - who had failed to come East to accept throne - Alice was entrusted with regency of Jerusalem in 1243. After her death the regency passed to her son and heir, Henri, King of Cyprus. She lived (circa 1193-1246).

1219-52 Queen Regnant Zabel I of Lesser Armenia (Cilicia) (Turkey/Syria)
Also known as Isabella, her father, Leo II had promished his nephew Raimond-Ruben de Antiochiaia, the succession to the throne, but at his death-bed he her, as his heir. Her older sister, Stephanie, or her husband, Jean de Brienne, claimed the title for her and their young son, but they died shortly after. And the Armenian nobles followed the wish of Leo II, and paid homage to her as their Queen, under various male regents. She later ruled together with her two husbands Phillip 1222-25 (he was poisoned) and Heton I (1226-1269). Armenia Minor established very close ties with the Crusader States. It was still threatened by Byzantium, however, and appears to have come under Byzantine overlordship for short periods. Her mother was Sibylla de Lusignan of Cyprus-Jerusalem, she was mother of two sons and two daughters, and lived (circa 1212-52).
1223-47 Queen Regnant Rusudani of Georgia, by the will of our Lord, Queen of Queen of Kings and Queens of the Abkhazis, Kartvelians, Ranians, Kakhetians and the Armenians, Shirvanshah and Shahanshah and Master of all the East and West, Glory of the World, Kingdom and Faith, Champion of the Messiah
The daughter of Queen Tamar (1178-1213) she succeded her brother, Giorgi IV Lasha. She was leader of the nation in a period when it was attacked by Mongol tribes and disintegrated into numerous petty principalities. Retreated to Kutaisi when Tiflis was besieged by Jalal ud-din Shah of Khwarazmia, and captured by the latter, 9 th March 1226. Forced to accept the sovereignty of the Mongol Khan in 1242, an annual tribute of 50,000 gold pieces. In 1224 she married Muhammad Mughis ud-din Turkan Shah of Erzerum, who embraced Christianity on his marriage. Her son, Davit VI Narin, succeded her as King of Georgia - Imerati. Her daughter, Princess Thamar married Sultan Muhammad Ghias ud-din Kaikhushru II of Konia. She lived (1195-1247).
1226-36 Regent Dowager Queen Blanche de Castilla of France
1240-52 Sovereign Countess of Valois
1248-52 (&dagger) Regent of France
When her hunsband Louis invaded England after the death of her cousin John to claim the crown in her right, only to find a united nation against him, she established herself at Calais and organized two fleets, one of which was commanded by Eustace the Monk, and an army under Robert of Courtenay but all her resolution and energy were in vain. Although it would seem that her masterful temper exercised a sensible influence upon her husband's gentler character, her role during his reign (1223-1226) is not well known. He left her as regent and guardian of his children. Of her twelve or thirteen children, six had died, and King Louis IX was only 12 years old. The situation was critical, for the hard-won domains of the house of Capet seemed likely to fall to pieces during a minority. She had to bear the whole burden of affairs alone, to break up a league of the barons (1226), and to repel the attack of the king of England (1230). But her energy and firmness overcame all dangers. She remained influential after her son took over the government in 1236. In 1248 she again became regent, during Louis IX's absence on the crusade, a project which she had strongly opposed. In the disasters which followed she maintained peace, while draining the land of men and money to aid her son in the East. She was the third daughter of Alfonso VIII, king of Castile, and of Eleanor of England, daughter of Henry II, and lived (1187-1252).
1228-(37) Regent Dowager Empress Maria de Courtenay of Constantinople (Turkey)
Regent for Baudouin II de Courtenay, who succeeded his brother, Robert. She reigned together with co-regents. The Empire of Constantinople was mainly based around the ancient city of Byzantine and parts of Greece, but the City of Constantinople is now known as Istanbul.
1253-61 (&dagger) Regent Dowager Queen Plaisance de Antiochia of Cyprus
1257-61 (&dagger) Regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in Acre (Israel)
At the death of her husband, Henri of Lusignan, her son Hugh II was only a few months old ans she claimed the regency. The High Court of Cyprus confirmed her in this position, but the Barons in the mainland, in Akkon (what remained of the former Kingdom of Jerusalem) demanded that she showed up herself before they would confirm her as regent. Lord Jean d'Ibelin of Arsuf was bailliff in Jerusalem and she contemplated marrying his son. In 1258 she tried to strenghten her pssition and arrived in Tripoli with her son. The High Court of the Kingdom assembled, and her brother, Boemond tried to be accepted as heir to the throne of Cyprus in the abcense of, grandson of Emperor Frederik II and Queen Maria of Jerusalem, but this was rejected and the royal family was drawn into the civil war between the Genoese, Venetians, Hospitallers and the Templars. A majority was in favour of Plaisance's regency, and she returned to Cyprus after haveing reappointed Jean d'Ilbelin as bailliff. She was daughter of Boemond V of Antiochiaia and Lucienne de Cacammo-Segni, and lived (1236-61)

She was appointed to "keep and govern the realm of England and the lands of Wales and Ireland", with the counsel of Richard, earl of Cornwall, when her husband since 1236, Henry III, was away in France to defend his territories in Gascogne. She was adviced by a Council, but she was in charge of the government, even when giving birth to a daughter in November. Eleanor was very influential during her husband's reign. Her determined resistance to baronial reform and her key part in bringing about the fall of Simon de Montfort's government invite new appraisal. After her husband's death in 1271 she was the only person in the realm anointed to the royal estate, she gave her consent to the breaking of the old seal and making of the new and the declaration of the new king, Edward I's peace, but she did not act as regent in the period until Edward returned to England. As a widow she was in control of her wast dowry in Amesbury. In 1286 she entered a convent, but was still consulted by her son, Edward I, from time to time. She was daughter of Raymond Bergengar, count of Provence and Beatrice of Province. Her sister Marguerite was married to Louis IX of France, Sanchia to Richard, Earl of Cornwall and the youngest Beatrice to Charles, Count d'Anjou. The youngest sister inherited Province. Eleanor was mother of nine children of whom four survived to adulthood. She lived (1217/23-91).

1259-66 Regent Dowager Queen Margrethe Sambiria Sprænghest of Denmark
1266-81 Lady of Estonia and Virland
Born as a Pommerian Princess, she was regent for her son Erik 5. Klipping after the death of her husband, Kristoffer I. She fought against the powerful Archbishop Jakob Erlandsen. In 1261 she and her son were taken prisoner in Germany. The next year she returned together with Albrecht of Braunshweig and Erlandsen left the country. She managed to persuade Pope to accept the idea of female succession to the Danish throne, though not to her daughters having succession-rights before male relatives in other lines. Estonia was her dowry which she controlled from Lolland-Falster another Dowry in the South of Denmark. She lived circa (1230-81).
1261-67 De Facto Ruler Queen Maria Laskarina of Hungary in Croatia and Dalmatia
Married to King Bela IV of Hungary (1235-70), sho used much of his reign trying to curtail the power of the magnates and set out to recover the crown lands his father had given to supporters. Confronted by the menace of the Mongol invasion, he sent unheeded appeals to Pope Gregory IX and Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich II, but he was defeated in 1241. Returning after the withdrawal of the invaders, he repopulated the country by inviting foreign colonization. Bela's long struggle with Ottocar II, king of Bohemia, for Austria and Styria ended in defeat in 1260. His last years were disturbed by the rebellion of his son, King Stephen V (1270-72), who forced him to share the kingdom. Maria was involved in the struggle and was de-facto ruler of parts of the kingdom. She was born as Princess of Nicaea and (d. 1270).

When Queen Plaisance of Cypern died in 1261 her son Hugo II was eight years old, at first Isabella's son was appointed regent because the Supreme Court thought a man would be a better regent than a woman, but in 1263 Isabella and her husband, Henri de Poitou of Antiochiaia (d. 1276 ), came to Cyprus and the nobles paid homage to her as regent, but she died the following year. As the younger daughter of King Hugo I Lusignan of Cypern and Alice de Champagne-Blois she was Heriess Presumptive of Jerusalem, since her mother was the daughter and Heriess Presumptive of King Henri I of Jerusalem and Princess Isabella d'Anjou of Jerusalem. Isabella's oldest son, Hugo III, was king of Cyprus (1235-84) and her daughter ,Marguerite Titular-Princess of Antiochiaia and Lady of Tyros and lived (before 1244-1308) and married to Jean de Montfort, Lord of Tyros (d. 1289). Isabella lived (circa 1215-64).

1272-77 Regent Dowager Queen Elisabet Kumanac of Hungary
After the death of her husband King István V (Stephen) of Hungary (1270-72) she was regent for their son, László IV of Hungary (1272-90), who was murdered. He had been kidnapped at age ten from his father's court by rebellious vassals. His minority was an alternation of palace revolutions and civil wars, in which she barely contrived to keep the upper hand. In this milieu Ladislaus matured precociously and was poorly educated, which greatly confined his personalities as rough and reckless. Her daughters Katalin (Ca 1256-after 1314) was married to king Stepan IV Dragutin of Serbia (d. 1316), Mária (ca 1257-1323) was married to King Charles II of Naples and Sicily - recognized as Queen in parts of the country 1290-92, the third daughter was married to the Tsar of Bulgaria, Erzsébet (1255-1326) first married Zavis von Rosenberg zu Falkenstein and secondly King Stepan Uros II Milutin of Serbia and the youngst daughter Ágnes (ca 1260-ca 1281) was married to Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos of Byzantium. Queen Elizabeth was daughter of Zayhan, a prince of the Turkish Nomadic Cuman tribe, which had been pushed into Hungary by the invasions of Chinghis-Khan, and lived (1240-after 1290).
1274-1305 Queen Regnant Juana I of Navarra, Countess of Champagne and Brie (Spain and France)
Also known as Jeanne, and at the age of 13 she was married to king Philippe V of France (1268-1314), who became king of Navarra by the right of his wife. She left him to reign in Navarra and stayed in Champagne. Mother of 7 children. Her three surviving sons Louis X of France, Philip V and Charles IV all became kings of France and Navarra, and her only surviving daughter, Isabelle, married king Edward II of England. She died under mysterious circumstances one chronicler even accused her husband of having killed her. She lived (circa 1271-1305).
1274-76 Regent Dowager Queen Blance d'Artois of Navarra and the Counties Troyes and Meaux
1274-84 Regent of the Counties of Champagne and Brie (Spain and France)
After the death of her husband Henri I (1270-74), she was regent for daughter Juana I, and various powers, both foreign and Navarrese, sought to take advantage of the minority of the heiress and the weakness of the female regent. She left the administration of Navarra to King Philippe III of England after her marriage to Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster (1245-1296), brother of Edward I of England, and they administered Champagne until Juana came of age in 1284. She was the daughter of count Robert I of Artois, and the granddaughter of Louis VIII of France, mother of four children with her second husband, and lived (circa 1248 -1300).
1276-1309 Sub-Queen Helena d'Anjou of Dioclea (Montenegro)
Succeeded Stephen and followed by Stephen Uros III of Decani
1280-84 Regent Dowager Queen Ingeborg Eriksdatter of Norway
After the death of her husband, Magnus the Lawmaker (1238-63-80) she acted as regent for her son, Erik II (1268-99). She was the first Norwegian Queen to be crowned and was daughter of King Erik IV Plogpenning of Denmark and Jutta of Sachsen, and lived (1244-87).
1283-1308 Titular Empress Catherina I de Courtenay of Constantinople (Turkey), Dame of Courtenay (France)
Also Sovereign Princess of Achaia (Albaina) and Dame de Courtenay (France)
Daughter of Philippe, the son of Emperor Boudewijn of the Latin Empire in the ancient city of Byzanz and parts of Greece. He was deposed 1261. Plans were made to marry her to Freiderich of Sicilia, but nothing came of it. The Pope interfered, there were also attempts to have her marry the heir to the Byzantine throne, Michael IX, but she declined because the contract was not lucrative enough for her, and in 1302 she married Count Charles I de Valois (1270-1325), who was planning a cruzade against Byzantine when she died. Mother of three daughters and a son, who died just before herself, and she was therefore succeeded by the oldest, Catherine II, as heir to the Latin Empire of the East. Catharine I lived (1274-1308).
1283-85 Governor Queen Constance Hohenstaufen of Sicily (Italy)
In 1262 her father, Manfredo Hohenstaufen, arranged her marriage to Infant Pedro of Aragon. Manfredo lost his crown and life in 1266, and she was his heir - though the throne remained in the hands of Charles of Anjou, a brother of King Louis IX of France. Her husband gave her in her own right the title of Queen, before succeeding to the throne in 1276. In 1282 her husband - now Pedro III made a triumphant entry into Messina, and in the following year she left for Sicilia, and it was announced that the Infant Jaime would be heir to Sicily as the elder son, Alfonso, would remain heir of Aragon. In the case of Jaime's minority, she would act as regent. Pedro III had to depart Sicily, leaving her in charge. In November 1285 Constance's husband died at Villafranca de Penadres where he was buried, and the following year Jaime was crowned - though both she and her son were excommunicated by the pope. When in 1291 her eldest son, Alfonso III, died childless Jaime succeeded him, remaining king of both countries until 1296 when Fadrique, Constance's third son, became King of Sicilia. She returned to Spain and lived (1249-1301).
1284-85 Empress Regnant Theodora Comnenus of Trebizond (Turkey)
Trabzon is a city and coastal region in northeastern Turkey, by the Black Sea west-southwest of Georgia. At the Sack of Byzantium in 1204, and subsequent establishment of the Latin Empire by marauding Crusaders, a few members of the Imperial family escaped and established this state. Owing to a combination of the typical Byzantine policy of extensive marriage alliances together with notable difficulty of access by potential invaders, Trapezoid was generally ignored or bypassed by the great conquerors of the era Seljuqs and Mongols mainly. Theodora was daughter of Manuel I (1238-63) and came on the throne after 3 of her brothers, before she was deposed.
1284 Titular Queen Irene Palailologina de Monferrato of Thessalonica (Greece)
Her father, Guglielmo VIII of Monferrato in Italy gave up the title of titular king upon her marriage to Emperor Andronikos II. Palailogos of Byzantine. Her father was Marchese di Montferrato (1253-92), titular King of Saloniki (1262-84), Signore d'Ivrea (1266-67) and (1278-92), Signore di Milano (1278-82), and died in prison Alexandria in 1292. Her mother was his third wife, Beatriz of Castilla. She lived (1274-1317).
1286-90 Queen Regnant Margaret of Scotland and The Orkney Islands (United Kingdom)
With the sudden death of Alexander III, Scotland was left without an obvious heir to the throne. At first, Margaret's step-grandmother Yolande declared that she was pregnant with a legitimate heir, countering the claims of two powerful nobles, Robert Bruce (grandfather of the future Robert I of Scotland) and John Balliol, each of whom wanted the throne for himself. When it was discovered that Yolande was not really pregnant, it was decided that Alexander's only surviving descendant, his three-year-old granddaughter Margaret, would ascend to the throne under a regency of six nobles. She was the daughter of Eric II of Norway and his wife Margaret, daughter of Alexander III, who died in childbirth. Fearing that a young and powerless queen would invite civil war between the rival claimants to the throne, the Scottish nobles appealed to Edward I of England to intervene. Eager to extend his own influence in Scotland, Edward arranged the Treaty of Birgham in 1290, by which Margaret was betrothed to his son the Prince of Wales (later Edward II of England), in return for an assurance of Scottish independence though he would serve as ward for the young queen. She set sail from Norway to her new realm in the autumn of 1290, but took ill during the stormy voyage and died soon after reaching the Orkney Islands around September 26. With her death, the House of Dunkeld came to an end. Her corpse was taken to Bergen and buried beside her mother in the stone wall, on the north side of the choir, in Christ's Kirk at Bergen. In the two years that followed, Scotland was left with 14 claimants to the throne. Once again, Edward was asked to intercede. His efforts to exert his own authority over the country eventually led to the First Scottish War of Independence. Also known as "The Maid of Norway", she lived (1283-90).
1286-92 Regent Dowager Queen Agnes af Brandenburg of Denmark
1286 Royal County Sheriff of Lolland-Falster
Regent for son Erik IV Menved after her husband, Erik V was assassinated. Her rule was challenged by several magnates who had been found guilty - probably unjustly- of killing her husband and had been outlawed in 1287. These outlaws, who were aided by the Norwegian king and soon joined by Duke Valdemar of Schleswig and the new archbishop, Jens Grand, raided the Danish coasts. Erik defeated Valdemar and reached an agreement with Norway in 1295, but he continued to feud with Grand, whose imprisonment led to a papal interdict of the king in 1297. Erik's settlement with Pope Boniface VIII (1303) enabled him to resume Danish conquests along the northern border of the Holy Roman Empire, and in 1304 the emperor Albert I ceded to Denmark all lands north of the Elbe River. Lolland-Falster was her dowry which she administered as a royal fief, being in charge of aspects of the local administration. She later married Count Gerhard II of Holsten and became mother of another son, Johann, she lived (1258-1304).
1290-1300 Co-Regent Queen Catherina Tomasina Morosini of Hungary
Her husband István the Posthumous of Hungary, Duke of Slavonia (1236-71) who died as a Patrician in Venezia, was son of King Endre II of Hungary and Croatia (1205-35). She became co-ruler when her son, Endre III (1265-90-1301), came to the throne after the son of his third cousin, Lázsló IV was murdered during the civil wars in the country. She was daughter Micaele Sbarra Morosini, and Patrician of Venice of lived (1240-1300).
1290-92 Reigning in Dissidence Queen Mária of Hungary
She reigned in dissidence to King Endre III, after the her brother Lázsló IV was murdered,when she was acknowledged as kiralyno (female king) by the Dalmatian regions, with the provison that her son Carlo Martello (Martell Károly) was to be elected king in her place. She was daughter of King V. István and Elisabeth, who was regent of the kingdom 1272-77, and married to the future King Carlo II of Napoli and Sicily. She lived (circa 1257-1323).
1295-1301 and 1312-21 (&dagger) Regent Dowager Queen María de Alfonso de Molina of Castilla (Spain)
Lady de Molina in her own right, she was widow of Sancho IV. As regent for her son, Ferdinando IV, she defended his throne against several pretenders, who were at various times supported by France, Aragón, Portugal, Navarre, and Granada. 11 years later, after Ferdinando&rsquos death, she acted as a guardian to her grandson Alfonso XI, while the regency was contested among his other relatives.
1303-17 De facto Reigning Empress Violante Aleramo of Thessalonica (Greece)
1305-06 Sovereign Margravine of Monferrato (Italy)
She married Emperor Andronikos II Palailogos, later Emperor of Constantinople, as his second wife in 1284 and became known as Yolanda, and was given Thessalonica as her dowry. She was in disupte with her husband over the future of their sons, as his sons by the first marriage were named as heirs. She wanted to have the Empire carved out in seperate principalities for each of the thre sons. They grew further apart when her husband married their five year old daughter to King Simonis Milutin of Serbia who were in his 50s and forced their oldest son to marry the daughter of his closest advisor even though she was of low nobility. In 1303 she packed her backs and took up residence in Thessalonica, which considered her own property. 1309 an attempt of reconciliation failed and she died in her territory in 1317. 1305 she had inherited Monferrato from her brother and the folowing year she passed the title to her second son, Theodore, who spend the rest of his life in Italy. She was mother of seven chldren.

Elisabeth-Richsa had been politically influential 1303-05 during the reign of her husband, Wencelas II of Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, and regent from August till October, when she married Rudolf III of Austria, who was titular king of Bohemia, Hungary and Poland until his death one year later, but in reality Hungary and Bohemia was in an interregnum. Elzbieta married her third husband, Heinrich zur Lippe in 1315 and they continued as leaders of the Bohemian nobility against Queen Elisabeth. After his death in 1329, she withdrew to the Convent of Aula Sankt Mariæ in Brünn. She was daughter of King Przemyl II of Poland and Richeza, daughter of King Valdemar of Denmark, and lived (1288-1335).

1352-54 Regent Princess Constanza of Sicily (Italy)
The unmarried daughter of Pietro II of Sicily (1337-42) and Elisabeth of Carinthia of Tirol, she was regent during the reign of her brother Luigi, who was king 1342-55. Her sister Eufemia was regent for their other brother, Federico from 1355. Constanza lived (1324-55).
1355-57 Regent Princess Eufemia of Sicilia (Sicily) (Italy)
The unmarried daughter of Pietro II (1337-42) she was regent for brother, Federico III, Duke of Athens and Neopatras (1341-55-77), who was succeeded by daughter Maria in 1377. Their sister, Constanza had acted as regent 1552-54 for their older brother King Luigi. Eufemia lived (1330-59).
1365-68 In Charge of the Government Queen Leonor de Gandia de Aragón of Cyprus, Titular Queen Consort of Jerusalem (Israel)
1369 Co-Regent of Cyrus
Her husband, Pierre I de Lusignan, who had been away on various expeditions since 1365, returned to Cypern in 1368, he retaliated on the nobles who had been her favourites during his absence, and behaved with such haughtiness and tyranny that he alienated the sympathy of his barons and even of his brothers. In January 1369 he was assassinated by a body of nobles with the concurrence of his brothers. His son Pierre, a boy of thirteen, succeeded to the throne under the regency of his uncles, Jean, prince of Antiochia, and Jacques, constable of Cyprus. She quarreled with both of them, who had both been concerned in the assassination of her husband. She first welcomed the invaders as a means of avenging the murder of her husband, but when she saw that the Genoese were bent on destroying her son's kingdom, she joined the other royalists and took refuge with Jacques, the constable of Cyprus, in the Kyrenia castle. It was not until 1374 the her son was reinstated on the throne. She lived (1333-1416)
1370-75, 1376-77 and 1378-79 Regent Dowager Queen Elżbieta Łokietkówna of Poland and Dalmatia
As regent Queen Elisabeth or Erszébet had the official title Regina Senioris Poloniae and 1370-80, she was in fact joint ruler with her son, Louis d'Anjou of Hungary, and officially appointed regent during his stays in Hungary after he inherited the kingdom after her brother, Kazimierz III of Poland (1309-33-70). She had already been very influential since he succeeded her husband, Karol Robert, as king of Hungary in 1342. She had gained the upper hand at court and for several decades she acted as a sort of co-regent, and even the Hungarian barons were afraid of her. She was a fanatical catholic and founded countless religious churches and convents. Of her 7 children, the second son, Andreas married his cousin, Joanna I of Napoli and was Duke of Calabria until he was murdered by his wife in 1345. She lived (1305-80).
1375-1403 Titular Queen Isabel of Mallorca and Ibiza (Spain)
The daughter of King Jaime III of Mallorca etc. (1315-24-49), who was killed fighting against the king of Aragon who had retaken Majorca during the 1340s, labeling him as "a contumacious vassal". She succeeded her brother, Jaime VI (husband of Queen Joanna I of Napoli (1326-82)) to the titular dignity and lived in her family's possessions in Southern France at Chateau de Gallargues. Her first husband was Margrave Giovanni II of Montferrato (1313-72) and the second Konrad von Reischach zu Jungnau. She was mother of four sons (three of whom became Margraves of Monferrato) and a daughter, and lived (1337-after 1403).

She was the youngest daughter of King Valdemar IV of Denmark. At the age of ten she was married to King Håkon VI of Norway, son of Magnus II of Sweden and Norway. Their son Olaf, born in 1370, was elected King Olaf II of Denmark in 1375 at the death of Margrethe's father, with her as regent. After her husband's death shortly after her son also became Olaf IV of Norway. After Olaf's death in 1387 the Estates in Denmark elected her as "Full-mighty Master and Mistress of All the Real" for life. The following year she became regent of Norway. In 1388 the Swedish nobility dethroned their king Albrecht of Mecklenburg, and elected Margrethe as their reigning Queen instead. She chose her sister's daughter's son Erik of Pommerania as her successor, who beacme king in 1389, but Margrethe remained the real ruler. She founded the union of Kalmer which in the case of Sweden would last until 1523, and with Norway until 1814. In 1410, Margrethe tried to reinstate Danish overlordship over Schleswig, which caused a war with the Counts in Holstein. She traveled to the conflict area, and died there in 1412. She lived (1353-1412).

1377-1402 Queen Regnant Maria of Sicilia (Sicily) (Italy)
1377-79 Duchess of Athens and
Neopatria and Titular Queen of Jerusalem
At the age of 15 she succeeded her father, King Federico with Artale of Alagona as regent. 1379-88 she was in-exile in Sardegna because of civil war in Sicily. In 1390 she married Martin the Younger of Aragon and two years later they returned together with his father, Martin the Old, King of Aragon, and Maria received the crown by the Sicilian Barons. As king and Queen they used the titluatures Nos, D.Martin, e duenya Marya, per la gracia di Dios, roy e reyna de Ssicilia, e de los ducados de Athenes e de Neopatria duque e duquessa, e nos infante don Martin, del mult alto D. Pedro, de buena memoria, roy d'Aragon fillo, e per la gracia di Dios duque de Monblanc, Conte de Luna e senyor del marquesado e de la ciutat de Sagorbe, governador general per lo mult alt senior D.Jean, rey d'Aragon, ermano e senyor nostro muyt car, en tut sus regnos e terras, coadjutor de la dicha reyna en lo regimento del regno e ducados sopredichos, e padre e legitimo administrador del dicho rey. She died without a heir, and lived (1361-1402).
1381-86 Politically Influential Queen Margherita d'Angiò-Durazzo of Napoli (Italy)
1386-1400 Regent Dowager Queen
She was very influential during her husband and nephew Carlo III Durazzo's reign. He succeeded her father, Andreas of Hungary, as king and was also king of Hungary 1386. He was killed same year and she took over the government in the name of her son Ladislao di Durazzo (1386-1414) who was later succeeded by his daughter, Giovanna II. Margherita was daughter of Duke Carlo di Durazzo and the former heir to the throne of Napels, Princess Maria of Napoli (1328-66) and her sister Giovanna, was Duchess of Durazzo 1348-87. She ived (1347-1412).
1382-85 and 1386-95 Queen Regnant Maria of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria and Cumania, Bulgaria
Mária was crowned as rex Hungariæ, and was the second of three daughters of Louis I the Great of Hungary from the House of Angevin (Anjou). Mary became Queen of Hungary after her father's death in 1382 (her elder sister Catherine died four years earlier). The country was ruled by her mother and the Palatine Miklós Garai. Many noblemen of Hungary were opposed to them and they helped Charles of Durazzo (Charles III of Naples, Charles II of Hungary) to become King of Hungary in 1385. Sigismund to whom she was betrothed rescued her from captivity. Sigismund took revenge on the murderers of her mother. From 1387 officially Maria and her husband were joint rulers of Hungary but in fact he ruled alone. In 1410 Sigismund was elected Holy Roman Emperor, two years after she married Barbara Cilli, and their daughter, Elisabeth and her husband became Queen of King of Bohemia and Croatia-Dalmatia in 1437. She lived circa 1372-95).

She assumed the regency without difficulty after her husband's death, but the political elite was divided over who Maria should marry, She worked for a marriage between her daughter and Louis d'Orléans of France. The Polish nobles insisted that their ruler should reside permanently in their kingdom. At first Elisabeth considered taking up arms, but in March 1383 she accepted the accession of her younger daughter, Hedwig (Jadwiga) as Queen of Poland. In August 1384 some of the Hungarian nobles renounced their allegiance to her. She was under threat from both Sigismund of Luxembourg - whom her husband had designated as Maria's husband - and Carlos d'Anjou of Durazzo-Napoli, who was offered the Hungarian throne. Elisabeth was forced to abandon the idea of the French marriage and accepted that Maria married Sigismund, but it was too late in December 1385 Maria abdicated and Carlos became king, but in February the following year he was deposed, he was wounded and died. Elisabeth again seized the reigns of power and immediately rewarded those who had been loyal to her daughter. In April 1386, king Wenceslas of Bohemia brought Sigimund to Hungary, and by the Treaty of Györ the queens were forced to accept him as prince consort. A riot had broken out in Slavonia and Elisabeth thought that the presence of Maria would calm the situation. She was wrong, her small army was slaughtered, and the queens were imprisoned at the bishop of Zagreb's castle, and this marked her fall from power, and in January 1387 Elisabeth was strangled in her prison. Elisabeth was daughter of Stefan Kotromanić, Ban of Bosnia and Elżbieta of Poland, and lived (ca.1340-87).

1383-85 Queen Beatriz of Portugal
Also known as Brites, she was married to king Juan of Castilla, and after her father, Fernando I's death, she claimed the throne of Portugal, but was almost immediately deposed by the Còrtes, who chose her uncle as king. Her son Fernando I of Aragon and Sicily, who were married to Leonor Urraca de Castilla, Countess de Albuquerque. Beatriz lived (1372-circa 1410).
1383 Regent Dowager Queen Leonor Tellez de Menezes of Portugal
First married to João Lourenço da Cunha, Lord of Pombeiro and in 1371 she married king Fernando I, which caused a war with Castilla as her husband broke an engagement with Enrique II's daughter. During the later years of their marriage, her husband was very ill and had to withdraw from the government, which was left in her hands. After his death, she was appointed regent for their daughter, Beatriz, who was married to Juan I of Castilla. She was very unpopular because of her pro-Castilian politics, and people did not trust the promises of autonomy, and as she gave her lover, Juan Fernández Andeiro, Count von Ourém, much power, she was deposed after only six weeks by a riot of the artisans of Lisbon in favour of her husband's illegitimate half-brother, João de Avis. Mother of one son by her first husband and two by her second, who both died as infants. She was daughter of Martim Afonso Telo de Menezes and Aldonça Anes de Vasconcelos, and lived (circa 1350-86).
1392-1419 Regent Queen Isabeau Baverie of France
1403-04 President of the Council of State
In 1392 her husband, Charles IV had the first of 44 fits of insanity, which were to last until his death in 1422, and would make him unable to reign. Isabeau was given large lands in Normandie, around Paris and in Champagne as a security, and officially declared regent during the "absence" of her husband. From 1395 she actively engaged in politics, and arranged the marriage of her children in very young age. Her advisors, the brother's of her husband, Philippe de Burgundy and d'Orléans, engaged in a fierce power struggle, which almost resulted in a civil war. In 1402 she took over the control of the taxation and at 26.4.1403 she became President of the Council of State and took over the management of the Government. One year later Louis died, and she reigned jointly with Philippe. After the birth of the last child, she removed totally from Charles, who became more and more violent and dangerous. In 1407 her position was reaffirmed in an official act, but her husband's cousin, Jean placed his followers in all the central positions. 1411-12 a civil war broke out between the Burundians and Orleans. In 1415 her 18 year old son, Louis, took over the government, and soon after the English attacked France. After Louis' death, his brother, Jean (Married to Jakobäa of Hainault, Holland and Zeeland) was regent until his death two years later. She then was in charge again, and appointed Jean without Fear as Governor of the French Kingdom. In 1419 and 1420 she met the English king, Henry V and negotiated a peace-treaty. After the death of her husband, she lived alone, plagued by rheumatism and immobile because of her heavy weight. Originally named Elisabeth von Bayern, she was mother of 12 children, and lived (1370-1435).
1395-98 Reigning Dowager Queen Jelena Gruba of Rama (Bosnia)
Also known as Helena the Cruel, she was the widow of Stjepan Dasiba (1391-95) and was succeeded by Stjepan Ostoja (1398-1404 and 1418-21).
1395-97 and 1398-99 Regent-Governor Queen Maria López de Luna of Aragón (Spain)
Her husband, King Martin I was king of Aragon (1395-1410) and in 1409 he succeeded his son as King of Sicily, where he reigned one year. Their son, Martin the Younger's wife Maria of Sicily inherited the kingdom in 1377 but 1379-88 she was in-exile in Sardegna because of civil war in Sicily. In 1390 they married and two years later they returned together with Martin I. After her death in 1402 Martin the Younger married the later Queen Blanca II of Navarre (1391-1425-42). Maria succeeded her father Lope de Luna as Countess of Luna. (d. 1406).
1313 and 1316-31 Sovereign Princess Mathilde d' Avesnes-Hainault of Achaia and Morea, Queen of Thessalonica (Greece)
Also known as Mahaut, she was daughter of Florence d'Avernes-Hainault, who had succeeded her mother, Isabelle de Villehardouin as titular-prince. First married to Guido II de la Roche, Duke of Athens, Lord de Theben (d. 1308). In 1313 she was deposed by her second husband, Louis de Bourgogne, titular King of Thessaloniki until his death in 1316. Two years later she married Jean d'Anjou-Gravina (Prince Giovanni of Naploli (1294-1336)) until their divorce in 1321. Her fourth husband was Hugo de La Palice, who was also Co-Prince of Achaia and Morea. Her sister, Marguerite, was Lady of Karytena from 1311. Mathildee lived (1293-1331).
1316 Regent Dowager Queen Clemence d'Anjou-Napoli of France
When her husband Louis X (1289-1314-16) died she was pregnant, making it impossible to know Louis's successor until the time his child was born. If the child were a son, he would succeed Louis as king: had the child been a daughter, Louis would have been succeeded by his brother Philip V. (John I's half-sister Jeanne, as a female, could not succeed to the throne of France she did, however, retain rights in the succession of Navarre). She was joint regent with her brother-in-law Philip for the five months remaining until the birth her child, who turned out to be male. But Jean I, only lived five days was succeeded by his uncle Philippe V.
1320-54 Politically Influential Empress Eirene Palaiologina Asenina Cantacuzene of the Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
1348 In charge of the Administration and Defence of Constantinople
1318 she married Jean Cantacuzene, Lord of Kalliopolis in Thrace. In 1320 he left her behind in the city of Didymoteichou while he took part in Andronikos III Palaiologos's rebellion against his grandfather, Andronikos II. She held the ford throuhout the whole civil war wich lasted until 1238, when Andronikos II abdicated. Also in charge of the defence of the city during the civil war against Anna of Savoia over the regency over Anna's infant son from 1341-43. Jean was problaimed Emperor and crowned in 1346 by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, who had taken side against Anna and the Patriarch of Constantinople, and the following year the new patriarch crowned Jean and Eirene. 1348 she was left in charge of Constantinople while her husband went on campagn against the Bulgarians. Six years later he abdicated and they both joined a convent. She was granddaughter of Tsar Jean II Asen of Bulgaria and (d. 1361/79).
1320-39 Politically Influential Queen Jadwiga Kaliska of Poland
She was influential during the reign of her husband king Władysław I Łokietek and her son Kazimierz III the Great. Her daughters were Elżbieta Łokietkówna, Queen of Hungary and Regent of Poland and Kunegunda, Princess regent of Świdnica. Jadwiga was daughter of Prince Bolesław the Devout of Małopolska (Poland Minor) and the Hungarian Princess Jolenta-Helena, and lived (1266-1339).

1328-49 Queen Regnant Juana II Capet of Navarra and Pamplona (Spain)

1330 Regent Queen Philippa de Hainault of England
Her husband Edward III appointed her regent on many occasions when he was absent on the Continent. When the Scots invaded England as far south as Durham in1346, she raised an army, winning the battle of Neville's Cross, and taking the Scottish King David II Bruce (d.1371) prisoner. She was responsible for the introduction of weaving into England and the patron of poets and musicians. She survived the Black Death (1348) - but her daughter Joanna, en route to marry the Castilian Prince Pedro the Cruel, was struck down and died. She was daughter of Count Guillaume III de d'Avesnes of Hainault and Holland (d.1337) and Jeanne de Valois (d.1352). She had 11 children and lived (1311-69).
1330 Regent Dowager Tsarina Theodora Palailologina of Bulgaria
After her husband, Tsar Michael Shishman,was defeated and killed by the Serbians, under Stephen Uros III, at the battle of Velbflzhd (Kiustendil) she assumed the regency for step-son, Ivan Stepan Shishman, who died in exile in Napoli. She was soon deposed by her husband's ex-wife Princess Ana Nead of Serbia. Theodora was daughter of Micahél IX Palaeologos, co-emperor of Byzantium and Rita of Armenia.

After her brother had deposed her ex-husband, Michael III, she initially reigned in the name of her son, czar Ivan Stephan, until she was removed herself. Her brother, Stephen Uros III, ruled Serbia and Bulgaria until 1355. Ana Neda was first engaged to Count Charles de Valois, but never married him. (d. after 1346).

1340-47 Regent Dowager Empress Anna de Savoie of Constantinople (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
1350-65/66 De Facto Ruler of Thessalonica (Greece)
She was widow of Andronikos III (1296-1328-41) and governed for son Jean V (1332-41&mdash47-91) jointly with the Patriarch of the Orthodox war. A civil war followed with the pretender Jean VI Kantakuzenos (1347-54) who became emperor in 1347 when her son was deposed. She lived in Constantinople until 1350 when she moved to Thessalonica which she ruled as her own portion of the empire until her death. She lived (1306-65/66).
1340-41 Empress Regnant Eirene Palailologina of Trebizond (Turkey)
Also known as Irene Palaeologina, she was the illegitimate daughter of Andronikos III Palailogos and married Emperor Basileios II Komnenos of Trapezunt. They divorced in 1339 and when he died the following year she succeeded him as ruler of the Empire wich was established after the conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade. Greek authority was maintained in three major locations, at Nicaea, in Epirus and at Trebizond. The latter started as heir to the Comneni and a reasonable ambition of moving on to Constantinople, but spent much of its existence in vassalage to the Mongols and Turks who ruled the plateau behind it. The city is known as Trabzon today. (d. 1341).
1341 and 1341-42 Empress Regnant Anna Anachutu of Trebizond (Turkey)
She was daughter of Alexius II Comnenus who ruled (1297-1330), followed by her brother Andronicus III of Trebizond until 1332, his son Manuel II in 1332 and the seond brother, Basileios II Komnenos 1332-40, who was married to Eirene Palailologina, who reigned as Empress 1341-42.
1343-82 Queen Regnant Giovanna I d'Angiò of Napoli and Sicilia and Sardegna, Sovereign Duchess of Pouilles and Calabre, Princess of Capua, Sovereign Countess of Province, Forcalquier and Piémont (Italy and France)
1374-76 Princess of Achaia and Baroness of Vostitsa (Greece) and Titular Queen of Jerusalem
Also known as Joan or Johanna of Napels, Jeanne d'Anjou or Juanna. At the age of 17 she was crowned by her Grandfather, Roberto d&rsquoAnjou, and inherited a flourishing kingdom, however tormented by dynastic troubles. In 1342 Giovanna married Andrea of Hungary, who died two years later in consequence of a conspiracy, to which perhaps the Queen herself participated in. Her brother-in-law took his revenge invading Naples. In 1346 she had married her cousin Luigi d&rsquoAnjou of Taranto. Because of the invasion she flew to Avignon in Province, in 1347 she sold it to Pope Clemente VI who supported her as an exchange to hold back the Hungarian expansion in Italy. After the death of her second husband, Giovanna got married with Juan of Aragon, who died very soon in consequence of an illness. Then in the same year she married a skilful captain, Otto of Braunschweig, to better defend her reign. She didn&rsquot have any heir and this caused succession problems. Pope Urbano VI excommunicated her because she had backed up the Anti-Pope Clemente VII. Her cousin, Carlo of Durazzo of Taranto, invaded her reign also because she had appointed as her successor Louis I d&rsquoAnjou, brother of the King of France. Giovanna fell prisoner and Carlo imprisoned her in Muro Lucano, a small town in Southern Italy, and had her strangled in 1383. She lived (1343-83).
1344 Regent Dowager Queen Maria of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Lesser Armenia) (Syria and Turkey)
1363-73 Politically Active
After Constantine IV of Armenia, the first Latin king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was killed in an uprising in 1344 after two years in office, she took over the regency. The new king was a distant cousin, Constantine V of Armenia, who died of natural causes in 1362. She then married Constantine VI another distant cousin, who formed an alliance with Peter I of Cyprus, offering him the port and castle of Corycus. On Peter's death in 1369, Constantine looked for a treaty with the Sultan of Cairo. The barons were unhappy with this policy, fearing annexation by the Sultan, and in 1373 Constantine was murdered. The year before she had sent a letter to Pope Gregory XI requesting military help against the Moslems. After her husband's death, the Pope urged her to marry Otto of Braunschweig. She was daughter of Jeanne of Anjou, Princess of Tarent and Oshin Korikos (or Corycos), who was regent of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia from 1320-1329 during king Leo V's minority. He was rumoured to have poisoned King Oshin and was probably responsible for the deaths of Leo's father, Oshin's sister Isabella of Armenia and two of her sons. He and his daughter, Alice was assassinated in 1329 at the behest of her husband Leo V.
Around 1400-42 Titular Queen Yolande de Aragón of Sicily, Napoli, Jerusalem, and Aragón (Italy)
1417 Regent Dowager Duchess of Anjou and Province (France)
1424-27 Presiding over the Estates General of Anjou and Province
Daughter of Juan I, king of Aragón, she was initially called Violenta. Her father was succeeded by Martin as king of Aragón. Her marriage to Louis II of Anjou in 1400, who spent much of his life fighting in Italy for his claim to the kingdom of Napoli. She was appointed guardian of her son-in-law the Dauphin Charles who became Charles VII in 1422, but his title was still challenged by the English and their Burgundian allies. In this struggle, Yolande maneuvered to have the duke of Bretagne break from an alliance with the English, and was responsible for the Breton soldier, Arthur de Richemont, becoming the constable of France in 1425. Yolande's early and strong support of Jeanne d'Arc, when others had reasonable doubts, suggests the Duchess' possible larger role in the orchestrating the Maid's appearance on the scene. Her younger daughter, Yolanda, was married to the heir of Bretagne, her youngest son René inherited Lorraine in 1431 and after her older son's Louis III's death, and three years later he also became duke of Anjou and heir of Sicily. She lived (1379-1442).
1406-18 Regent Dowager Queen Catalina de Lancaster of Castilla (Spain)
Widow of Enrique III (1379-90-1406) she was joint regent with Fernando de Antequera for son, Juan II (1405-06-54). She was an active regent, involved in financial matters, using her influence in negotiation about matrimonies and peace-treaties in the most important European nations. She was daughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Aquitaine (1340-99) and his second wife, Constance, titular Queen of Castile (1354-94) whose father, Pedro I of Castile and Leon (1350-69), was succeeded by a brother. Catalina was considered heiress of Castilla and married her half-cousin, King Enrique, and became the mother of 1 son and 2 daughters, and lived (1374-1418).
1409-15 Vice-Reine Blanca de Navarra of Sicilia (Italy)
1425-41 Queen Regnant Blanca I Navarra,
Countess de Nemours and Everux (Spain and France)
She was widow of Martin I de Aragón (1392-1409). His first wife was Maria of Sicilia, Duchess of Athens and he was succeeded by his father, Martin II (1409-10). 1410-12 the throne of Aragon was vacant, until Federico I de Aragon became king. He was King Consort of Navarre in her right, and after her death kept the government of Navarre in his own hands, from the hands of their own son Carlos de Viana, the rightful heir of the line of Navarrese kings. after his death in 1479 her daughter, Leonor became Queen. Blanca was daughter of Charles II of Navarra, Comte d'Èvreux and Duc de Nemours, and lived (1385-1441).
1412-14, 1416-19 and 1431-33 "Stadtholder" Queen Barbara von Cilli in Hungary and Croatia
1437 "Stadtholder" of Bohemia (Czech Republic)
Her husband, Sigmund of Luxemburg, king of Hungary and King of Germany from 1410, king of Bohemia from 1419 and Holy Roman Emperor since 1433. In Hungary she took over the "regni curia" when he went to Italy, first supported by her brother-in-law the Palatine Garai Miklós and two bishops. 1414-16 she went to Aachen for the coronation and participated in the Council of Konstanz before she returned and took over the government in Hungary. In the 1420's she followed her husband on his journeys during the Empire and he included her in the decision-making. During her second regency in Hungary she managed to maintain peace after a settlement was reached with the Hussites. After her coronation as Queen of Bohemia in 1437 she also acted as regent here for a few moths. After her husband's death the same year she was arrested by his successor, Albrecht II, but was able to flee to Poland. After Albrecht's death in 1439 she returned and settled at her dowry at Menik near Prague for the rest of her life. She was daughter of Herman II, Count von Cilli and Countess Anna von Schaunberg, mother of one daughter, Elisabeth who inherited Hungary and Bohemia, and lived (1390/95-1451).
1414-35 Queen Regnant Giovanna II d'Angiò of Napoli (Italy) and Titular Queen of Jerusalem Cyprus and Armenia, Sicily, Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Ramia, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria
Also known as Jeanne d'Anjou, she succeeded her brother, and two years later, her second husband, Jean de Bourbon, was imprisoned after trying to seize power. She adopted Alfonso V of Aragon as her heir in 1421. After he tried to take over power in 1423, she transferred the adoption to another relative Louis III d'Anjou, who she had expelled in 1420 for trying to seize power. After Louis' death in 1434, his brother, Rene was appointed heir, but Alfonso took power after her death. She lived (1373-1435).

She was regent in Aragón and Cataluña during her cousin and husband, Alfonso V's warfare in Italy, conquering Napoli from Giovanna II in 1442. He was king of Aragon (1416-58), Napoli (1435-58) and Sicily (1442-58) and spend most of the time in Italy from around 1435. She was daughter of king Enrique III of Aragon and Catherine of Lancastre, had no children and lived (1401-58).

She had big parts of Sweden as her dowry and she acted as her husband, Erik VII of Pmerrania's representative in the country, and she spend much of her time here. During his stay abroad from 1423 she was Guardian of the Realm in Denmark and among others made a treaty with some members of the North-German Confederation of socalled Hanse-States about the walidity of the coin-system. In 1428 she successfully organized the defence of Copenhagen against the attacking Hanse-Cities. No children She lived (1394-1430).

1422-28 Guardian Dowager Queen Catherine de Valois of England
Her husband, Henry VI died suddenly in 1422 and she was effectively exiled from court, suspicion falling on her nationality, and passed over as regent for her son Henry V by her brothers-in-law and kept away from her son. She entered a relationship and later married Owen Tudor, a Welsh courtier, who would become the founding father of the Tudor dynasty. Of their five children, two sons, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond and Jasper Tudor, 1st Duke of Bedford, were to play an important role in the future of the English monarchy. She was daughter of King Charles VI of France and Isabeau de Bavière, and lived (1401-37).

Known in Hungarian as Luxemburgi Erzsébet királyné, she was daughter of Sigismund of Luxembourg, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, who was joint regent and successor of his first wife, Queen Maria d'Anjou of Hungary. Her mother was Barbara Cilli. After his death in 1437, the Hungarian Estates recognized her as sovereign or Lady of the Land (Landesherrin), which pawed the way for her first husband, Albert von Habsburg's election as king of Hungary. After his death in 1439, she wanted to secure the throne for the unborn child. This would have meant that the reins of government would have been in her hands, but this the estates would not accept, and they offered the crown to Wladislas II Jagiello of Poland. In February, her son Lászlo was born and on 15 May, she had him crowned. However, the Estates declared that this had happened against the will of the people and in June, they invalidated her son's coronation. Elisabeth had secured the holy Stephan-Crown and Wladislas had to be crowned with another crown. A civil war followed among her supporters and those of the Polish king. Lászlo V the Posthumous was recognised as king in 1446 with Hunyadi Janos (John Corvinius) as regent until 1453. She lived (1409-42).

1437-39 Regent Dowager Queen Joan Beaufort of Scotland (United Kingdom of Great Britain)
After her husband, James I, was murdered, she reigned on behalf of their seven year old son son James II. Despite her efforts he became the pawn of two unscrupulous Scottish lords, Sir William Crichton and Lord Livingstone. The Black Douglas entered the fray and succeeded in defeating and executing Livingstone. Crichton, in turn, manipulated James into killing the Black Douglas. Eventually, James II defeated the Douglas family at the battle of Arkinholm. Daughter of John Beaufort and Margaret Holland, she had eight children by James I of Scotland and one with her second husband, James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn (circa 1383-circa 1451) John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl. (d. 1445).
1438-40 Regent Dowager Queen Leonor de Aragón-Urgell of Portugal and The Agaves
Also Countess de Urgell and Duchess de Goimbra. Her husband, Duarte (1391-1433-38) had appointed her as regent of in his will for their son, Afonso V (1432-38-81). However, she was inexperienced and, as an Aragonese, unpopular with the people who preferred the late king's brother Pedro, Duke of Coimbra. Negotiations for a compromise arrangement were drawn out over several months, but were complicated by the interference of the Count of Barcelos and the Archbishop of Lisbon, as also by her giving birth to a posthumous daughter in March 1439, and by the death of her eldest daughter, Philippa. Eventually the Cortes appointed Pedro the sole Regent, but Eleonore continued conspiring, but was forced to go into exile in Castile in December 1440. (1409-45).
1442-58 (&dagger) De Facto Co-Regent Queen Helena Paleologina of Cyprus
The most important event in the reign of Jean II was his marriage to Helena of Byzantine-Morea. She was stronger in character than her husband, took over the running of the kingdom and brought Greek culture out of the oblivion in which it had languished for three centuries. Her actions in favour of the Orthodox faith and Greek culture naturally disturbed the Franks, who came to consider her a dangerous enemy, but she had become too powerful to attack. Greek Cypriots have always revered Queen Helena as a great heroine because of her boldness. Their daughter and heir, Charlotte, was married to João, duke of Coimbra, grandson of the king of Portugal, who used his influence in support of the Catholic party, and so incurred the enmity of the Queen that Helena persuaded King Jean II to exclude him from any share in the government, on the grounds that he might grow too powerful and attempt to seize the crown. João left the court with his wife and died within a year under circumstances which led to the belief that he had been poisoned at the instigation of Helena. In 1458 Helena died and the king, now entirely under the influence of his illegitimate son, Jacques, thought to make him his heir. But a few months later Jean himself died and Charlotte succeeded him as Queen at the age of twenty-two. Helena lived (1432-58).
1445-54 De-facto in charge of the Government Queen Margaret d'Anjou of England
1455-82 Leader of the Lancastrian Party
1460-61 Acting Regent of England
She dominated her husband, Henry VI, and was very determined to keep him on throne during the War of the Roses. She headed the Lancastrian forces, and also controlled the government during her husbands fits of insanity (1445-53). When he became incapable of reigning in 1453 shortly after the birth of their frst child, Edward of Lancaster, she presented a bill to the parliament which would have named her regent, but it was defeated and the following year she appointed Richard of York as Protector. Her husband was deposed by the Yorkists in 1461, and she and her son fled to Scotland and then to France. The following year she invaded Northumbria, but it did not achieve anything, so she once again returned to France. Gathering her forces, she again landed in England in 1470, and this time her army prevailed and Henry was replaced on the throne of England. But soon after the Lancastrian forces were defeated by Yorkists at Tewkesbury, in the battle in which her son was killed. When Edward IV regained the throne, her husband was soon put to death. Margaret herself was captured and imprisoned in Tower. Edward IV eventually ransomed her to King Louis XI and she was allowed to return to France, where she spent rest of her life in seclusion. She lived (1429-82).

The "royal authority" was vested in her after the death of her first husband, Christoffer 3 of Bayern. She contrasigned and authorized the decisions made by the Council of State which reigned the country. Later same year she married the new king Christian I of Oldenborg and often acted as regent during his many warfares. She also had Abrahamstrup, Kalundborg, Lolland-Falster Slesvig and Holsten, Närke and Värmland (Sweden) as security for lones she granted her husband. A month before his death, Christian granted her Slesvig-Holsten as a personal fief, and after his death she acted as regent for son, Frederik, (later king) in the Dukedoms. She lived (1430-90).


Il comprend de nombreuses pièces historiques des époques étrusque, romaine, égyptienne et grecque :

Pièces étrusques

L’organisation des salles étrusques a été reconsidérée et restructurée en 2006, quarante années ayant été nécessaires pour la restauration de plus de 2 000 vestiges endommagés par les inondations de 1966.

  • La Chimère d’Arezzo découverte en 1553 à Arezzo lors de la construction de la forteresse médicéenne.
  • La statue de l’Arringatore (i er siècle av. J.-C. )
  • Bronzetti, kouros, Mnerva, animaux votifs, dévots (guerrier et orant), divinités, fragments, vaisselle, mobilier…
  • Têtes de canopes de Chiusi
  • Le sarcophage de Larthia Seianti (ii e siècle av. J.-C. )
  • Le Sarcophage des Amazones (iv e siècle av. J.-C. )
  • L’Urnetta con scena di banchetto provenant de Chiusi.
  • le Sarcophage dell’Obeso, de Chiusi également
  • La grande Amphore de Baratti (iv e siècle) au musée archéologique du territoire de Populonia
  • La statue funéraire Mater Matuta (460-450 av. J.-C.) au musée archéologique national (Chianciano Terme)
  • L’Urne de Montescudaio : urne cinéraire avec, sur le couvercle, le défunt banquetant assis sur un trône, au musée archéologique de la Villa Guerrazzi de Cecina.

La Chimera di Arezzo exposée dans le couloir des bronzes à destination cultuelle (avant son déplacement dans la salle des grands bronzes).

Le pavillon étrusque au musée archéologique de Florence.

Cliquez sur une vignette pour l’agrandir.

Pièces romaines

Giacobbe Giusti, Musée archéologique national (Florence)

Minerve en cours de restauration en 2006

    , statue en bronze de jeune homme haute de 146 cm, copie romaine d’un original grec classique qui fut trouvée en fragments au centre de Pesaro en octobre 1530.
  • Le torso di Livorno, copie d’un original grec du v e siècle av. J.-C.
  • Statue du soi-disant coq Gallo Treboniano, œuvre tardive du iii e siècle av. J.-C.
  • Le bronze de la Minerve d’Arezzo, copie romaine d’un modèle grec attribué à Praxitèle du iv e siècle av. J.-C.

Pièces égyptiennes

Giacobbe Giusti, Musée archéologique national (Florence)

vitrine aux salles égyptiennes

Les collections présentes ici (plus de 14 000 pièces) ne sont que les secondes en Italie après celles du musée égyptologique de Turin. Elles sont installées dans des salles décorées spécialement au premier étage et leurs contenus sont tirés à l’origine des collections Nizzoli et Schiapparelli et de la campagne de fouilles d’Ippolito Rosellini et de Jean-François Champollion. D’autres acquisitions importantes comme celles des papyrus proviennent des fouilles de 1934-1939. Les vestiges concernent surtout les activités quotidiennes de l’ancienne Égypte, avec aussi des objets en matériaux fragiles fait de bois, de tissu ou d’os. La restructuration en cours en 2006 veut privilégier les critères chronologiques et topographiques plutôt que thématiques.
La Salle VIII est dédiée à l’époque finale de la civilisation égyptienne et reste à son installation du xviii e siècle. On peut y voir les ustensiles trouvés dans la tombe d’une nourrice de la fille du pharaon Taharqa(XXV e dynastie) avec ses deux sarcophages. Il est même exposé l’enveloppe du corps de la femme appelée Takherheb, en toile mastiquée couverte de feuilles d’or.

Pièces grecques

Giacobbe Giusti, Musée archéologique national (Florence)

Cratère grec dit vase François

La collection de céramiques antiques est très vaste et comprend une grande salle avec des nombreuses vitrines au deuxième étage. Généralement les pièces proviennent de tombes étrusques et sont en rapport avec des échanges avec la Grèce, en particulier avec Athènes (lieu de production de la plupart des vestiges) et remontent à la période du iv e siècle av. J.-C.

Entre les vases, le plus important est celui dit vase François, du nom de l’archéologue que le découvrit en 1844 dans une tombe étrusque à fonte Rotella, sur la route de Chiusi. Il s’agit d’un grand cratère à figures noires, signé du potier Ergotimos et du peintre Kleitias, qui représente une série de récits de la mythologie grecque sur toutes les faces. Il est daté des environs de 570 av. J.-C.

On y trouve d’autres œuvres considérables comme l’Hydrie à figures rouges signée du peintre de Meidias (550� av. J.-C.) et les coupes des Petits Maîtres (560� av. J.-C.) nommées ainsi par le miniaturisme des figures des céramiques, les sculptures Apollo et Apollino Milani ( vi e siècle av. J.-C. ) du nom du donateur, le torse d’athlète ( v e siècle av. J.-C. ) et la grande tête chevaline hellénistique (ou tête du cheval Médicis Riccardi du nom de son premier emplacement dans le palais médicéen Riccardi) fragment d’une statue équestre qui inspira Donatello et Verrocchio pour deux célèbres monuments de Padoue et de Venise. Dans le couloir sont exposés deux kouros archaïques en marbre.

11 November 2010

Questions for A Room with a View

  • What do we see in the novel about why people travel? About what the benefit of travel is? What the challenges of travel are?
  • What is the role of the chaperone when it comes to travel? Why must Lucy have a chaperone? What is the task of the chaperone? Is Charlotte a good chaperone?
  • How does travel affect the characters in the novel? Clearly Lucy is the chief character affected by travel, but think of how the other characters--both those who travel and those who don't travel--are affected by the traveling.
  • In what ways do the travelers bring their experiences back home with them?
  • What does Italy represent in this novel? Why is the travel that happens in the novel travel to Italy? Does it represent different things in different parts of the novel?

There are some passages that warrant further thought. Here are some to think about (in no particular order):

  • The last two paragraphs of Chapter 17
  • "'Life,' wrote a friend of mine, 'is a public performance on the violin, in which you must learn the instrument as you go along.'" (Mr. Emerson talking to Lucy in Chapter 19)
  • The second and third paragraphs of Chapter 10
  • The paragraph a couple pages into Chapter 6 that begins, "Oh indeed," said Mr. Eager. and the next paragraph or two after that. What is being said here about tourists?
  • "The true Italy is only to be found by patient observation" (Miss Lavish to Lucy, Chapter 2), and then a little later on: "One doesn't come to Italy for niceness. one comes for life."

Think about these passages, and whether they prompt some response or thoughts. Come up with your own favorite passages as well.

Florence archaeological museum. museo archeologico nazionale firenze, italy

Like many other Florentine Museums, the Archaeological Museum's sources lie in the Grand Ducal Collections, both of the Medici and the House of Lorraine. Originally shown with other art treasures in the Uffizi, the museum's collections have been shown in their present setting since 1888, slowly building on the richest section, that of Etruscan civilization. As early as the fifteenth century, Cosimo the Elder de' Medici had begun the collection of works in marble and bronze together with humble terracotta crockery, urns and other curiosities.

Again it was Cosimo I who first seriously began to collect such things in the sixteenth century. His successor added such notable works as the Chimera of Arezzo, the Minerva of Arezzo and the Orator. Cardinal Leopoldo de' Medici in the seventeenth century was a particularly assiduous collector who persistently enriched the collections. The House of Lorraine continued, and to them we owe the formation of the very important Egyptian section made up in the main of objects recovered on a Franco-Tuscan expedition early in the nineteenth century.

The Austrian Grand Dukes devoted them selves to the Etruscan section, which was already at that time ordered in series and studied by their court antiquarian. Collecting continued throughout the nineteenth century with important additions like the Sarcophagus of the Amazons or that of Larthia Seianti. To this period belong the initial arrangement of the section of Etruscan topography, of Etruscan sculpture and of the bronzes large and small. Also in the Museum are found glass, precious gems, numerous Greek ceramics and a mixed collection of coins.

© Copyright by Casa Editrice Bonechi - All right reserved. Text and Photographs may not be reproduced without the permission of the Publisher. Tutti i diritti riservati. Testi e Fotografie non possono essere riprodotti senza il permesso dell'Editore.

© Copyright by APT - Azienda di Promozione Turistica - All right reserved. Text and Photographs may not be reproduced without the permission of the Publisher. Tutti i diritti riservati. Testi e Fotografie non possono essere riprodotti senza il permesso dell'Editore.

Archaeological Florence

Like many other Florentine museums, the Archaeological Museum stems from the collections of the Medici and Lorraine families that were initally exhibited along with other treasures in the Uffizi Gallery and moved to the Palazzo della Crocetta, the present day seat of the Museum, in 1888 (the building was erected in 1620 by Giulio Parigi). The main core of the collection focuses on Etruscan civilisation that interested in particular Cosimo the Eldest of the Medici family. But it "was the Grand Duke Cosimo I who to put together the currently existing collections in 16th century, though these were later increased by his successors (and in particular by Cardinal Leopoldo). Over time the collection was enriched with famous -works like the Chimera ofArezzo, the Minerva of Arezzo and the Orator. The collection was then continued by the Lorraine family that added the extraordinary collection of Egyptian pieces, besides adding new pieces to the Etruscan section, which was organised by series and studied by the scholars of the Lorraine court. Additions continued also during the 19th century with important works like the Sarcophagus of the Amazons and the Larthia Seianti. It -was at this time that a new section of Etruscan topography was created and that the Etruscan sculptures and small and large bronzes were added. In addition to the above-mentioned works, it is worth setting some time aside to visit the section dedicated to the lavish assortment of Etruscan jewels.

The Egyptian Museum, which is second only to the famous museum in Turin, takes up some of the rooms of the Archaeological Museum. The first group of Egyptian antiquities was put together m the 17th century to include also pieces that had been collected by the Medici, although it was significantly increased during the 18th century by Leopoldo II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, who purchased new collections and financed, together with Charles X, King of France, a scientific expedition to Egypt in the years between 1828 and 1829. The expedition was directed by Jean Francois Champollion, the famous scholar and interpreter of hieroglyphics and by Ippolito Rosellini from Pisa, who -would soon become the father of Egyptian studies in Italy and a friend and disciple of Champollion. After the return of the expedition, the numerous objects collected during the expedition and during excavations of archaeological sites or purchased by local merchants, were equally divided between Florence and the Louvre. The Egyptian Museum of Florence was officially established in 1855. In 1880 the Piedmontese Egyptian scholar Ernesto Schiaparelli, who was to become the director of the Egyptian Museum of Turin, was assigned the task of transferring and organising the Egyptian antiquities in the present day location, which is also the seat of the Archaeological Museum. Schiaparelli suitably increased the collections of the Museum with objects found during his personal excavation campaigns and purchased in Egypt before his final transfer to Turin. The last group of works acquired by the Egyptian Museum of Florence includes pieces donated to the State by private contributors and scientific institutions. Today the Museum exhibits over 14,000 pieces, displayed in nine rooms and two warehouses. The exhibition rooms have been totally renewed. The old layout of Schiaparelh has now been replaced by a new one arranged, when possible, according to a chronological and topographic order. The collection comprises material that ranges from the prehistoric age down to the Age of Copta, with several groups of steles, vases, amulets and bronze pieces of different ages. The most remarkable pieces are some statues dating back to the age of Amenofi III, the chariot of the 18th dynasty, the pillar of the tomb of Sety I, the cup of Fayence with square mouth and the belongings of the wet nurse of the daughter of Pharaoh Taharqa, the woman portrait of Fayum, the collection of fabrics belonging to the Copt Age and an important group of chalk moulds dating of the end of the 19th century .. from Museums and Galleries of Florence and surroundings ( Apt - Florence )

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