Fifty Six Second Hundred June 24, 2009 - History

Fifty Six Second Hundred June 24, 2009 - History


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The President began his day with secutiry and ecnomic briefings. He then met with his senior advisors.

In the afternoon the President met with Governors Granhol, Douglas, Doyle, Rounds and Gregoirin

In the evening the President participated in a televised public forum on health care reform. Trranscript


2009 swine flu pandemic

The 2009 swine flu pandemic was an influenza pandemic that lasted about 19 months, from January 2009 to August 2010, and was the most recent flu pandemic involving H1N1 influenza virus (the first being the 1918–1920 Spanish flu pandemic and the second being the 1977 Russian flu). [12] [13] The first two discoveries were independently made in the United States in April 2009. [14] The virus appeared to be a new strain of H1N1 that resulted from a previous triple reassortment of bird, swine, and human flu viruses and that further combined with a Eurasian pig flu virus, [15] leading to the term "swine flu". [16]

Some studies estimated that the real number of cases including asymptomatic and mild cases could be 700 million to 1.4 billion people—or 11 to 21 percent of the global population of 6.8 billion at the time. [9] The lower value of 700 million is more than the 500 million people estimated to have been infected by the Spanish flu pandemic. [17] However, the Spanish flu infected a much higher proportion of the world population at the time, with the Spanish flu infecting an estimated 500 million people, which was roughly equivalent to a third of the world population at the time of the pandemic. [18]

The number of lab-confirmed deaths reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) is 18,449, [10] though the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic is estimated to have actually caused about 284,000 (range from 150,000 to 575,000) deaths. [19] A follow-up study done in September 2010 showed that the risk of serious illness resulting from the 2009 H1N1 flu was no higher than that of the yearly seasonal flu. [20] For comparison, the WHO estimates that 250,000 to 500,000 people die of seasonal flu annually. [21]

Unlike most strains of influenza, the pandemic H1N1/09 virus did not disproportionately infect adults older than 60 years this was an unusual and characteristic feature of the H1N1 pandemic. [22] Even in the case of previously healthy people, a small percentage develop pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This manifests itself as increased breathing difficulty and typically occurs three to six days after initial onset of flu symptoms. [23] [24] The pneumonia caused by flu can be either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia. A November 2009 New England Journal of Medicine article recommended that flu patients whose chest X-ray indicates pneumonia receive both antivirals and antibiotics. [25] In particular, it is a warning sign if a child seems to be getting better and then relapses with high fever, as this relapse may be bacterial pneumonia. [26]


The Note: This great book should really be read by everyone. It is difficult to describe why it so great because it both teaches and inspires. You really just have to read it. We think it is so good that it demands to be as accessible as possible. Once you've finished it, we're sure you'll agree. In fact, years ago, we would offer people twenty dollars if they read the book and didn't think it was completely worth their time. Of all the people who took us up on it, no one collected.

The disclaimer: This version is made from OCR. That is a fancy way of saying that we scanned in and coded over six hundred fifty pages. There will be a few small occasional errors: spelling mistakes, odd punctuation, and the like. If you see any, please contact us. We have posted it in spite of these mistakes for two simple reasons. First, the book is worth a mistake or two because it really deserves the widest audience possible. Second, we are sure that once you new people begin reading it, you'll go out and get a physical copy. You should go and get it (and ones for your friends and family). At this point, A People's History Of The United States is available in regular form, read aloud on audio, on posters, in a teaching edition, and as just the twentieth century chapters (we have all but the posters). And now here. Please Enjoy!


Saying dates

I have recently been asked why we say years the way we do. Why, for example, do we say nineteen hundred (1900) but two thousand (2000)? The recently released film 2012 (pronounced twenty twelve) has highlighted this question. ‘What will happen in the 22nd century?’, the questioner continued. ‘Will we be saying twenty one hundred and one (2101) or two thousand one hundred and one, or will we stick to twenty one oh one?’

Of course it is impossible to say how usage will change in the future. It is even hard to make reliable statements about current spoken usage without access to a very large corpus of spoken English, but I’ll have a go. My impression is that this confusion all started with the millennium, aka The Year Two Thousand (2000). Before that fateful year came along we all spoke happily of nineteen fifty five (1955) or twelve twenty one (1221) and no one thought anything of it (though years before 1000 did give us pause: I think we tend to say the year eight hundred (800), or eight hundred AD just to be clear that we are referring to a date and not just a number). But we say one thousand, two thousand, not ten hundred or twenty hundred, so it would sound a bit weird to say the year twenty hundred. People therefore became accustomed to referring to the year 2000 as two thousand, and having started on that path it maybe became difficult to switch back to the previous system. Most people have therefore stuck with two thousand and two (2002), two thousand and three (2003) etc, even though it is perfectly possible to say twenty oh two, twenty oh three (on the same pattern as 1902, which as far as I know is always said nineteen oh two). Indeed, if I remember rightly there was something of a campaign to get the latter form accepted on the grounds that it was more logical, and at least some (all?) BBC newsreaders say twenty oh nine (2009) rather than two thousand and nine.

For 2010 on it seems that most people are happy to say twenty ten (2010), twenty fifteen (2015) and so on, and it is hard to imagine that people in the future will say two thousand one hundred (2100) etc rather than twenty one hundred. We shall have to wait and see. Of course, since this and all other ways of numbering dates are the result of historical accident, it may be that future events will lead to a complete change in the way the years are both counted and said.

As for why this way of saying years arose in the first place, I suspect it is simply because it is easier and quicker – try saying 1777 both ways to see what I mean.


Biggest doesn't always mean best

Although in general America's biggest cities are major centers of global wealth and culture, that doesn't necessarily mean they're the best to live in for the average person. Major cities can experience a very high cost of living. If the cost of living outpaces wages in the city, then it can force people to move out to cheaper locations. America's three biggest tech markets-San Francisco, New York, and Boston-all have very high housing costs compared to cities in the Midwest.

Or, depending on what your interests are, the best cities might be unrelated to their size or even affordability. Cultural attractions might play a big factor Austin, Texas, for example, is often called America's live music capital. If you're someone who attends a lot of concerts, that may influence your judgement. Click here to see the list of America's most livable cities.


The top 100 bestselling books of all time: how does Fifty Shades of Grey compare?

Fifty Shades of Grey is Britain's best-selling book ever - according to the publishers at least - but how does it compare?

Publisher Cornerstone (part of Random House) announced this week that the erotic novel has sold in excess of 5.3m copies in print and ebook – more than The Highway Code or Dan Brown's The Da Vinci Code.

The book has remained in the top slot in the UK bestseller lists for the 16th week running. The second and third books, Fifty Shades Darker and Fifty Shades Freed, are also selling fast, with UK sales of 3.6m and 3.2m respectively. Combined UK sales for the trilogy are in excess of 12m copies, with rights to the book sold around the world and published in languages including Albanian, Chinese, Russian, Serbian and Vietnamese.

But is it right? Proving sales across platforms independently is very difficult as there are so many outlets. Nielsen Bookscan, which collects the retail sales information from point of sale systems in more than 31,500 bookshops around the world, does not provide collated sales across e-books and physical books, which means we' are reliant on publishers.

So, bearing that in mind, Nielsen have given us their top 100 list of all-time Uk book sales. It shows volumes of each book, its publisher and genre. So, how does Fifty Shades compare?

It's not top on this list: that's got Dan Brown's Da Vinci Code at number one, followed by the Harry Potter novels.

First thing to say is that the Highway Code dominates everything - but because it has been around for so long it artificially jumps near the top of the list with the many versions since 1998 selling over 4.8m copies. So we've removed it from this list although it's easy to compare.

But considering the Fifty Shades books have only just been published, they are already a powerful force. Fifty Shades itself has sold 3,758,936 copies, with the two follow-ups, Fifty Shades Darker and Fifty Shades Freed selling over two million copies each. This is how the big series compare:

The list is fascinating in its own right, even without the dominance of the big writers. Just for these other top books:
• Top children's book: The Very Hungry Caterpillar by Eric Carle, with 1,783,535 sales. Julia Donaldson's The Gruffalo is right behind with 1,781,269 sales
• Top cookery book: Jamie's 30-Minute Meals, by Jamie Oliver with 1,743,266 sales
• Top non-fiction humour: The World According to Clarkson by Jeremy Clarkson with 1,489,403 sales


For millions, say a number up to 999 followed by "million." Finish by saying first the thousands and then the hundreds when applicable:

  • 2,450,000 – two million four hundred fifty thousand
  • 27,805,234 - twenty-seven million eight hundred five thousands two hundred thirty-four
  • 934,700,000 – nine hundred thirty-four million seven hundred thousand
  • 589,432,420 - five hundred eighty-nine million four hundred thirty-two thousand four hundred twenty

For even larger numbers, first use billions and then trillions in a similar manner to millions:

  • 23,870,550,000 - twenty-three billion eight hundred seventy million five hundred fifty thousand
  • 12,600,450,345,000 - twelve trillion six hundred billion four hundred fifty million three hundred forty-five thousand

Large numbers are often rounded to the next biggest or next smallest number to make things easier. For example, 345,987,650 is rounded to 350,000,000.


1958, the decisive year

The revolution continued into 1958 with sporadic raids and considerable destruction of property, as the unrest began to seriously disrupt the Cuban economy. Sugar mills and plantations were burned, bombings in Havana depressed the tourist trade, and rebel activity in Oriente province hampered the mining industry. Responding to the unrest, the United States imposed an arms embargo on Cuba in mid-March and suspended delivery of nearly 2,000 Garand rifles to the Cuban government. Batista took advantage of the violence to call for a postponement of the June 1958 presidential election, and on March 26 the elections were rescheduled for November 3. Communist groups led by Juan Marinello responded by calling for a general strike on April 9. Although the strike did not materialize, the communists continued to assert their role as a major force in the opposition.

Believing that the failure of the strike represented a decline in popular support for the rebels, Batista launched a major military effort against Castro’s forces. In July government troops advanced to positions in the foothills of the Sierra Maestra. They were quickly thrown back by 26th of July Movement fighters, however, and by early August the offensive had stalled completely. Cuban army forces retreated to their strongholds in government-held territory.

For his part, Castro issued a number of proclamations during the year, ranging from appeals for a general strike to death threats against all candidates for political office. Among Castro’s exploits was the kidnapping of 10 American and 2 Canadian civilians from the Freeport Sulphur company mining headquarters in northeast Cuba on June 26. The following day, 28 U.S. sailors were kidnapped from a bus outside the Guantánamo Bay naval base. Several other U.S. citizens were seized, but the anger aroused in the United States over these actions led Castro to release his prisoners within the following week. On July 28, U.S. Marines from Guantánamo Bay were deployed to protect the base’s water supply. Raúl Castro, whose rebel forces controlled the area around the base, voiced his opposition to the move, and on August 1 Batista dispatched Cuban troops to guard the water supply so the Marines could be withdrawn.

As the rescheduled election date approached, three main candidates tried to appeal to Cuban voters: Andrés Rivero Agüero, Batista’s chosen successor Carlos Márquez Sterling, who was supported by some moderate groups and former president Ramón Grau San Martín, the candidate of the Cuban Revolutionary Party. Castro threatened violence against both candidates and voters in the days before the election, and, when Cubans went to the polls on November 3, the rebel-controlled provinces of Oriente and Las Villas saw negligible turnout. When the results of the election were announced, however, it was clear that massive fraud had occurred. The moderate Márquez Sterling was awarded victory in the four provinces where legitimate voting had taken place, but Rivero Agüero was declared the overall winner, because of unchecked ballot-stuffing in Oriente and Las Villas. Had Márquez Sterling won the election, the Cuban Revolution might have taken a very different course. Instead, Batista’s interference virtually assured the collapse of his regime.


Fifty Six Second Hundred June 24, 2009 - History

The Nifty is the flagship benchmark of the National Stock Exchange (NSE), which is a well-diversified index, comprising top 50 companies in terms of free-float market capitalisation that are traded on the bourse. It is supposed to reflect the health of the listed universe of Indian companies, and hence the broader economy, in all market conditions.

Officially called the Nifty50, the index is computed using the free float market capitalisation method, which is essentially the count of shares in active circulation in the market at any given point of time.

The Nifty, just like BSE benchmark Sensex, is today used for benchmarking portfolios and returns of mutual fund schemes and launching index funds.

The Nifty index was launched on April 22, 1996, with a base value of 1,000 counted from November 3, 1995. Live Nifty quotes are available on NSEIndia.com, ETMarkets.com and numerous other web platforms and TV channels at any point of time.

The Nifty brand and indices are managed by the Mumbai-based India Index Services and Products Limited, IISL in short, which itself is a subsidiary of NSE. IISL has a three-tier governance structure comprising the board of directors, the index policy committee and the index maintenance sub-committee. IISL managed some 67 indices under the Nifty brand as of September 30, 2016.

IISL rebalances the Nifty index semi-annually. The cut-off dates for the semi-annual review of the index are January 31 and July 31 each year. Average data for the six months ending the cut-off date is considered. The exchange notifies any change in the index four weeks before such changes take effect.

There are defined eligibility criteria for selection of Nifty constituent stocks. The liquidity of a stock is measured by the market impact cost, which is essentially the cost involved in transacting a stock. For a stock to qualify for inclusion in the Nifty50, it must have traded at an average impact cost of 0.50 per cent or less for six months and for 90 per cent of observation cases.

Besides, the company must have a listing history of at least six months. However, a newly-listed company, which has just got listed through the IPO route, may become eligible for inclusion in the index, if it fulfils the normal eligibility criteria for a three- month period instead of six months.

Only those stocks which are eligible for trade in the F&O segment of NSE are considered for inclusion as Nifty constituents.

As of September 20, 2017, the Nifty had 35.73 per cent components from the financial services sector, 14 per cent from the energy sector, 11.46 per cent from the information technology sector, 10.64 per cent from the automobile sector and 10.13 per cent from the consumer goods sector. Six of the nine BFSI companies in the Nifty50 were private banks.

The Nifty index also has several variants such as Nifty Junior, Nifty50 USD, Nifty50 Total Returns index and NIFTY50 Dividend Points Index.


Civil war

2013 December - Civil war erupts as President Salva Kiir accuses his former vice-president, Riek Machar, of plotting to overthrow him.

Rebel factions seize control of several regional towns, thousands are killed and many more flee. Uganda troops intervene on the government's side.

2014 January - A ceasefire is signed but broken several times over subsequent weeks, and further talks in February fail to end the violence that displaces more than a million people by April.

2014 April - UN says pro-Machar forces sack the oil town of Bentiu, killing hundreds of civilians.

2014 August - Peace talks begin in Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa and drag on for months as fighting continues.

2016 April - Riek Machar finally returns to Juba and is sworn in as first vice-president in a new unity government - but is sacked in July after further conflict and goes back into exile.

2016 November - UN sacks Kenyan commander of its peacekeeping mission over the failure to protect civilians in Juba during July violence. Kenya withdraws its troops from the peacekeeping mission.

Japanese peacekeepers arrive South Sudan, the first time in nearly 70 years that Japan has deployed its soldiers overseas with a broad mandate to use force if necessary.

2016 December - A UN commission on human rights says a process of ethnic cleansing is underway in several parts of the country, a claim that President Salva Kiir denies.

2017 February - A famine is declared in parts of South Sudan in what the UN describes as a man-made catastrophe caused by civil war and economic collapse.

2017 May - President Kiir declares unilateral ceasefire, launches national dialogue.

2017 August - The number of refugees fleeing violence in South Sudan to Uganda passes the one million mark, according to the UN.

2018 August - President Kiir signs power-sharing agreement with Riek Machar and other opposition groups in a bid to end the civil war. The deal will see Machar return to government as one of five vice-presidents.


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