12 June 1942

12 June 1942

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12 June 1942



North Africa

German success in a tank battle south east of "Knightsbridge" leaves Tobruk vulnerable

War in the Air

Ten B-24s from an original force of thirteen attack the oil refinaries at Ploesti, Romania, destroying one oil depot.

File #1297: "CAP News Bulletin No. 20, 12 June 1942.pdf"

Unit Commanders: One of the most promising fields for service by the Civil Air Patrol is in courier and
cargo operations. Great interest is now being focused in Washington on air cargo development. The
War Production Board has formed a special committee of experts who well understand the utility of
large landplanes and flying boats. Much is being said about the use of glider tows as aerial freight
Full scale operations, however, must await the manufacture of new equipment.
Even if large planes were available in abundance, the light plane would have its place for feeder
service. Just as the railroads need auxiliary truck service for door-to-door delivery on wheels, the
ultimate air service needs feeder lines so that shipments can move all the way to their destinations by
air. Obviously there are many places where big planes cannot land. There are many small shipments
where it would be uneconomical to use big planes which can best be employed on on long hauls
operating at full load between main line stops.
The Civil Air Patrol, with thousands of small planes and pilots to fly them, has shown its ability to
render emergency courier service in every State where it has been called into action. In the
experimental operation at the Middletown, Pa., Supply Depot, flights were made throughout the East.
Deliveries in sone instances brought vital parts without which military training planes would have been
In New Jersey, as previously announced, the flying of shell samples for one plant has saved delays in
the starting of production runs. Other arrangements are in progress.
Units of the Civil Air Patrol throughout the country are now reaching the point in discipline and proficiency
where they are ready for active missions. Many pilots whose experience is not yet enough for such exacting
duties as area patrol are quite capable of flying cargo safely over set courses with contact flight conditions.
This is probably the only untapped transportation resource in the country. It is organized and ready. The light
plane which uses a minimum of rubber on its small landing wheels and burns no more gasoline than a family
auto, can be put to many uses.
Unit commanders are urged to watch and prepare for courier service opportunities which will advance the
war effort by carrying war materials and personnel. The more this service is tested on a small scale, the
more successfully it can be developed for wider usefulness. Of course any work the Patrol does will strictly
avoid competition with established commercial services.

ECONOMY OF COURIER Service--Surveys as to the economy of courier service by light planes have been
made by Garnet N. Hughes, Executive Officer of the New York Wing.
A careful study was made of the needs of one company engaged in wartime production and frequently sending
for small emergency shipments of parts, tools, and materials by truck, motorcycle, or private car. In the month
of April, 286 such trips were made. The total road mileage was 14,780 while the air mileage would have been
11,040. The road time was estimated at 422 hours and the air time at only 110 hours.
A road cost was estimated at $1,700 and the air cost at least than half this figure.
Even if the air cost were substantially more, the savings in time is the main consideration in wartime shipments
of this character.
All active missions must be covered by adequate insurance regarding which directives have been issued.
Insofar as possible, cargo planes should provide for two-way service since ships which move with a full load
only one way and come back empty are rendering only half the service which they can perform.

WING RENDEZVOUS--The Pennsylvania Wing held a Memorial Day mobilization at Black Moshannon
Airport, in the heart of the Alleghenies and flew in 290 planes out of 294 that started --more in numbers
than the whole airline fleet of the United States. Some 800 uniformed members were reviewed by
National Commander Earle L.
Johnson and Wing Commander William Anderson who flew in for the occasion.
Members were forbidden to come by auto in the interests of conserving tires.
The exercise was a good test of navigation, formation flying, and traffic control.
Simulated target bombing was among the practice missions performed at the maneuvers.
Black Moshannon, surrounded by hills and forests and with no natural landing areas for miles around,
was built by the State as an emergency field in what was the graveyard area in the earlier days of the air
mail. Aside from a couple of minor landing mishaps, resulting in no injuries, the whole exercise was
conducted with smoothness and precision. All five of Pennsylvania’s Groups were represented by large
contingents. Planes were neatly lined and staked down on arrival. Had the planes been carrying cargo
instead of passengers, upwards of 60 tons could have been landed. CAA and the Interceptor Command
cooperated in clearances.

The Michigan Wing also has conducted a large-scale maneuver by pilots arriving at
their bases to pick up sealed orders. This maneuver was to test the alertness of the Squadrons in
mobilizing under simulated emergency conditions. Each Squadron flew to a designated airport for
an overnight stay, set up a radio listening station, and filed a written report. Proficiency in landing,
efficiency and military conduct, and condition of uniforms were among the points carefully noted.
The Mounted Command of the Nevada Wing, training to go to isolated spots in the mountains
where planes cannot land, conducted exercises recently with 65 horses and 4 planes.
HELPING FIND CAA INSTRUCTORS--Women members of CAP at Pittsburgh have been
rendering volunteer help to CAA in combing the files of pilots in the area to locate candidates for
instructor refresher courses on behalf of the Army.

SIGNAL GUNS--Ed Enderle, communications staff member at Columbus, Ohio, has built two
medium power blinker signal guns capable of maintaining communications between points 5
miles apart in daytime and more than 10 at night. Although made of such materials as a length
of stove pipe, a pie plate, and a flashlight, each is a professional looking job with a machine
gun grip. Signals in Morse can be rapidly transmitted.
COMMANDING GENERAL FLOWN--Maj. Gen. Sherman Miles, Commanding the First Corps Area, recently was
flown with two members of his staff on an official trip in a Beechcraft piloted by John Wells of Southbridge, Mass.
ARKANSAS GOVERNOR--Add to the list of Governors who have joined the Civil Air Patrol the name of Governor Homer M. Adkins of Arkansas.

FRANKING PRIVILEGE--CAP officers should note that the franking privilege to send mall in official OCD
envelopes without affixing stamps extends to the Wing Commanders and Group Commanders, and their
immediate staff officers sending out mail for their commanders and signing for them under their name. But it
does not extend to Squadron Commanders and Squadron and Flight officers. A Wing or Group commander
may send a return envelope to a Squadron officer for the return of specified information but correspondence
initiated by the Squadron is not frankable. A memorandum on this subject is being prepared.

RED CROSS MOTOR CORPS--Stuart C. Welch, Commander Group 216, Buffalo, N. Y., has worked out an
arrangement with the Motor Corps of the Buffalo Chapter of the American Red Cross to have one of their
units on call at all times for the exclusive use of the Group on official CAP business. Thus the Group has the
services of a trained and uniformed corps and can dispense with the training of a motor corps of its own with
consequent duplication of effort. This is a highly desirable arrangement which other units may well follow.
BLACKOUT MISSION--The following report from Intelligence Officer Robert W. Leavitt, Squadron 214-3, Glens
Falls, N. Y., is worthy of note as to procedure:
"At 19:30, flight plan was filed. Immediately thereafter a meeting of pilots and observers was called by Squadron
Commander Hibbard W. Hall. Detailed instructions were given to pilots, observers, snd ground crew concerning
time of take-off, sectors to be flown, time of leaving sector, and disposition of observer's report on landing.
Crash crew was ordered to stand ready. They were instructed to place one lighted automobile on ramp on the
landing of each plane."
The mission, requested by the local OCD, gave detailed information on the location and time of all stationary and
moving lights observed. Masked green traffic lights were found to be visible from the air.
RESCUE MISSION--Maynard Craig, Commander, Squadron 941-4, Twin Falls, Idaho, with Mrs. George Detweiler
as observer, saw an injured man on a highway in the course of an observation flight. Landing in a nearby field, they
administered first aid to the man who had broken a leg in a runaway and summoned assistance to get him to a
LAKE DISASTER—When the Cleveland Lake Erie coastline was recently swept by a huge wave, Group 511,
Willoughby, Ohio, went immediately into action In cooperation with the Coast Guard. All available planes took to the
air to search for boats and wreckage. A thorough job of patrol work was turned out and received official

DEMONSTRATION AT DALLAS--At a recent defense rally witnessed by OCD Director James M.
Landis in the famous Cotton Bowl at Dallas, Texas, 60 CAP planes stole the show. Peeloff exhibitions,
precision formation flying, end maneuvers during a simulated blackout of the stadium thrilled the 40,000
spectators. Two CAP floats and a group of uniformed members participated in the parade inside. The
event was advertised the day before by dropping 100,000 leaflets throughout the county from CAP planes.
AIRPORT POLICING--Squadron 515-1, Mansfield, Ohio, is furnishing CAP Patrolmen each Sunday, with
arm bands and night sticks, for interior guard to keep spectators back of the plane line at the airport. A
crash crew complete with equipment is being organized.

MERIT CITATIONS--In order that outstanding services of CAP Members may be duly recognized Wing
Commanders have been authorized by GM-31 to send National Headquarters their recommendations.
Distinguished service citations will be given for exceptional performance of specific missions, or acts of
heroism, under unusually difficult or hazardous conditions. Merit citations will be given for initiative and
performance of unusual merit on specific missions. Commendations will be given for exceptional
performance contributory to the carrying out of missions of unusual merit. In filing recommendations the
form prescribed in GM-31 should be followed and only the most meritorious cases can be considered.
FOGG IN MIDWEST—Maj. Robert S. Fogg, Commander of Region 1, New England, is serving as
Regional Commander of Region 7 comprising the Northern States west of the Mississippi with
headquarters in Omaha.

RECRUITMENT--CAP membership has passed the 50,000 mark and is still on the climb.
As of early this week, applications received in Washington totaled 50,923 of which 45,787 had been cleared
with FBI and the service records sent back to the Wings for the swearing in of the members. Total applications
received from each State and the ratio to pilot population of each State are shown in the following table:
3282 77.3 Ariz.
Okl a.
1517 58.2 Ark.
775 48.3 Calif.
2800 52.5 Colo.
243 64.5 Conn.

ENLISTMENT POLICY--Recruitment of new members must be held insofar as possible to pilots, student
pilots, radio operators, radio mechanics, aircraft mechanics, apprentice mechanics, parachute riggers,
ground service men, and others of actual aviation skill. This policy is set in GM-28.
Heretofore, any application received in Washington has been recorded, cleared with FBI, and sent to the
Wing Headquarters in the applicant's State for transmittal to the appropriate local unit. Applicants have
then been interviewed to see whether they are qualified for service before issuing them their identification
Applieations of pilots and others with aviation skill will be processed am before. But under the new policy,
applications from non-flyers without aviation skill will not be cleared in Washington unless endorsed by a
Squadron, Group or Wing Commander who wants the individual placed in a vacancy in his unit. Without
this endorsement, the blanks will be returned to the applicants with the suggestion that they get in touch
with their nearest CAP units.
This will reduce the mechanical problem of handling applications at National Headquarters. It is not
intended to restrict Squadrons securing the services of non-flyers needed in auxiliary duties but to prevent
overloading the rolls of the Patrol with people who cannot be engaged effectively in aviation missions.

INSIGNIA--Procedure for getting CAP pilot and observer wings, cap and shoulder insignia, and other
items for uniforms is set forth in GM-29. Orders should be placed through the Wing, Group, and
Squadron Supply Officers. Squadron Commanders will be held responsible for individuals wearing or
using Civil Air Patrol insignia unofficially.
Due to wartime supply difficulties, orders on some of the items were piling up for awhile but shipments
are coming in and it is hoped that all orders can now be filled on schedule.
Information on rank insignia will be forthcoming shortly and will be very good news to the membership.
INTELLIGENCE OFFICERS—The picture file at National Headquarters is depleted again.
New photos of interesting activities for magazine and newspaper placement will be very much
appreciated. Clippings and_reports of newsworthy, activities should be sent to the National
Intelligence Officer as promptly as possible for the CA P Bulletin so that all members can be kept
informed of what goes on.

Black Rock Harbor, CT – June 12, 1942

On June 12, 1942, 2nd Lt. Edward S. Almgren, 23, was piloting a P-47B Thunderbolt, (#41-6930), over the Bridgeport, Connecticut, area on an aircraft familiarization flight. When it came time to land at Bridgeport Airport, he lowered the wheels, and discovered the aircraft was loosing power. At first he wasn’t concerned, for it was his first time flying a P-47, and with no previous experience for comparison, he assumed the loss of power was due to the lowering of the landing gear. (At the time all instruments were reading normal.) As he was beginning to circle the field at 1,400 feet and contacting the tower for instructions, the engine abruptly quit without any prior warning. As the plane rapidly lost air speed and altitude, Lt. Almgren retracted the wheels and aimed for Black Rock Harbor on Long Island Sound. When the P-47 hit the water it skimmed the surface for about 100 yards before it nosed over and sank. Lt. Almgren had to hold his breath as he freed himself and swam for the surface. He was quickly rescued by two men in a passing boat and brought ashore.

Once on land, he went directly to his home at 2445 Fairfield Avenue which was only a short distance from the harbor, and called his superiors at the airport to let them know he was safe.

The aircraft was recovered from the water. The cause of the accident was found to be material failure with the engine.

At the time of the accident Lt. Algren was assigned to the 61st Fighter Squadron.

U.S. Army Air Corps Technical report Of Aircraft Accident, #42-6-12-3

Unknown Newspaper, “Flier Is Saved In Harbor Crash”, Unknown Date. (Newspaper article was included with army crash investigation report.

Scouting, Volume 30, Number 6, June 1942

Monthly publication of the Boy Scouts of America, written for Boy Scout leaders, officials, and others interested in the work of the Scouts. It includes articles about events and activities, updates from the national headquarters, topical columns and essays, and news from various chapters nationwide. Index appears on page 1.

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This periodical is part of the collection entitled: Scouting Magazine and was provided by the Boy Scouts of America National Scouting Museum to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 148 times. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

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Boy Scouts of America National Scouting Museum

The National Scouting Museum maintains a collection that chronicles the collective history of the Boy Scouts of America, and documents related organizations throughout the world. Ranging in scope from fine art to merit badges, the Museum's collections are used for exhibitions, research, and education.

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  • Main Title: Scouting, Volume 30, Number 6, June 1942
  • Serial Title:Scouting


Monthly publication of the Boy Scouts of America, written for Boy Scout leaders, officials, and others interested in the work of the Scouts. It includes articles about events and activities, updates from the national headquarters, topical columns and essays, and news from various chapters nationwide. Index appears on page 1.

December 17th, 2000 is a Sunday. It is the 352nd day of the year, and in the 50th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 4th quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 2000 is a leap year, so there are 366 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 12/17/2000, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 17/12/2000.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.

Personal Life

Tragedy struck in 1998, when McCartney&aposs wife of 29 years, Linda, died after a long battle with cancer. Four years later, the musician married Heather Mills, a former model and activist. They welcomed a daughter, Beatrice, in 2003. Amid much tabloid scrutiny and intense animosity, McCartney and Mills parted ways in 2006. He married for the third time, to New York businesswoman Nancy Shevell, in October 2011, in London.

McCartney&aposs interests extend far beyond music. The former Beatle has explored filmmaking, writing, painting, meditation and activism. A longtime vegetarian, he teamed up with daughters Mary and Stella in 2009 to launch Meat Free Monday, a not-for-profit campaign that aims to raise awareness about the detrimental impact of meat consumption on individual health as well as the environment. In November 2017, the campaign released a new short video, One Day A Week, which included a previously unreleased song from the music legend, "Botswana." 

That same year, McCartneyਏound time for a big-screen cameo in the feature Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales, starring Johnny Depp and Javier Bardem. In 2019, he published a children&aposs book, Hey Grandude!, with illustrator Kathryn Durst.

Despite his many business ventures and creative pursuits, the most prolific Beatle, now in his 70s, continues to tour and sell out massive arenas and isn&apost showing any signs of slowing down. When asked about his retirement plans, McCartney replied, in typical fashion, "Why would I retire? Sit at home and watch TV? No thanks. I&aposd rather be out playing."

The Alvin Sun (Alvin, Tex.), Vol. 52, No. 46, Ed. 1 Friday, June 12, 1942

Weekly newspaper from Alvin, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.

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six pages : ill. page 20 x 13 in. Digitized from 16 mm. microfilm.

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This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Brazoria County Area Newspapers and was provided by the Alvin Community College to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

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Situated in Alvin, Texas, Alvin Community College (ACC) was established in 1948 as Alvin Junior College. ACC is a public community college that provides educational opportunities in workforce training, academics, technical fields, adult basic education, and personal development.

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  • Main Title: The Alvin Sun (Alvin, Tex.), Vol. 52, No. 46, Ed. 1 Friday, June 12, 1942
  • Serial Title:The Alvin Sun
  • Added Title: The Alvin Sun and News


Weekly newspaper from Alvin, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.

Physical Description

six pages : ill. page 20 x 13 in. Digitized from 16 mm. microfilm.


Incorrect volume and issue numbers printed on front page: Vol.46, No. 52.


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  • Library of Congress Control Number: sn84006908
  • OCLC: 11098054 | External Link
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metapth1251974

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  • Volume: 52
  • Issue: 46
  • Edition: 1


This issue is part of the following collections of related materials.

Brazoria County Area Newspapers

Situated in the Gulf Coast region of Texas, Brazoria County has seen publication of some of the earliest newspapers published in Texas. One of the earliest titles in this collection, the Texas Gazette and Brazoria Commercial Advertiser, began publication in 1832 and documents Texas' history when it was still a part of the United Mexican States, in the state of Coahuila y Tejas.

Tocker Foundation Grant

Collections funded by the Tocker Foundation, which distributes funds principally for the support, encouragement, and assistance to small rural libraries in Texas.

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The Texas Digital Newspaper Program (TDNP) partners with communities, publishers, and institutions to promote standards-based digitization of Texas newspapers and to make them freely accessible.

Today in World War II History—June 12, 1942

75 Years Ago—June 12, 1942: Anne Frank receives a diary for her thirteenth birthday.

On his 18 th birthday, future president George H.W. Bush graduates from high school and enlists in the Navy, although he’d already been accepted at Yale.

US B-24 Liberator bombers flying from Egypt attack Ploesti in first US strategic mission of war in the European-African-Middle East Theater.

US 100 th Infantry Battalion activated, composed of Japanese-Americans from Hawaii.

Brothers in Valor Monument in Honolulu, HI, commemorating the 100th Infantry Battalion and other Japanese-American units in World War II (Photo: Sarah Sundin, November 2016)

Alisa (Lisa) Nussbaum Derman describes going into hiding in June 1942 during roundups in the Slonim ghetto

Lisa was one of three children born to a religious Jewish family. Following the German occupation of her hometown in 1939, Lisa and her family moved first to Augustow and then to Slonim (in Soviet-occupied eastern Poland). German troops captured Slonim in June 1941, during the invasion of the Soviet Union. In Slonim, the Germans established a ghetto which existed from 1941 to 1942. Lisa eventually escaped from Slonim, and went first to Grodno and then to Vilna, where she joined the resistance movement. She joined a partisan group, fighting the Germans from bases in the Naroch Forest. Soviet forces liberated the area in 1944. As part of the Brihah ("flight," "escape") movement of 250,000 Jewish Holocaust survivors from eastern Europe, Lisa and her husband Aron sought to leave Europe. Unable to enter Palestine, they eventually settled in the United States.


My father, my little brother, and I remained in the house. And my father, the three of us tried to hide in the house. Where were we hidden? The kitchen had a old-fashioned oven where before, for baking bread. To the side--it was a deep oven--to the side was a little opening for three people just to squeeze in where, uh, wood was, was kept in normal times, in normal times wood was kept of course we didn't have any wood in the ghetto. The kitchen was wallpapered, and it was really shreds, sort of hanging. When they used to come to take people on slave labor my father used to hide in this spot. How, how did he hide there? He had a, a piece of cardboard, um, that he held almost, held from, from the inside, that matched the rest of the wallpaper in the kitchen, torn the same way as the rest, to conceal this entrance into this little place next to the oven. And my father said the three of us, run and hide there. We, Monday morning, when we heard the shooting already, in the house we ran in to hide behind this oven in this little space that was open. They came in, they, they, the killers came into the house, they searched the house, they knocked on the walls. They never came to this spot. "Raus! Raus! Raus!" [Out! Out! Out!] And then we heard cries and we heard shooting, and we realized that the people in the, next door were discovered. We remained in this place, frozen, there was no place to move. For one of us to make a turn, all three of us had to move, to be able for one of us to make a turn. My little brother was a child, it was so hard on him. It was very hard on all three of us. We stayed there the day, we survived the day. At night, my father said that we cannot stay there, it's not safe, we'll be found there, we must hide somewhere else. We did not hide anymore in this place that was open, because we couldn't cover it. It was all open, the part that covered this entrance were broken. So we went in the, in the, in the yard there were shacks on the side, and as we went out of the house in the shacks we realized that the ghetto is burning. While we stayed in the house we didn't know, hidden in the house. We didn't smell anything, we didn't know. All of a sudden we went in, in the yard, and we saw that the ghetto is burning. But we had no alternative, so we went, the last shack, the last shack, there were a row of shacks, the last shack we walked in and we saw that there was a ladder and there was a trapdoor, and we crawled up the ladder and we opened up the trapdoor, it was a loft that hardly you could squeeze in. We found two old Jewish men, the old Mr. Margolis, and Mr. Fink. And we asked them, "What, what, what, where are all the rest of the people?" They said that they did not hide in with the rest of the people because they knew they couldn't breathe there, they, they, they were coughing, and they didn't want to endanger the other people, so they did not hide with the rest of the family, they were hidden in this shack. And we came to this shack. We walked up, we threw the ladder away so it wouldn't be a sign that some people are hiding in the, in the shack, there on top in the loft. And we stayed there. We stayed there we didn't have any food at all, daddy went at night and he brought water. He found--he could not find any bread in the house, nothing was in the house, he brought water, so we had, still we had water. And we stayed there, Monday night, Tuesday, and Wednesday, and we watched the fire, the ghetto burning. I do not know how was it possible that the shack did not catch on fire. I do not know. But it didn't. And we survived in this shack.


1942: A meeting of US Zionists adopts a set of resolutions titled the Biltmore Program, calling for open immigration to Palestine and the establishment of a Jewish commonwealth there.

1944: Jewish irregular armed units — Irgun and Lehi (the Stern Gang) — operating independently of Jewish Agency control (but at times with its tacit approval) launch a campaign of terror against British personnel and Arab civilians.

1945: The Jewish Agency joins the conflict.

1945-1947: Yishuv mounts a campaign of sabotage against the British administration in Palestine designed to achieve the immediate establishment of a Jewish state.

1945-1948: US President Harry Truman publicly endorses and promotes the Biltmore Program, demonstrating not only humanitarian concerns but also an awareness of the growing power of the Zionist lobby within the Democratic Party.

1946: Irgun blows up a wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem.

February 1947: British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin, recognizing that Britain has lost control of the situation in Palestine, refers the matter to the United Nations. The General Assembly creates a UN Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) and charges it with investigating conditions in Palestine and submitting recommendations.

September 1947: Britain announces that the Palestine mandate will be terminated on May 15, 1948. Palestine is plunged into intercommunal war. Irgun massacres the 250 civilian inhabitants of the village of Dayr Yassin near Jerusalem. In retaliation, an Arab unit ambushes a Jewish medical relief convoy on the outskirts of Jerusalem and kills a number of doctors.

November 29, 1947: The UN General Assembly approves the partition of Palestine into separate Arab and Jewish states and accords international status to Jerusalem. The Arab League and its member states (especially Egypt, Syria, and Iraq) adopt a hard-line stance on the Palestinian issue as a means of demonstrating their anti-imperialism and asserting their newfound independence in foreign policy. They reject all attempts at compromise, including the UN partition plan. Britain refuses to assist in the implementation of the UN partition plan.

Spring 1948:Major centers of Arab population falling into the proposed Jewish state are in Jewish control. About 400,000 Palestinians have fled.

April 1948: Haganah authorizes a campaign – called Plan D — against potentially hostile Arab villages.

May 14, 1948: The last British high commissioner, General Alan Cunningham, quietly leaves Haifa. The Union Jack is lowered and British rule in Palestine comes to an end. Palestine is without a government and without political institutions.

May 14, 1948: David Ben-Gurion proclaims the independence of the state of Israel. The new state is immediately recognized by the United States and the Soviet Union.

June 1948: Units of Haganah are reorganized as the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) and are placed under the authority of the civilian minister of defense. Two dissident military organizations, the Irgun (led by Menachem Begin) and the smaller Lehi, refuse to give up their autonomy and continue to conduct independent military operations. Eventually, though, all remaining autonomous military units are absorbed into the IDF, ensuring that the central state exercises control of all military forces.

June 1948: The ship Altalena arrives off the Israeli coast with a shipment of arms destined for the Irgun. Ben-Gurion orders the IDF to prevent the arms from being unloaded. An armed struggle ensues, the Altalena sinks, and several members of the Irgun are killed or wounded. Ben-Gurion and Menachem Begin (the leader of Irgun) become deep-seated enemies.

May 15, 1948: Units from the armies of Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Transjordan, and Iraq invade Israel.

May 15-June 11, 1948: First round of fighting.

June 1948: First UN armistice.

July 9-18, 1948: Second round of combat.

July 1948: Second armistice.

December 1948: Arab forces are defeated, there is an enlargement of Israeli territory, and the UN proposal for a Palestinian Arab state collapses.

1948-1949: Incidents of forced expulsion of Arabs continue.

1948-1949: Over a 12 month period, each of the belligerent Arab states concludes an armistice agreement with Israel. They do not recognize Israel or accept cease-fire borders as final. Palestine is basically partitioned among Israel,Egypt (which remains in occupation of the Gaza Strip), and Transjordan (which has taken the old city of Jerusalem). There is no Palestinian Arab state and over 700,000 people are now refugees.

1948: David Ben-Gurion is a popular choice as Israel’s first prime minister. He holds the offices of prime minister and minister of defense for most of the period from 1949-1963.

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