20 October 1942

20 October 1942

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20 October 1942

October 1942

> November

War at Sea

German submarine U-216 sunk with all hands south west of Ireland

North Africa

Allied air activity is stepped up to gain air superiority before the start of the offensive at El Alamein and Operation Torch

On October, 20-21 1941, the German occupation authority of Borisov (headed by Stanislav Stankevich with the participation of Obersturmführer Kraffe) performed liquidation of the Jewish ghetto. At the day were killed 7 245 Jews. The upcoming action was announced on a banquet by the city administration.

The performers were mostly Russian auxiliary police headed by a Volga German David Egof. Other involved forces were the units of Wehrmacht as well as a Latvian SD company under command of Obersturmführer Kraffe who arrived from Minsk for the event.

According the Egof's words, the next day they also killed about 1000 people in the course of cleaning up the ghetto's territory.

In 1943 Germans ordered Russian POWs to open the ditch and burn the bodies of the victims so to cover up the massacre. All the POWs who participated were executed afterwards.

Before the war Egof was a teacher of German language near Borisov, who was elevated by the German administration due to his German ancestry. He was tried in 1947 and got 25 years in prison, because death penalty was abolished in the USSR at the time. After he served the term he was released.

Before the occupation started Jews constituted 20% of the city's population, that is 10000 people of 49000 total.

Oct. 20, 1942: Alcohol-castor oil mixture to propel speed boats in races on Pontoosuc Sunday

Pittsfield’s first race with speed boats, driven by special motors developing speed up to 60 miles an hour on a mixture of castor oil, alcohol and other non-critical fuels, will be Sunday afternoon at 2:30 at Pontoosuc Lake. Five local boats, and possibly a few visiting craft, will race three laps of a triangular mile in two heats. Headquarters will be at Ferris’s Restaurant.

Thus another national sport comes to Pittsfield, and it is brought by war conditions. Until this season, Berkshire Outboard Racing Association members were content to drive ordinary recreational motors in their hydroplane and runabout jobs. But gasoline rationing increased demand for stock motors which burn other fuels, and with them speed competition.

These motors are precision instruments, temperamental and requiring expert care to “build up” and maintain efficiency. Greasy and grimy work between weekends pays dividends at meets. Local boat owners have competed this summer at Breton Woods, Carlstadt and Secaucus, N.J., against many of the top flight racers of the country.

There will be four formal classes in the Sunday meet: Class A, B and C hydroplanes and Class C runabouts. Boats of C class theoretically are fastest, but a B boat sometimes steals the whole show.

Local boat owners who have entered, and the class of their boats: Ernest Bertrand, C hydroplane Frank Przewoznik, A hydroplane Kenneth F. Wich, B hydroplane David Coffey, C runabout Gareth G. Somerville, C hydroplane. It is hoped that others may be attracted, although the race must be limited owing to gas rationing which restricts transportation of boats.

The exact composition of the special non-critical fuel used in the stock motors is a secret of the commercial producers. But the four principal elements are alcohol, benzol, castor oil and acetone. The fuel is produced specially for outboard use.

This Story in History is selected from the archives by Jeannie Maschino, The Berkshire Eagle.

20 October 1942 - History

On 1 July 1940, the 20th Engineer Combat Regiment was organized and activated at Fort Benning, Georgia, under the command of Colonel Bill Heavey. For the previous thirty days, beginning on 1 June 1940, the 42nd Engineer Regiment (General Service) had been forming at Fort Benning all assets of the 42nd were redesignated as part of the new 20th Engineer Combat Regiment.

During 1941, the 20th Engineer Regiment grew to its full strength of a regimental headquarters and two combat engineer battalions of 4 combat engineer companies each, with a total of 1450 men. The regiment's pre-war training exercises included a major part in the Louisiana Maneuvers. Immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Colonel Heavey was ordered to Burma to join General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell, and the 20th's executive officer, Eugene Caffey (USMA June 1918), took over command.

Book on the 20th Engineers in World War 2

Click on the picture for information

Training at Fort Benning

Photos of the officers and men of Company F, 2nd Battalion, 20th Engineers

Subsequently, the regiment helped in the construction of Camp Shelby, Mississippi and Camp Beauregard, Louisiana. The 20th Engineer Regiment was transferred to Camp Blanding, Florida, on 15 January 1942 Camp Kilmer, New Jersey, on 26 July 1942 and Camp Picket, Virginia, on 21 September 1942.

Click the photo to learn about one of the favorite R&R spots for the soldiers of the 20th Engineers while stationed at Camp Kilmer. "Maw and Paw" Brown of North Stelton, New Jersey, opened their modest home so soldiers could relax, eat home cooking, and spend time with local families.

On 22 October the 2nd Battalion left Camp Pickett for the port of embarkation at Newport News, Virginia, where they boarded the USAT Hugh L. Scott and set sail for parts unknown.

US Army Transport Hugh L Scott

On 01 November 1942, the First Battalion and the regimental headquarters traveled to New York and boarded the US Army Transport "Cristobal", a pre-war Caribbean vacation cruise ship.

US Army Transport Cristobal

At the time of departure no one knew that the regiment was bound for assignment in the Western Task Force of Operation Torch. The soldiers were not told of their destination -- Casablanca, French North Africa -- until after the ship was at sea a couple of days.

This photograph of Colonel Eugene M. Caffey was taken in October 1942 at Camp Pickett, Virginia. Initially, Caffey ordered that anyone who did not shave for two days then had to obtain his permission to shave. This helped establish the 20th Engineer Combat Regiment as different from every other outfit, and it also boosted morale. Later, Colonel Caffey ordered everyone to shave off their beards because it interfered with the wearing of gas masks. Click the picture of Colonel Caffey to read comments on him from his family.

The 2d Battalion, 20th Engineer Regiment, was attached to the 3rd Infantry Division while at sea. It commenced landing in Fedala the afternoon of November 8 and by the next day had completed taking over police and local security missions in the town. Throughout the operation they continued to perform these functions. They relieved the 1st Battalion, 7th Infantry, which was enabled to go into regimental reserve.

Armband worn by Elmer Lee Sturgill, Company D, 2nd Battalion, 20th Engineers, during the assault and occupation of Fedala, Morocco. Photos courtesy Kenneth L Sturgill, his son.

The rest of the regiment landed on 19 November, and as reported by one engineer, "we emerged from the bowels of the good ship, loaded down with full field packs, gas masks and arms and carrying on our backs the largest and heaviest barracks bags that ever made an invasion." Once on the dock, in formation and with the band playing, the regiment marched through the streets of Casablanca amid an astonished citizenry.

Click on the image to see the full program for the Christmas Dinner Menu for Company D, 20th Engineers. Includes listings of all company personnel.

Stationed temporarily at Piscine, then moving on to the Hippodrome outside of Casablanca, the regiment's first assignment was to assist in unloading all cargo for North African operations. In January 1943, the 20th Engineer Regiment was relieved of cargo handling duties by a regular Port Battalion. The regiment was then given the mission to clear and fortify the Hotel D'Anfa for the Casablanca Conference, where President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill met with the French and Russian representatives to map out Allied strategy for the invasion of Europe.

On 15 March 1943, the 20th Engineer Regiment embarked on the longest motor march in its history. The line of march went across the northern edge of French North Africa (Morocco and Algeria), over the Atlas Mountains, for more than 1,100 miles. A trail of foxholes marked the passage through Meknes, Fez, Oujda, Tiemsen, Relizane, L'Arba, Setif and into Tunisia, the gateway of the war. Stationed in the vicinity of Kasserine, clearing and reconstruction of roads became a top priority. On 05 April, the regiment was ordered to move to Gafsa to repel an anticipated counterattack by the Germans, which never came.

On 15 April 1943 the 20th Engineer Regiment advanced northward through Thala, LeKef, Souk-el Arba, Lacroix and LaCalle towards the Mediterranean. General Bradley moved the entire II Corps from Gafsa to Northern Tunisia so smoothly and secretly that the Germans were caught unaware. On 24 April, Company B of the 20th Engineers was attached to the Free French Corps Franc d'Afrique and conducted the regiment's first assault. The attack went well.

The top priority of the 20th Engineers was then to clear the region's lines of communications, especially of mines and other obstacles. The Germans were in full retreat, demolishing all bridges on their route of march. The 1st Battalion, 20th followed closely on their heels, cutting bypasses around the blown spans. On 8 May 1943, Colonel Caffey personally led a mission into Bizerte to clear the town of Germans, and the 20th Engineers hoised the first American flag over Bizerte. The war in Africa was soon over. During it's first campaigns in North Africa, these soldiers of the 20th Engineer Regiment won some of the Army's highest awards:

Distinguished Service Cross
Sergeant Billie N. Grice, Alabama

Silver Star
Colonel Eugene M. Caffey, Georgia
Major James F. White, Ohio
Technical Specialist 5 Joseph F. Dardeen, Ohio
Technical Specialist 5 Herman Gillis, Georgia

Click the photo album above to read a letter to his parents from Elmer Lee Sturgill, Company D, 2nd Battalion, 20th Engineers, about his experiences fighting across North Africa. Courtesy his son, Kenneth L Sturgill.

It was in the North African campaign that the Regimental Commander, Colonel Caffey, frustrated by the huge numbers of diverse units and confusing task organizations, directed the use of the Wavy Arrow to mark the 20th Engineer Regiment's vehicles and equipment. The red wavy arrow has been used ever since to mark 20th Engineer equipment, to include during combat operations in Vietnam and Iraq, and at present-day Fort Hood.

Shortly thereafter, Colonel Caffey was promoted to command the 1st Engineer Special Brigade, which would achieve notoriety later in the war as the Army's premier amphibious assault organization during operations in Sicily and Normandy. Colonel Caffey passed command of the 20th Engineer Regiment to Colonel Richard R. Arnold (USMA 1932), previously on General Eisenhower's personal staff. After the war, Caffey would eventually serve as the Judge Advocate General of the Army, 1954-1956.

Although the fighting was over, the bloody days for the 20th Engineers were just beginning. They moved into the Sedjenae Valley and began removal of the great minefields. Almost every day had its accident, with a cost of 7 officers and 19 men dead and many more wounded, as the engineers removed over 200,000 German mines. One of those killed in the minefields, on 6 June 1943, was Colonel Richard Arnold, the regimental commander. Lieutenant George Lux accompanied Colonoel Arnold into the minefields that day, and tripped a wire which set off a booby trap. The explosion killed Arnold on the spot Lux suffered compound fractures of both legs, but survived the war. Colonel Arnold's fiancee was the secretary/driver for General Eisenhower there has been speculation that, after the death of Arnold, she sought solace in the company of General Eisenhower.

In early July, the 20th Engineers boarded LCTs at Bizerte Harbor and once at sea, were informed that their destination was Sicily as part of the General George Patton's new Seventh Army. According to a communique directly to the President from Maj Gen William Robert Jones, the embarked 20th Engineer Regiment received major casualties from enemy coast artillery from the region of Marsala, Sicily. On 10 July, operating while attached to the 3rd Infantry Division for Operation Husky, the 1st Battalion, 20th Engineer Regiment landed at Yellow Beach, 2 1/2 miles east of Licata.

Soldiers of the 3rd Infantry Division, supported closely by the 20th Engineer Regiment, negotiate difficult terrain on Sicily's southwestern coast. National Archives.

On 12 July, the 1st Battalion moved by truck to the extreme eastern flank of the 3rd Infantry Division and took up defensive positions, then continued the attack with the division a few days later. On 17 July, the 2nd Battalion was attached to the 82nd Airborne Division for the attack into Palermo.

On 23 July, General Alexander, realizing that the Eighth Army was not strong enough to take Messina, and with the Seventh Army already in position, ordered Patton to attack east on Montgomery's left. Assigned Highways 113 and 120, Patton had room for just II Corps. The coast road, Highway 113, ran along a narrow belt between the ridge noses and the beach, and was assigned to the 20th Engineers for improvement. They used captured rollers, portable rockcrushers, and stockpiles of crushed stone and asphalt to maintain the roads, build culverts, and repair railway bridges, resulting in the improvement of 18 bypasses between Palermo and Cape Orlando.

On 24 July, elements of the 20th Engineer Combat Regiment moved into Palermo to open the port. A great amount of work had to be done in cleaning up the harbor area and the piers, opening road exits, and bridging over wrecked vessels so as to secure more berthing space. On 28 July the first supply ships--six coasters (two of which unloaded at Termini Imerese) from North Africa--entered the harbor. By this time, the engineers could operate the port at only some 30 percent of its full capacity because of the still uncleared wreckage of forty-four enemy vessels that had been sunk alongside of moles and in the channel. Palermo's operating capacity was raised to 60 percent by 29 August. During the period from 28 July to 31 August, the port received forty-eight ships, excluding craft. During this same period, 120,706 dead-weight tons of supplies were discharged at the port.

The 20th Engineers began repairing the rail line between Palermo and Santo Stefano on 30 July. They rebuilt four bridges, opened a tunnel, and replaced a considerable amount of track. The line opened on 9 August. On 18 August, Rommel pulled the last of his troops off of the Island and the Sicily campaign was over.

Click on the image below to see a letter to all the troops, from the regimental historian, celebrating the 20th Engineer Regiment's 1st Anniversary since sailing from the United States. (Courtesy of Joseph Cieslak, son of Tech Sergeant Leonard J. Cieslak, 2nd Battalion, 20th Engineers)

Shortly after the cessation of combat in Sicily, the 1st Platoon, Company A, 20th Engineers shipped to Corsica to help liberate the French island occupied by the Italians and Germans. There is little information on this operation.

The first weeks of November were spent crating baggage and turning over equipment in Sicily. On 08 November, now under the command of Colonel Edmund K. Dailey, the 20th Engineers boarded the USAT "Sloterdyk" (operated by the Dutch) in Palermo harbor.

Berth assignment and meal ticket aboard the USAT Slauterdyke belonging to Elmer Lee Sturgill, Company D, 2nd Battalion, 20th Engineers, during the transit from Sicily to Scotland. Images courtesy Kenneth L Sturgill, his son.

On 24 November, the regiment debarked at Firth of Clyde, Scotland. Boarding a train in Greenock, the regiment moved to Prince Maurice Barracks at Devizes. The regiment was assigned to the Southern Base Section, and rehearsals for "Operation Overlord" and the training for the invasion of Normandy began.

On 15 January 1944, 20th Engineer Regiment directed to execute a major reorganization. The regiment reorganized and its elements were redesignated as follows:

  • Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 20th Engineer Regiment as HHC, 1171st Engineer Combat Group
  • 1st Battalion, 20th Engineer Regiment as the 20th Engineer Combat Battalion
  • 2nd Battalion, 20th Engineer Regiment as the 1340th Engineer Combat Battalion (later reflagged the 54th Engineer Battalion, today part of the 18th Engineer Brigade in Germany)

At the time of the reorganization, the regimental operations officer, Truman H. Setliffe, was named to command the 1340th Engineer Battalion.

On 10 February, the 20th Engineer Battalion was officially relieved from attachment to the Southern Base Section and attached to V Corps, First United States Army. Training intensified following a move to Wellington, England. On 01 March 1944, the 1st Infantry Division selected the 20th Engineers for the assault element of the 16th Infantry Regiment.

On 5 June, the 16th Infantry and 20th Engineers sailed out of Portland Harbor and into the English Channel to join the greatest convey of assault craft the world had ever known. Off the coast of Normandy, their craft crept slowly to the shore toward "Easy Red" and "Fox Green" Beaches. Struggling ashore, the men were pinned down and found it difficult to advance in the face of brutal fire. The 16th Infantry advanced over their own dead and were able to ascend to the cliff areas. The 20th Engineers attacked along with them, clearing mines and removing obstacles, allowing the supporting vehicles to move off the beach.

Photo shows George Griffenhagen on Omaha Beach several days after the assault. Note the directional sign with the Wavy Arrow, the unique emblem of the 20th Engineers, used to help direct assault landings on the beaches.

Tom Tuminello was assigned to Headquarters Company, 20th Engineer Battalion for the assault on Omaha Beach and the continued assault across Europe into Czechoslovakia. Tom recorded his memories of various battles, to include D-Day, the liberation of Paris, the Hurtgen Forest, the Siegfried Line, and Susice. Click the "play" button below to listen to Tom's memoirs.

Warren Causey was assigned to Company A for the D-Day campaign. His son has recorded Warren?s memoirs from the assault landing.

From 7 to 14 June the 20th Engineers enabled the rapid advance of the 1st Division from Colleville through St. Honorine des Pertes, Mosles, and Balleroy, to Caumont, by clearing mines and widening roads. For their part in the invasion of Normandy, the 20th Engineers were awarded the Presidential Unit Citation and the French Croix de Guerre.

Washington 25, DC, 16 August 1944

The 20 th Engineer Combat Battalion is cited for outstanding performance of duty in action. The 20 th Engineer Combat Battalion was attached to the 16 th Infantry with the mission of clearing the beach obstacles within the tidal range of the beach from vicinity of Vierville-sur-Mer to Colleville-sur-Mer under savage artillery, mortar, rifle, grenade, machine gun, and small-arms fire. Despite persistent enemy activity the 20 th Engineer Combat Battalion, with courageous determination and tenacity of purpose, cleared gaps in barbed wire and minefields to gain the beach. The operation was especially complicated because infantry and other troops were within the danger radius cleared a beach exit through antitank ditches, road blocks, and minefields subjected to hazards of enemy fire and sniper activity, and despite heavy casualties and loss of vital equipment, the battalion, by splendid foresite and technical skill, gallantly accomplished its difficult mission of clearing the beach, removing obstacles, and assisting the infantry in a manner consistent with the highest traditions of the military service. The courageous prosecution of these extremely perilous tasks in the face of overwhelming odds and deadly enemy opposition is deserving of the highest praise.

Click the photo above to see the memoirs of Sergeant John White, 20th Engineer Battalion, from the landings on D-Day.
Note the unusual wear of the crest of the 20th Engineers on the Sergeant's lapels.

Click the photo above to see family memories and photos of Private 1st Class Robert E Weber, Company A, 20th Engineer Battalion,
from the landings on D-Day, through the battles of the Hurtgen Forest, to preparations for the invasion of Japan.

The plaque dedicated to the 20th Engineers at Omaha Beach,
mounted on the same monument as that of the 5th Engineer Special Brigade.

With most of the local resistance eliminated, the 20th Engineers joined in the pursuit to the east and moved through the newly liberated towns lined with cheering crowds.

This photograph of the leadership of the 1340th Engineer Battalion (formerly 2nd Battalion, 20th Engineers) was taken on August 13, 1944, near Campeaux, France, after the breakthrough at St. Lo, and during efforts to trap the Germans in the Falaise Gap. Pictured are (left to right) Major Bruce Renfroe, Operations Officer Lt. Col. Truman H. Setliffe, Commanding Officer and Major John G. Auld, Executive Officer.

Americans liberating French towns were often presented small momentoes of appreciation. This ribbon and Cross of Lorraine, the symbol of the French Resistance, was presented to Elmer Lee Sturgill, 1340th Engineers. Image courtesy Kenneth L Sturgill, his son.

On 26 August, engineer reconnaissance parties entered Paris and took part in the liberation of the capital. With the fall of Paris, the Germans were in full flight.

The 20th Engineers were assigned to the 28th Infantry Division who were pushing northeast out of Paris. Clearing road rubble from the continuous demolition of the retreating Germans became a significant task, in addition to the never-ending mine clearing operations. On 11 September, the 20th Engineers entered Luxembourg. All of Northern France had been cleared of Germans. Outstripping their supply lines, the 28th Infantry Division and 20th Engineers had to hold fast and wait for gas and ammunition to catch with them.

Nazi banner liberated by Elmer Lee Sturgill, 1340th Engineers, and used to commemorate the day he crossed into Germany. Image courtesy Kenneth L Sturgill, his son.

Once on their own soil, German resistance stiffened. The wait for supplies at the border had given the Germans time to shore up the West Wall defenses of the Siegfried Line. The 28th Infantry Division had driven a small wedge into the "teeth of the dragon" and the 20th Engineers had the job of keeping the lines of communication open. With the beginning of autumn rains, the roads quickly became rivers of mud. Rock quarries were opened and rock was poured on the roads to keep the transports moving. On 30 September, the Germans launched a counterattack and the 20th Engineers were reorganized as infantry to hold the enemy along the line of the Kall River. Under incessant artillery and mortar fire, this engagement became one of the most costly for the 20th Engineers. By the time the 20th was relieved, 10 November, they had suffered 144 casualties, of which 103 were killed or missing in action.

In the middle of December, the Luftwaffe made appearances in greater numbers. The Germans, in the Battle of the Bulge, struck with overwhelming armored force in the thinly held areas of Bullingen, St. Vith and Clervaux, then broke through the lines and moved west toward Liege. On 20 December, the 20th was pulled out of the Hurtgen Forest and relocated to La Reid, Belgium, west of Spa. The next day, again attached to the 1st Infantry Division, the 20th Engineers moved to Robertville and set up a secondary defensive barrier of minefields and trees prepared for demolition. The Germans attacked strongly, but the line held. The great German drive, with the ultimate objective of reaching Antwerp and the sea and cutting off 38 Allied divisions, finally lost momentum as their own supply lines stretched.

In February 1945, the thaws came, the snow vanished and under heavy traffic the bottom dropped out of all the roads behind the front. Significant infantry support was given to the engineer missions to keep the routes open. Following the "battle of the mud" in the Ardennes, the 20th Engineers crossed the Siegfried Line again, removed mines and built a bridge at Kall. Once across the Rhine River, the 20th Engineers moved far and fast supporting the 272nd Infantry in taking Ehrenbreitstein, the fortress where the last American flag was lowered after the occupation following World War I.

The 1340th Engineers building a Bailey Bridge. Photo from Staff Sergeant Elmer Lee Sturgill. Image courtesy Kenneth L Sturgill, his son.

Paced by the 9th Armored Division, with the 2nd Armored Division and 69th Infantry Divsion following, the 20th Engineers dashed to the outskirts of Leipzig where the Germans made a determined stand. In a short and bitter fight, the 20th Engineers lost a reconnaissance party by ambush and many engineers were captured. Following the battle, the battalion took up positions in Stossen and Wiessenfels nearby, their brothers in the former 2nd Battalion, 20th Engineer Regiment--now the 1340th Engineer Battalion--constructed the bridge for the historic link-up with the Russians at Torgau, near Gilenburg.
Staff Sergeant Elmer Lee Sturgill, 1340th Engineers, poses at the bridge across the Elbe River. Image courtesy Kenneth L Sturgill, his son.

On 01 May, the 20th Engineers moved to Munchberg then into Czechoslovakia, building a 130 foot double-double Bailey bridge for the 1st Infantry Division to cross at Cheb. On 07 May, all resistance in Czechoslovakia stopped and V-E Day had arrived. The 20th Engineers had earned a little rest from their hard labor and they had time to remember old-timers who were no longer with them, and think of the future that lay ahead for the battalion.

And the future looked even tougher, at least for a while, as may be seen in an excerpt from a letter from Captain Walter C. MacHaley to Sergeant John White: "In four days I lose all men with eighty five or more points to the 146th Engineers. Looks like the only old timers that will be left are myself and the other officers. The 20th is now a Class II outfit and soon as it's refilled with replacements it will be off to the Pacific." Summary of Units to Which the 20th Engineers Were Attached During The War:

Corps d'Afrique
2nd Armored Division

First Army
Third Army
Seventh Army
II Corps
V Corps
82nd Airborne Division
1st Armored Division
2nd Armored Division
5th Armored Division
9th Armored Division
16th Armored Division
1st Infantry Division
2nd Infantry Division
3rd Infantry Division
5th Infantry Division
8th Infantry Division
9th Infantry Division
28th Infantry Division
34th Infantry Division
35th Infantry Division
45th Infantry Division
69th Infantry Division
99th Infantry Division
106th Infantry Division

Information provided by George Griffenhagen in the December 2005 edition of "The Wavy Arrow" newsletter of the 20th Combat Engineer Association of World War II

But of course because of the atomic bomb, the planned invasion of Japan was never executed. The 1340th Engineer Battalion returned to the United States in January 1946, and was inactivated at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey. On 30 March 1946, the 20th Engineer Combat Battalion was inactivated in Frankfurt, Germany. The former regimental headquarters, the 1171st Engineer Group, was transferred to Frankfurt, Germany, for infrastructure repairs and construction the commander of the 1340th Engineers, Truman H. Setliffe, was named the new Group commander. The 1171st remained in Germany for most of the rest of 1946, then was inactivated.

Click on any of the names below for stories or biographies about soldiers of the 20th Engineers in World War II.

Born This Day In History 21st October

Celebrating Birthdays Today
Judith Sheindlin
Born: 21st October 1942 Brooklyn, New York
Known For : American supervising family court judge in Manhattan, New York for many years. In 1996 after retiring from the bench she has became famous for presiding over her own syndicated courtroom show. Judge Judy who had a reputation as one of the most outspoken family court judges in the country took her style to arbitrate over small claims cases in Judge Judy and is watched by millions of viewers and distributed by CBS Television Distribution.

Manfred Mann
Born: 21st October 1940 Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
Known For : Founding member of Manfred Mann and Manfred Mann's Earth Band. The original Manfred Mann band had a number of number of chart topping hits in the UK which included "Do Wah Diddy Diddy," "Pretty Flamingo," "Ha! Ha! Said the Clown" from 1964 to 1967. In 1971 Manfred Mann formed the progressive rock band "Manfred Mann's Earth Band" which has had over 25 years of musical success with many top 20 selling albums in the US and the popular single "Blinded By The Light" in 1976.

Dates and Numbers of Battles

Perhaps surprisingly, historians don't all agree on the exact dates of battles. For instance, some use the date that a city was surrounded while others prefer the date that major fighting commenced. This list contains the dates that are the most agreed upon.

In addition, casualties in battle are rarely completely reported (and are often altered for propaganda purposes), and published totals can include military deaths in battle, deaths in hospitals, wounded in action, missing in action, and civilian deaths. Different historians give different numbers. The table includes estimates of the military deaths in battle of both sides, the Axis and Allies.

16. James Burke

James Burke is an Irish-American gangster who was part of the Lucchese crime family. He was born in New York City on July 5, 1931. He is the father of gangsters Frank James Burke and Jesse James Burke. One of his daughters, Catherine, married Anthony Indelicato who is a member of the Bonanno crime family. He also has another daughter, Robin. He is famous for his involvement in the Lufthansa heist of 1978 and the murders of those involved in the months that followed. Burke was the inspiration behind Jimmy ‘The Gent’ Conway, one of the main characters in ‘Goodfellas’ that was played by Robert De Niro. He was serving 20 years in New York State Prison when he died from lung cancer in 1996.

Hitler and eugenics in the 20th century

Adolf Hitler strongly believed in eugenics, the pseudo-scientific theory of a racial hierarchy that developed in the later-19th century through the application of Darwinian logic. Influenced by the work of Hans Günter, he referred to Aryans as the ‘Herrenvolk’ (master race) and aspired to establish a new Reich that brought all Germans within one border.

He opposed this grouping of supposedly superior European peoples with the Jews, Roma and Slavs and ultimately wished to create Aryan ‘Lebensraum’ (living space) at the expense of these ‘Untermenschen’ (subhumans). Simultaneously, this policy was designed to provide the Reich with the internal oil reserves it so ominously lacked.

Events of 1945

The New Year saw the Soviet liberation of Auschwitz, and the revelation of the sickening obscenity of the Holocaust, its scale becoming clearer as more camps were liberated in the following months.

The Soviet army continued its offensive from the east, while from the west the Allies established a bridge across the Rhine at Remagen, in March.

While the bombing campaigns of the Blitz were over, German V1 and V2 rockets continued to drop on London. The return bombing raids on Dresden, which devastated the city in a huge firestorm, have often been considered misguided.

Meantime, the Western Allies raced the Russians to be the first into Berlin. The Russians won, reaching the capital on 21 April. Hitler killed himself on the 30th, two days after Mussolini had been captured and hanged by Italian partisans. Germany surrendered unconditionally on 7 May, and the following day was celebrated as VE (Victory in Europe) day. The war in Europe was over.

In the Pacific, however, it had continued to rage throughout this time. The British advanced further in Burma, and in February the Americans had invaded Iwo Jima. The Philippines and Okinawa followed and Japanese forces began to withdraw from China.

Plans were being prepared for an Allied invasion of Japan, but fears of fierce resistance and massive casualties prompted Harry Truman - the new American president following Roosevelt's death in April - to sanction the use of an atomic bomb against Japan.

Such bombs had been in development since 1942, and on 6 August one of them was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Three days later another was dropped on Nagasaki. No country could withstand such attacks, and the Japanese surrendered on 14 August.

The biggest conflict in history had lasted almost six years. Some 100 million people had been militarised, and 50 million had been killed. Of those who had died, 15 million were soldiers, 20 million were Russian civilians, six million were Jews and over four million were Poles.

World War 2 Events by Country - United States

World War 2 spanned across language barriers, cultures, and borders as it wreaked havoc around the globe. The conflict was made up of several major theaters - spanning nearly all oceans and continents - which contained many individual campaigns and, within these, key battles and events on both the military and political spectrums. The war was fought with equal fervor and verocity across the land, on the sea (and under it), and in the air as millions of men and women answered the call of their respective flags - or happened to find themselves in the war's path with no option but to fight. In the end, the fractured world opened its eyes to a new order - one that would usher in a whole new trial in the Cold War and lead to the establishment of dozens of independent countries heading towards the end of the century.

There are a total of (460) World War 2 Events by Country - United States events in the Second World War timeline database. Entries are listed below by date-of-occurrence ascending (first-to-last). Other leading and trailing events may also be included for perspective.

The first US combat action against Germany occurs - this being the USS Niblack destroyer firing on a marauding German U-boat violating the US security zone.

The American 27th Infantry Division lands at Tsugen. The island is just to the east of Okinawa proper.

Wednesday, April 11th, 1945

The conquest of Tsugen is completed by the 27th Infantry Division.

US Marines reach Hedo Point in the north of Okinawa.

A five-day offensive is undertaken involving the American 77th Infantry Division and the island of Ie Shima. Ie Shima represents the tip of the Motobu Peninsula. Motobu is a defensive Japanese stronghold located to the west of Okinawa proper.

Japanese defenders are pushed back towards Naha by American forces. The Japanese defensive lines are reset as territory is lost. The Americans report 1,000 casualties in their assaults.

Two US Army and USMC divisions land along the southwest coast of Okinawa near Hagushi, meeting little resistance. The US 10th Army is commanded by Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner. Some 550,000 personnel and 180,000 soldiers take part in the fray.

Sunday, April 1st - April 30th, 1945

The final raid, this by American medium bombers, is launched against Schweinfurt.

Sunday, April 1st - April 30th, 1945

The USN is credited with sinking four German U-boats in what turns out to be the last recorded combat actions in the Atlantic Theater of War.

Saturday, April 1st - June 5th, 1944

Allied bombers increase their sorties across Northern and Western France in preparations of the D-Day landings. Targets include the vital railways, railyards, bridges and roads dotting the French landscape. These facilities will prove crucial to the German response to the invasion.

Motobu Peninsula falls to the Americans as the Japanese defenders are either killed or captured.

The offensive to take Ie Shima is completed.

Elements of the 5th Guards Army reach the Elbe River at Torgau and celebrate with the arriving US 1st Army.

Allied forces find and locate the Japanese defenders along the southern portion of Okinawa. Heavy defenses are noted.

As American forces move further inland, the battle for Okinawa intensifies. Pockets of dug-in Japanese defenders become evermore concentrated the more inland the Allied forces go.

American forces are now amassed as two separate assault fronts. To the north are the 1st and 6th Marine divisions. To the mountainous south are the 7th and 96th Infantry divisions.

The deadly kamikaze air attack is unleashed on American Naval vessels in the Pacific. These aircraft appear as coordinated airstrikes and prove equally deadly to both sides. USN vessels off the coast of Okinawa itself are targeted. Some 34 US Navy ships fall victim.

The IJN Yamato, Japan's pride and joy and the largest battleship ever built, sails from the Inland Sea on a suicide mission at Okinawa. She is escorted by the light cruiser Yahagi and some eight destroyers on her final voyage.

The IJN Yamato, having already been spotted by an American submarine, makes its way to the fighting at Okinawa. The crew understand that this is a suicide mission at this point in the war.

In the early morning hours, US Navy reconnaissance aircraft spot the IJN Yamato and relay her position.

Task Force 38 launches some 380 aircraft against IJN Yamato.

With no air cover, the IJN Yamato is blasted to pieces by the American Navy warplanes. Her magazine stores explode in a fantastic display as she goes up in smoke. Most of her crew is lost with the ship in the afternoon hours.

American forces fighting on the Bataan Peninsula finally surrender to the Japanese.

Wednesday, August 11th, 1943

The US 7th Army undertakes another amphibious jump to head off the German retreat.

Sensing complete destruction of Warsaw and its people, the Pope himself appeals to the Allies for help.

Patton's 3rd Army arrives at Argentan.

Elements of Patton's 3rd Army are sent from Falaise to the east towards Chartres and in the direction of Paris proper.

The Japanese Army gains vital territory leading up and into the Owen Stanley Range.

The Japanese Army takes control of the village of Kokoda.

The Japanese Army reaches Isurava just outside of Port Moresby.

One last amphibious assault by the 7th Army is conducted. The Germans now in full retreat to the northern tip of Sicily.

The Aleutian Islands Campaign comes to a close. The Japanese invasion is ultimately repelled.

Wednesday, August 16th, 1944

The American 3rd Army reaches Chartres.

With only limited-range Allied fighter escorts, the first major air raid on Schweinfurt and Regensburg is launched. The air raid consists of 230 aircraft from the 1st Bombardment Wing and 146 aircraft of the 4th Bombardment Wing.

Bad weather delays the original 5:30AM launch time of the operation.

Aircraft of the 4th Bombardment Wing take-off at 6:20AM in an effort to reach its target in daylight.

German Luftwaffe defense fighters attack the 4th Bombardment Wing formations passing over Germany.

At 11:18AM, the 1st Bombardment Wing finally takes off.

Some 250 German fighters, already alerted to the bomber group presence, are launched to repel subsequent air attacks.

Sometime between 11:46AM and 12:09M, the 4th Bomber Group makes their bombing run on targets at Regensburg.

At approximately 3:00PM, the 1st Bomber Group finally reaches its targets after incurring heavy losses from German fighters. Their bombing run ensues over Schweinfurt.

At around 4:50PM, elements of the 4th Bomber Group begin landing at their pre-determined bases in North Africa. Twenty-four aircraft from the group are noted lost.

At approximately 6:00PM, elements of the 1st Bomber Group begin landing back at their UK bases. Some 36 aircraft are missing.

The US 3rd Division gives the official "all clear" from their position in Messina. Operation Husky is a success and Sicily is firmly in Allied hands.

A Japanese counteroffensive sees an amphibious landing take place at Taivu. This landing zone is just 32 miles east of Henderson Field.

Wednesday, August 19th, 1942

This date is targeted for Operation Jubilee.

Wednesday, August 19th, 1942

Operation Jubilee is officially put into action.

Wednesday, August 19th, 1942

4,962 Canadian soldiers, along with 1,000 British troops and a 50-man contingent of American US Army Rangers set sail on no fewer than 237 boats towards Dieppe.

Wednesday, August 19th, 1942

At 3:48 AM, several Allied invasion vessels run into a German convoy, which actively engages the ships, ruining any chance the Allies held in the element of surprise. This event is a fore-telling of the day to follow.

Wednesday, August 19th, 1942

At 5:35 AM, Allied armor makes it to the beach. Over half of the tanks are lost in the action.

Wednesday, August 19th, 1942

By 11:00 AM, disaster has completely befallen the invaders. Many are trapped, forced back or dead to a prepared German defense.

Wednesday, August 19th, 1942

By 2:00 PM, all survivors of the Dieppe invasion have been rescued. Left behind are 3,367 casualties, wounded, prisoners of war or missing.

Saturday, August 19th, 1944

At Mantes Grassicourt, a division of the American XV Corps manages to cross the Seine River.

US General George S. Patton and his 3rd Army manage their way through Avranches towards Liore and Brittany.

Thursday, August 20th, 1942

The first of thirty-one US fighter aircraft arrive at Henderson Field.

The Falaise pocket is finally closed by the Allies. American and Canadian forces meet to complete the encirclement. German forces in Normandy are now trapped.

Nazi-allied French leader Marshal Petain celebrates the German victory over the Allied invasion at Dieppe.

Japanese ground forces attempt attacks against Henderson Field and American forces at Tenaru. The Japanese troops make little headway and are themselves encircled.

Saturday, August 22nd, 1942

The Japanese attackers at Henderson Field and Tenaru are ultimately destroyed, forcing Colonel Ichiki to commit ritual suicide.

After some additional fighting that results in a further 10,000 German soldiers killed, the trapped elements of the German Army at Normandy surrender to the Allies. In all, some 50,000 soldiers of the German Army are taken prisoner.

The Battle of the Eastern Solomons begins.

The Imperial Japanese Navy enacts a plan to resupply their forces at Guadalcanal under the cover of three aircraft carriers made up of the IJN Ryujo, the IJN Shokaku and the IJN Zuikaku.

US naval patrol aircraft spot the incoming Japanese convoy, radioing positions back to the main task force.

The US Navy claims a Japanese aircraft carrier. The carrier is attacked and sunk.

US naval patrol aircraft once again spot the incoming Japanese convoy. Positions are sent to Task Force 61.

Task Force 61, comprised of the USS Enterprise, USS Saratoga and the USS Wasp head to intercept the Japanese convoy.

Task Force 61 sets up at locations east of Malaita Island in preparation for the battle. Aircraft are launched form the American carriers beginning what is known as the Battle of the Eastern Solomons.

At 3:15PM, American carrier aircaft from the USS Enterprise manage hits on the IJN Shokaku.

Dive bombers and torpedo bombers from the USS Enterprise manage critical hits against the IJN Ryujo and sink here where she stood at 3:50PM.

At about 4:41PM, the USS Enterprise is the victim of Japanese dive bombers and takes several direct hits but manages to keep fighting.

The Japanese Navy lose their seaplane carrier - the IJN Chitose - to American dive bombers at 5:40PM.

The Allies reach the French capital of Paris.

Paris is liberated by the arriving Allies.

Patton and his 3rd Army continue their march and setup critical strategic bridgeheads over the Seine River at Elbeuf and Louviers.

The Japanese Navy loses a pair of transport ships enroute to the Solomon Island chain.

The Battle of the Eastern Solomons ends with the Japanese Navy claiming at least 90 aircraft lost while the American Navy enjoys victory with 20 aircraft lost in the fray.

Saturday, August 26th, 1944

Brigadier-General Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French forces, leads a contingent of Allied troops on a march down the Champs Elysees to a thunderous reception by liberated French citizens.

American General Douglas MacArthur employs his superiors for additional firepower and troop strength to help hold Papua.

By this date, the Japanese have completed their takeovers of the Caroline Islands, the Gilbert Islands, the Marshall Islands, the Marianas Islands and a portion of the Solomon Islands. This is the farthest that the Japanese Empire would reach in the Pacific.

Realizing their chances of victory are slim against well-trained and well-armed Germans, Polish Authorities once again ask the Allies - including the Soviets - for assistance in maintaining the uprising.

In the Far East theater of Burma, the remaining elements of the Japanese 28th Army are destroyed.

US Navy and Marine forces position themselves near Guadalcanal.

The Boeing B-29 Superfortress 'Enola Gay' drops the first of two atomic bombs on the Japanese mainland - the target being the densely populated city of Hiroshima. About 70,000 of its citizens are killed and a further 70,000 are injured in the blast. Many more will die in the coming years from its effects.

Amphibious forces spearheaded by the United States Marines begin against the Japanese-held island of Guadalcanal.

A determined German counter-attack takes Mortain and heads towards Avranches before being stopped. Allied airstrikes and artillery stall the German advance.

In an attempt to cut off the retreating Germans, the US 7th Army conducts a flanking amphibious attack.

The amphibious landings largely conclude by this date.

By the end of the day and facing next to no opposition, the US soldiers capture and secure Henderson Field.

Naval battles ultimately ensure between the Imperial Japanese Navy and the United States Navy for control of Guadalcanal.

Japanese bombers attack US forces at Henderson Field.

Just outside of Guadalcanal, the islands of Tulagi and Gavutu fall to the Allies.

US General Omar Bradley talks with British General Benard Law Montgomery about a plan to encircle some 21 divsions of Germans in the Falaise-Argentan pocket. Montgomery likes what he hears and give the plan the green light.

General Patton reaches Le Mans and then heads north to Argentan.

A large contingent of Imperial Japanese Navy warships heads out of Rabaul towards Savo Island to strike at US Navy transports there.

Three US and one Australian cruiser are sunk by the Japanese Navy during the morning hours.

A United States B-29 bomber delivers a second atomic bomb on the Japanese mainland, this time on the city of Nagasaki. This is in direct response to Tokyo's disregard of previous ultimatums by the Allies calling for an immediate and unconditional surrender. Some 35,000 are killed in the blast with another 60,000 citizens injured.

Wednesday, December 10th, 1941

Along the north of Luzon - at Aparri, Gonzago and Vigan - two large Japanese Army forces land via amphibious assault.

Thursday, December 11th, 1941

As expected, Germany and Italy side with Japan and officially declare war on the United States

Friday, December 12th, 1941

The airfields at Laoang and Tuguegarao fall to the Japanese invaders.

Monday, December 14th, 1942

Allied Australian and US forces continued their maches against the Japanese, taking territory through fierce firefights.

Thursday, December 14th, 1939

The Soviet Union is expelled from the League of Nations.

Saturday, December 16th, 1944

The German Army launch their Ardennes offensive against elements of the American US VIII located between Aachen and Bastogne.

Saturday, December 16th, 1944

Initial progress on the assault is good for the Germans, however, the US 2nd and 99th Divisions hold fast at Elsenborn and Malmedy.

Saturday, December 16th, 1944

Bad weather soon sets in over the Ardennes region, limiting Allied air support to counter the German advances.

Sunday, December 17th, 1944

Allied prisoners of war are executed in cold blood by elements of the 6th SS Panzer Army. Some 87 prisoners are killed where they stand on direct orders from German Colonel Joachim Peiper.

Sunday, December 17th, 1944

The town of Stavelot is lost to the invading German Army.

Tuesday, December 19th, 1944

By this date, two components making up the US 106th Division at the Schnee Eiffel region are surrounded by the Germans.

Tuesday, December 19th, 1944

Some 6,000 Allied troops surrender to the encircling German Army at Schnee Eiffel.

Tuesday, December 19th, 1944

Along the Ardennes line, US forces reform into intense defensive lines and some forces eventually mount counter attacks against the invading Germans.

Tuesday, December 19th, 1944

The town of Stavelot is recaptured by the Allies.

Tuesday, December 19th, 1944

Allied generals agree to commit elements of the Saar Front against the southern flanks of the German advance, this in the area between Bastogne and Echternach.

Wednesday, December 20th, 1944

By this date, the 101st Airborne Division at Bastogne is completely encircled by the German XLVII Panzer Corps.

Wednesday, December 20th, 1944

The US 10th and 19th Armored Divisions are completely encircled by the German advance.

Wednesday, December 20th, 1944

British General Montgomery is charged with heading up the progress along the north line of defense while American General Bradley is given command of the south.

Monday, December 22nd, 1941

The Japanese 48th Division lands at Lingayen Bay on Luzon.

Tuesday, December 23rd, 1941

The order is given by American General Douglas MacArthur to retreat from Luzon and take up positions on the Bataan Peninsula.

Tuesday, December 23rd, 1941

MacArthur's forces are cut-off from further retreat by a Japanese Army force advancing from the south.

Tuesday, December 23rd, 1941

Despite an out-numbered yet heroic resistance on the part of American forces, Wake Island falls to the Japanese.

Tuesday, December 23rd, 1941

The American military detachment at Wake Island surrenders. During their stand, the Americans accounted for at least 1,000 Japanese casualties and 4 Japanese navy warships.

Saturday, December 23rd, 1944

The foul weather over the Ardennes begins to clear.

Saturday, December 23rd, 1944

2,000 Allied air sorties are launched in improving skies against the Germans on the ground.

Saturday, December 23rd, 1944

Supplies are dropped from Allied transport planes to the beleagured forces held up at Bastogne.

Saturday, December 23rd, 1944

Allied ground attack fighters target and destroy German ground vehicles and troop concentrations. Without air support of their own, there is little that the Germans can do in response.

Thursday, December 25th, 1941

The Japanese 48th Division makes substantial progress against American forces, working their way towards the capital city of Manila.

Monday, December 25th, 1944

After achieving 60 miles of territory - the farthest march of the German Ardennes Offensive - the 2nd Panzer Division under Lieutenant-General von Lauchert is stopped by a combined force of British and American armor made up of the British 29th Armored Brigade and the American 2nd Armored Division.

Monday, December 25th, 1944

German losses on Christmas Day include 3,500 infantrymen and 400 vehicles, 81 of these being tanks.

Tuesday, December 26th, 1944

The American 4th Armored Division makes its way to the beleagured 101st Airborne forces at Bastogne and the situation at the village is stabilized.

Saturday, December 27th, 1941

The Philippine capital city of Manila eventually falls to the invading Japanese Army.

Thursday, December 28th, 1944

Hitler orders a halt to the advance - but no retreat - leaving his exposed and tired units at the mercy of the replenished Allied forces across the Ardennes Front.

Sunday, December 29th, 1940

Roosevelt's Fireside Chat radio program attempts to strengthen American support for the war against the Axis through supporting the British effort.

Saturday, December 2nd, 1939

The Finnish government seeks assistance from the League of Nations.

Saturday, December 6th, 1941

American President Franklin Roosevelt sends a final peace appeal to the Empire of Japan to which there is no answer.

Saturday, December 6th, 1941

American codebreakers begin tracking down a multi-part message - made up of 14 total components. Only the first 13 are actually deciphered, each being passed on to the President and the Secretary of State.

Saturday, December 6th, 1941

An attack against America is now deemed imminent though the consensus being that it will occur against interests somehwere in Southeast Asia.

At 9AM, the final Japanese message is broken down. It essentially directs its Washington envoy to break off diplomatic relations with America.

At approximately 10AM, a follow-up message is intercepted - meant for the Japanese diplomats in Washington - to delay handling of the previous message to the Americans until 1PM. The Americans now understand that an attack is imminent and the target is the US Naval fleet at Pearl Harbor.

It is discovered that communication lines from Washington to Hawaii are down for the moment, forcing the US War Department to use a commercial telegraph service to warn forces on the Hawaiian Islands.

The Imperial Japanese Navy attack commences with their assault. The force is made up of 423 aircraft and converges on the Hawaiian Islands.

At 6:00AM, the first wave of 183 Japanese Navy aircraft takes off from their carriers, just north of Oahu, to make the 230 mile trek. The target is the US Pacific Fleet.

At 7:02AM, the Japanese attack wave is located on American radar by two US Army personnel who bring it to the attention of a junior officer. The officer, expecting a flight of Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses to arrive that day, disregards the alert.

At approximately 7:15AM, the second wave of 167 Japanese Navy planes takes off from their carriers towards Pearl.

At 7:53AM, complete surprise by the Japanese Navy and the first wave begins their initial strike. This force is made up of 50 medium bombers, 43 A6M Zero fighters and 40 Kate torpedo bombers. Targets are the battleships hunkered down in the harbor and airfields used by the USAAF.

The second wave of Japanese Navy aircraft swoops in attacking targets of opportunity including auxiliary ships in the harbor and the all-important harbor facilities.

The attack on Pearl Harbor is over at 9:45AM. Over 2,400 people are killed and a further 1,178 are wounded. More die in the ensuing days while 1,104 sailors eventually perish within the hull of the battleship USS Arizona, its magazine stores ignited by a single Japanese bomb.

At 2:30PM Eastern Time, the Japanese diplomats in Washington finally visit with US Secretary of State Cordell Hull. With them is the Japanese declaration of war.

In conjunction with the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Wake Island is assaulted by a Japanese invasion force all its own - this under the command of Rear-Admiral Kajioka Sadamichi.

The United States, along with Britain, formally declare war on the Empire of Japan.

Thursday, February 10th, 1944

In a counter offensive, crack German paratroopers repel US forces and previous Allied gains are lost.

Friday, February 11th, 1944

US and Indian losses mount in the offensives against German positions in Calvario, the town of Cassino and Monte Cassino itself.

Friday, February 11th, 1944

The entire US 142nd Regiment is destroyed.

Friday, February 11th, 1944

The 34th and 36th US Divisions both report a high number of casualties from the ensuing offensives.

Friday, February 11th, 1944

A blanket retreat is enacted by the Allies in an attempt to regroup and plan a new strategy to take Cassino.

Saturday, February 12th, 1944

Winston Churchill pens a critical letter to supreme commander-in-chief of Allied operations in Italy. In his writings he claims he expected to see "a wild cat roaring" and has seen nothing but a "whale wallowing on the beaches".

Sunday, February 14th, 1943

At 4AM, elements of the 10th Panzer Division and 21st Panzer Division under General von Arnim, launch their attack at Allied forces near Sidi Bou Zid and Bir el Hafey.

Monday, February 14th, 1944

The offensive is detailed further, taking the latest developments into account.

Monday, February 14th, 1944

American bombers strike the production facilities at Schweinfurt.

Monday, February 15th, 1943

German General Erwin Rommel commences with his assault through Operation Morgenluft. His attack takes him towards Gafsa, Feriana and Thelepte.

Tuesday, February 15th, 1944

In an effort to destroy the believed German defensive positions atop Monte Cassino, Allied bombers numbering 229 strong, lay waste to the monestary.

Tuesday, February 15th, 1944

Following the Allied aerial bombardment, the second major Allied offensive to take Cassino is launched.

Wednesday, February 16th, 1944

Kesselring launches a large counterattack against the invading Allied forces.

Thursday, February 17th, 1944

The Allies lose some four miles of territory but stand fast outside of Anzio.

Thursday, February 18th, 1943

General von Arnim and General Rommels forces finally meet at Kasserine.

Friday, February 19th, 1943

American armored forces hold up the German advanced at Kasserine Pass.

Saturday, February 19th - March 13th, 1944

The Italian winter makes its arrival and postpones any further Allied offensives for the next month.

A Presidential directive calls for some 250 American aircraft to begin offensive actions in the Atlantic.

A massive evacuation effort sees some 11,000 Japanese personnel moved fom Tenaro, Gaudalcanal.

Saturday, February 1st, 1941

The United States Navy reorganizes into three independent fleets to cover possible battlefronts in the Atlantic, Pacific, and the Asia-Pacific regions.

Saturday, February 20th, 1943

The Americans fold under the immense German assault and Kasserine Pass falls to the invaders.

Saturday, February 20th, 1943

Allied units move from Le Kef for the counter-attack.

Saturday, February 20th, 1943

The British 6th Armored Brigade moves towards Thala and Sbiba.

Saturday, February 20th, 1943

US forces move in to stop the German advance around Tebessa.

Sunday, February 20th, 1944

American bombers and fighters take to the skies in force in support of the new bombing campaign. They number over 1,000 bombers and 660 fighters in escort. Twelve industrial target locations across Germany are hit. 21 American aircraft are lost.

Sunday, February 20th, 1944

The German attack is more or less repelled, at the cost of 5,500 German casualties.

Sunday, February 21st, 1943

The German forces at Kasserine Pass under Rommel await the Allied counter-offensive that never materializes.

Monday, February 21st, 1944

The Americans respond with another wave of 861 bombers with escorts. The target is the Luftwaffe production center in Brunswick.

Monday, February 22nd, 1943

Allied forces hold the Germans in check at Sbiba, Tebessa and Thala, inflicting 2,000 German casualties and forcing Rommel to call for a retreat.

Tuesday, February 22nd, 1944

American bomber groups begin medium bombing operations from bases within Italy.

Tuesday, February 22nd, 1944

Bad weather forces many-an-inflight accident for US bomber groups. Some 41 aircraft are lost. Nijmegen is accidentally bombed, causing over 200 civilian deaths.

Tuesday, February 22nd, 1944

The Allies replace the ineffective Major-General Lucas with Major-General Lucius Truscott.

Wednesday, February 23rd, 1944

Bad weather postpones any further bombing actions for the time being. The Allies take this time to recoup and repair.

Thursday, February 24th, 1944

The USAAF 1st Division launches another bombing raid on Schweinfurt through 238 bombers and long-range escort fighters. Eleven aircraft are lost.

Thursday, February 24th, 1944

With weather clearing, operations of Big Week continue. 266 American bombers strike Schweinfurt.

Thursday, February 24th, 1944

Over 900 American bombers are sent airborne to bomb aircraft-producing factories including Schweinfurt.

Thursday, February 25th, 1943

Kasserine is now firmly in Allied control, the Germans having retreated and Rommel's attention now elsewhere.

Friday, February 25th, 1944

The final American air raid of Big Week is launched with 900 bombers against Regensburg, Augsburg and Forth.

Friday, February 25th, 1944

By the end of it all, 3,300 Allied sorties are launched in the offensive and 226 bombers are lost. 290 German fighters are destroyed and another further 90 are damaged.

Tuesday, February 29th, 1944

Von Mackensen cancels the German offensive amidst mounting casualties and little gain.

Gaudalcanal officially falls to the Americans.

The last remnants of the Japanese Army on Guadalcanal is evacuated from the island.

Wednesday, February 7th, 1945

By this date, all of the German gains of the Ardennes Offensive have been erased.

Wednesday, February 7th, 1945

The German loss of life is a staggering 82,000 men, matched only by the 77,000 casualties suffered by the American Army.

The decision to abandon Guadalcanal is made by Japanese autorities.

Tuesday, January 11th, 1944

The first major Allied offensive to take Cassino is launched.

The US IC Corps and the French Expeditionary Corps arrive at Rapido River.

The US is involved in their first major assault on Cassino.

The Japanese begin to withdraw their battered army units from Guadalcanal.

Tuesday, January 18th - February 9th, 1944

US forces begin making headway through the Liri Valley, capturing ground at Monte Calvario.

Saturday, January 1st, 1944

A message to subordinates by US Army Air Force commanding general General H.H. Hap Arnold calls for the destruction of the German Luftwaffe before Allied landings can begin.

Weeks of fighting see German forces destroyed, taken prisoner or sent packing as the Allies regroup and respond.

Thursday, January 1st - March 1st, 1942

Off the east coast of the United States, some 216 vessels fall prey to the German U-boat scourge in this span.

Saturday, January 20th, 1945

Hitler orders his 6th SS Panzer Army out of the Ardennes forrest on the West Front towards Budapest, Hungary in the east.

In the afternoon hours, an Allied convoy of 243 ships sets sail from the Bay of Naples for the beaches at Anzio and nearby Nettuno.

Saturday, January 22nd, 1944

Operation Shingle, the amphibious landings at Anzio, is enacted by the Allied. In lead is the US VI Corps under Major-General John Lucas.

Saturday, January 22nd, 1944

By 12AM midnight, some 45,000 Allied troops and 3,000 vehicles are on the beaches.

Saturday, January 22nd, 1944

British forces hold the line at River Moletta.

Saturday, January 22nd, 1944

American forces hold the line at Mussolini Canal.

The American defensive lines finally break.

The Anzio beachhead is consolidated into a concentrated pocket on the orders of Lucas.

German Colonel-General von Mackensen takes control of the new 14th Army headquartered 30 miles west of Rome.

The German Luftwaffe begins heavy strafing attacks and bombardment of Allied forces.

Tuesday, January 25th, 1944

The Anzio beachhead continues to grow with Allied troops and equipment, making it a prime target for the regrouping Germans.

The US 1st Armored Division captures the town of Aprilia.

Von Mackensen moves six divisions to Anzio, some ten miles of the Allied beachhead.

The Germans are driven back at Cisterna.

Hitler delivers an ultimatum to supreme commander-in-chief over Italy operations, Field Marshall Kesselring, to fight to the death and drive the invading Allied forces into the sea.

By this date, some 70,000 men, 27,000 tons of goods, 508 artillery guns and 237 tanks are ashore on the beachhead.

Wednesday, January 29th, 1941

High level talks between the British and the Americans results in strengthening ties for the nations in the event of an American declaration of war with Germany.

Thursday, January 2nd, 1941

The U.S. government commits to construction of some 200 merchant ships to support the Allied cause in the Atlantic.

The Allies suffer some 5,000 casualties in the Anzio action by this date.

Von Mackensen's forces now number some eight divisions in strength.

Sananada is officially in Allied hands.

The Kokoda Trail is firmly in Allied hands by this date.

American forces lay claim to Buna.

The Japanese begin their offensive against the dug-in American forces on the Bataan Peninsula.

Operation Husky begins. Target - German-held Sicily. Some 2,590 naval vessels take part in the invasion which encompasses two army groups of American and British forces invading at two different coasts of the island.

US 82nd Airborne Division and British 1st Airborne Division paratroopers land at strategic locations across Sicily prior to the invasion force's arrival.

15th Army Group begins their initial assault to the south.

The Hermann Goring Panzer Division engages the US 1st Infantry Division at Gela. US forces are assited by offshore bombardment from Royal Navy ships and repel the German attack.

The Allies conduct an amphibious landing at Sarangini Bay in a step towards removing the Japanese defenders at Mindanao.

Allied airborne elements parachute into Sicily and capture key bridges. However, a German counter-attack drives back any gains of the day.

By this date, some 478,000 Allied troops have landed on Sicily.

German Paratroopers repel Allied forces from the Primasole bridge.

British and American forces finally meet at Comiso and Ragusa.

The Allies control key airfields across the island, allowing air support more resources from which to work with.

The Americans complete the detonation of the world's first atomic bomb under the codename of "Manhattan Project". The operation takes place at Alamogordo in New Mexico. Such bombs are intended to be used on the Japanese mainland to help finish the war.

The Primsole bridge is recaptured from the Germans.

US Army forces seize complete control of the town of St. Lo on the Contentin peninsula. Control of this strategic zone now allows for larger, prepared and controlled Allied offensives towards inland France.

German U-boats off the eastern coast of the US are relocated to better assault the merchant fleets streaming across the Atlantic.

Wednesday, July 1st - July 31st, 1942

The Allies received word on the construction of a strategic Japanese airfield (Henderson Field) on the island of Guadalcanal, part of the Solomon Islands. As such, plans are set in motion to curtail construction of the endeavor. US Navy and Marine forces spring into action.

8th Air Force B-17 and B-24 bombers are launched on Schweinfurt.

US General George C. Patton and his fabled 7th Army move along the west of the island at speed, claiming the Sicilian capital of Palermo in the process.

The Japanese Army gain ground on the US, Australian and Papuan Infantry Regiment defenders.

American forces enact Operation Cobra, this stemming from control of the Contentin peninsula. The goal is to smash through the German defenses and create a road through the Avranches, exposing inland France to future Allied assaults.

With Mussolini deposed back in Rome, Hitler has few options but to plan a retreat for his overwhelmed forces in Sicily. As such, he orders an official withdrawel.

In an effort to disrupt the Japanese war economy, the U.S. government enacts a restrictive licensing program for its export of important steel and oil products.

Japanese defenders on Mindanao in the Philippines are defeated.

US Army forces reach Avranches and lay control the region.

The German 7th Army attempts a counter-attack at Avranches but the Americans manage to hold their ground.

Tuesday, July 3rd - 11th, 1945

About 6,000 men, left over from the decimated Japanese 33rd Army, assail Allied positions at Waw. The fighting lasts until July 11th when the attackers are finally driven off by combined Allied air and ground assaults.

This date is set aside for Operation Rutter - the amphibious landing at the port city of Dieppe in occupied France.

Bad weather cancels this original date for Operation Rutter. Discussions begin on whether or not to nix the entire endeavor. It returns to the planning stages under a new name - Operation Jubilee.

The Allied invasion fleets sail out to Sicily.

War goods begin leaving U.S. shores bound for Britain.

U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt signs a $1.3 billion dollar commitment to modernize the United States Navy fleet in preparation for possible war.

The 1st Mobile Fleet of the IJN meets up with the Japanese Southern Force west of the Philippines.

By this time, the Japanese defenders have been seperated into three major fighting groups. The more raw recruits find it somewhat easy to surrender than fight to the death.

US amphibious assault elements arrive to take Saipan.

The first Japanese raid assaults US Task Force 58 through a combined force of IJN and IJA aircraft commitment. The American response nets 35 enemies in the first phase of the attack.

The second raid of arriving Japanese aerial strike force is identified and attacked by the Americans resulting in some 97 Japanese aircraft downed.

At 9:05am, the USS Albacore lands a fish into the side of the IJN Taiho aircraft carrier.

At 12:20pm, the USS Cavalla attack submarine hits the IJN Shokaku with torpedoes.

The third Japanese attack includes 47 aircraft which are met by 40 American fighters resulting in 7 enemies downed.

At approximately 4:24pm, the carrier IJN Shokaku, suffering extensive damage from American warplanes, goes under.

Around 4:28pm, the carrier IJN Taiho joins the IJN Shokaku.

A fourth Japanese flight group of 49 aircraft is assailed by 27 American Hellcats netting 30 more Japanese targets.

Tuesday, June 1st - June 30th, 1943

British and American authorities work together to formulate the Pointblank Directive - a combined air bombing campaign against the air production facilities of the German Luftwaffe.

Monday, June 1st - June 30th, 1942

June of 1942 marks the single worst month of Allied shipping losses, totaling some 834,000 tons of goods at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean.

At 4:30pm, some 216 American aircraft are launched in response to the Japanese attacks.

American dive bomber aircraft successfully attack, and subsequently sink, the aircraft carrier IJN Hiyo.

The American aerial force claims another two IJN tanker vessels.

The aircraft carrier - IJN Zuikaku - takes heavy damage from American warplanes.

The aircraft carrier - IJN Chiyoda - takes heavy damage from American warplanes.

During the attack, American fighter pilots score a further 65 enemy aircraft.

By 8:45pm, the American attack shows a loss of 100 aircraft with 80 being lost to landing accidents at night or lack of fuel, forcing many airmen to ditch into the sea.

Republican Henry Stimson is appointed Secretary for War by President Roosevelt.

Republican Frank Knox is appointed Secretary for the Navy by President Roosevelt.

The fighting on Okinawa comes to a close as American forces overwhelm the islands determined Japanese defenders. Those that are not taken prisoner or die in the fighting, subject themselves to ritual suicides.

Understanding that defeat is iminent, Japanese Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushjima commits ritual suicide with his staff after reporting the loss of Okinawa to his superiors.

The Battle of Okinawa officially draws to a close and now represents the all-important staging area for the Allied invasion of the Japanese mainland.

The Northern Task Force begins its operation to take the Aleutian Island chain and divert USN forces to the region.

Official word comes down that the June 5th landings will be postponed due to inclement weather across the North Sea.

At 4:30AM, the bombing of Midway Island begins with aircraft from Vice-Admiral Nagumo's First Carrier Strike Force.

American fighter aircraft take heavy losses but force the Japanese Navy to launch a second attack.

At 7:28AM, a Japanese reconniassance plane spots spots ten undetermined USN surface ships 200 miles northeast of the Japanese Midway invasion force.

At 7:52AM, USS Enterprise and USS Hornet launch their dive bombers and torpedo planes.

At 8:20AM, a surprised Nagumo receives his first report of American carriers in the area.

At 8:37AM, aircraft of the second Japanese strike force returns to their respective carriers for rearming and refueling.

At 9:00AM, USS Yorktown launches her aircraft with Nagumo's carrier force as the prime target.

Between 9:30AM and 10:00AM, Torpedo planes from the USS Enterprise and USS Hornet begin their attacks on the Japanese carriers.

At 9:18AM, Nagumo reacts to the American presence and changes the course of his Carrier Strike Force.

The first wave of USN carrier dive-bombers has difficulty in locating their Japanese targets.

All incoming USN Devastator attackers are shot down by Japanese Zero fighters in the span of six minutes.

The initial American assault on the Japanese carrier strike force is over by 10:00AM.

At 10:25AM, a follow-up strike made up of 37 Dauntless dive bombers finds the Japanese carriers - now stocked with armed and fueled aircraft on their decks.

The three Japanese carriers - Kaga, Soryu and Akagi - are struck with bombs and ultimately sunk.

At 12:00PM, Imperial Japanese Navy bomber aircraft strike against the attacking USS Yorktown.

By 2:30PM, the USS Yorktown is severely damaged but does not sink.

By 3:00PM, the crew of the USS Yorktown has abandoned their carrier. The damaged vessel is towed by USN ships.

At 5:00PM, the Imperial Japanese aircraft carrier Hiryu is set ablaze after being struck by no fewer than five direct bomb hits from aircraft of the USS Enterprise.

Some 6,000 naval vessels depart from the south of England towards France.

The Japanese carrier Hiryu is scuttled.

The Allied D-Day landings in the North of France eventually render the French-German U-boat bases inoperable.

In preparation for the arrival of the regular armies by way of amphibious landing, British and American airborne paratroopers arrive in France just after midnight.

Elements of the US 82nd and 101st Airborne divisions land across the Cotentin Peninsula. Despite all the planning, their dropzones are widely scattered.

Despite the confusion on the part of the misdropped Allied paratroopers, the defending Germans are thrown into an equal level of confusion, noting Allied airdrops all around them.

Allied naval warships open up with their guns on German defensive positions along the French coast.

At approximately 6:30AM, American Army forces begin landing at two key beaches, codenamed Utah and Omaha.

US Army forces arriving at Utah beach find themselves some 2,000 yards away from where they should be. The result is the force finds little German opposition at Utah. Their original landing zone was to be centered around Les-Dunes-de-Varreville. Total casualties from the landing are 300 personnel.

The US Army forces arriving at Omaha beach face a prepared, stout and veteran defense made possible by the German 352nd Division. After 2,400 casualties, the 1st US Infantry Division holds a beachhead.

By 8:00AM, most of the German defenders at or near Gold and Sword beaches have been cleared or are on the run.

The Canadian 3rd Infantry Division makes its way towards Juno beach. The German defenses, heavy seas and underwater obstacles cause a loss of 30 percent of the landing craft. The onshore result is equally grim as the Canadians are assaulted by the prepared Germans.

Near the town of Pouppeville, the US 4th Infantry Division at Utah beach connects with the 101st Airborne Division paratroopers.

The German 21st Panzer Division is repelled by a combined Allied armor and air assault, saving further actions at Sword.

By midnight, D-Day is more or less over. Not all objectives are captured but progress is made nonetheless.

Omaha statistics are grim and the group holds the least amount of real estate at just 4.3 miles across and 1.2 miles inland. However, they do hold positions in Vierville sur Mer, Colleville and St-Laurent sur Mer.

The first town in France - Ste Mere Eglise - is liberated by the Allies, this honor falling to the American forces from Utah beach and paratroopers from the previous day's drops.

American forces at Utah beach hold pockets of land totaling just over 6 miles.

The USS Yorktown, now severely damaged and in tow of US Navy forces, is targeted and sunk by a Japanese submarine.

The island of Kiska is taken by Japanese forces.

The island of Attu is taken by Japanese forces.

President Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease Act into law allowing the United States government to militarily support - with delayed payments - any and all allies when U.S. interests are threatened.

Wednesday, March 15th, 1944

A third major Allied offensive is put into action.

Wednesday, March 15th, 1944

Artillery guns open up on Cassino while 600-plus Allied bombers attempt to shake the German defenders.

Wednesday, March 15th - March 21st, 1944

Against mounting casualties but with tank support, the 4th Indian Division gains ground.

Wednesday, March 15th - March 21st, 1944

The 2nd New Zealand Division captures German-held position with the help of Allied armor support.

Wednesday, March 15th - March 21st, 1944

The 78th British Division makes headway thanks to the support of Allied armor.

Wednesday, March 15th - March 21st, 1944

Positions on Monte Cassino are officially in Allied hands.

Wednesday, March 1st - May 22nd, 1944

The Anzio engagement is limited to minor activity for the time being, with the Allies dug in and the Germans trying to dislodge the invaders by limited means.

Wednesday, March 22nd, 1944

With mounting losses in both manpower and tanks, further Allied thrusts are called off.

Thursday, March 23rd - May 10th, 1944

A lengthy six-week period allows the Allies to rebuild their forces - though this period allows the Germans to increase their defensive foothold.

In preparation for the amphibious assault landings on the island of Okinawa, US Naval elements begin bombardment of shoreline positions.

The US 77th Infantry Division lands at the Kerama Islands to secure a staging post for the eventual invasion of Okinawa.

Further landings of US forces on the Kerama Islands, complete its capture for the Allies.

United States vessels capture some sixty-five ships aligned with the Axis powers.

The US Navy lobs some 30,000 explosive shells on the Okinawa coastline by this time, ending a week of bombardment.

The fourth offensive to take Cassino is put into action.

Approximately 2,000 Allied artillery guns open up on Cassino.

A combined British, Polish and American assault converge on Cassino involving the British 13th Corps, the Polish II Corps and the US 5th Army.

The convoy system is formally adopted by the United States in an effort to protect its merchant shipping in the Atlantic.

This date became one of the two best weather options for the Allied invasion of France.

Weather on May 17th cancels the D-Day operation. Leaving the next best weather window of opportunity to be June 5th.

June 5th is selected as the next official launch date for D-Day.

Monte Cassino falls to the Allies, costing some 50,000 casualties along both sides of the battlefield.

Some 33 U-boats assail an Allied convoy. However, the streamlined Allied response nets zero ship losses and fatalities. The U-boats come up empty.

Allied aircraft are fitted with U-boat detecting radar systems.

By May of 1945, the U-boat scourge in the Atlantic is over, completing one of the more important battles in all of World War 2.

Berlin formally and unconditionally surrenders to the Soviet legions and Western Allies. General Jodl signs for the defeated Germans and Generals Bedell Smith and Suslaparov for the Allies.

Saturday, May 1st - May 31st, 1943

By the end of May, 43 U-boats are sunk to just 34 merchant vessels.

The 2nd Canadian Infantry Division begins training for Operation Rutter on the Isle of Wight.

The US VI Corps breaks out of the Anzio perimeter and takes ground well into the Alban Hills.

The US VI Corps continues its gains and eventually combines with the arriving UU Corps. The road to Rome is now in the hands of the US Army and steps are taken for the final assault on the capital.

A large Imperial Japanese Naval force sails for Japan towards Midway Island. The force Is made up of four task forces. One is charged with the invasion of the Aleutian Islands off of Alaska while the other three are to take Midway Island itself and assail the responding USN fleet. One group contains the required four aircraft carriers.

Naha is officially captured by American forces. The Orouku Peninsula to the south is now within reach.

The final Imperial Japanese Task Force leaves mainland Japan.

The U.S. government commits millions to a new defense program aimed at modernizing and strengthening the current force.

Forces of the Imperial Japanese Army land at Tulagi of the Solomons island group. Subsequent develop ensures a base of operations for Japanese logistics in the region.

An Imperial Japanese Navy carrier force sets sail on patrol around the Solomons looking for American carrier battle groups.

American intelligence intercepts various Japanese communications and is able to piece together the intention to invade Port Moresby, New Guinea.

USS Yorktown launched strike aircraft south of Guadalcanal. At 6:30AM, the American Navy aircraft spot and subsequently target Japanese land emplacements and sea vessels in the area.

The Japanese invasion force leaves Rabaul, New Britain, heading towards Port Moresby, New Guinea.

The Japanese enact a major offensive in the south of Okinawa. A coast-to-coast defensive front is established from Naha to Yonabaru. Regardless, the line is targeted by prolonged American firepower and infantry.

The Japanese enact an offensive to take Corregidor Island, a strategic point providing access to Manila Bay.

Wednesday, May 5th - May 6th, 1942

Foul weather limits detection of either carrier force across a two day span.

Corregidor Island falls to the Japanese, giving the invaders control over Manila Bay.

Allied Task Force 44, headed by Royal Navy Rear-Admiral Crace, moves in to intercept the Japanese invasion force. However, the force is prematurely spotted by Japanese reconnaissance aircraft resulting in a counter-assault of the Task Force by Japanese Navy warplanes. Crace and his force never make the intercept.

The USS Neosho and the USS Sims are sunk by Japanese aircraft.

The Allies spot the Japanese Covering Group escorting the invasion force.

The USS Lexington and the USS Yorktown launch their attack planes and sink the Japanese aircraft carrier Shoho in the process.

Some 27 Japanese aircraft are launched under the cover of darkness in the hopes of locating the Allied Task Force. They come up empty and only six aircraft return safely home.

Just past dawn, the Japanese and American carrier groups spot one another.

At 9:25AM, Japanese and American warplanes take to the skies.

At 11:40AM, US Navy warplanes manage to score devastating hits to the Japanese aircraft carrier Shokaku, severely damaging her.

At 2:47PM, the American carrier USS Lexington is hit by a Japanese torpedo, causing a major explosion in her generator room.

By 6:00PM that evening, nearly all of the USS Lexington's sailors have been rescued.

At 6:10PM, the USS Lexington is a complete loss. She is scuttled and sunk.

This day is formally announced as "VE Day" and celebrations break out across the world, though fighting in the Pacific against the Japanese Empire is ongoing.

The Japanese aircraft do not locate the American fleet and any further actions are called off, effectively ending the Battle of Coral Sea.

Wednesday, November 10th, 1943

The combined force of US Army and Marine Corps troops numbering 35,000 personnel heads towards Betio on the Tarawa Atoll.

Saturday, November 13th, 1943

US Navy warplanes and warships begin the bombardment of Japanese positions at Makin and Tarawa in preparation for the planned amphibious assaults.

Sunday, November 15th, 1942

American paratroopers land at the airfield near Youks les Bains

Sunday, November 15th, 1942

US forces continue their march from the south against Japanese-held areas.

Monday, November 16th, 1942

Allied forces begin their move into German-held Tunisia.

Tuesday, November 17th, 1942

Wednesday, November 18th, 1942

The Allies take Sidi Nsir.

Sunday, November 1st - January 31st, 1942

Neither force can claim much action during this span. In time, US forces number some 58,000 troops while Japan can claim 20,000-strong.

Friday, November 20th, 1942

The Allied assault on the strategic city of Medjez el Bab begins.

Saturday, November 20th, 1943

US Navy warplanes and warships conclude their bombardment of Japanese positions.

Saturday, November 20th, 1943

At 9:10AM, the first US Marine soldiers make it ashore at Betio during the initial amphibious landings. Nearly half are cut down in low waters by the waiting Japanese defenders.

Saturday, November 20th, 1943

US tanks and armored vehicles finally make it ashore and strengthen the US Marine presence on the beaches.

Saturday, November 20th, 1943

By the end of the first day of operations, some three US Marine battalions have made it onto the beaches.

Sunday, November 21st, 1943

Another US amphibious landing, this consisting of both Army and Marine elements, makes it to the shores on Makin.

Sunday, November 21st, 1943

US forces at Makin kill some 800 defending Japanese soldiers, leaving just a lone survivor.

Sunday, November 21st, 1943

US forces officially take Makin and give the "Makin Taken" signal.

Sunday, November 21st, 1943

US forces take Apamama after the suicide of its 22-strong Japanese garrison.

Sunday, November 21st, 1943

US forces continue their progress against the Gilberts though a dogged Japanese resistance makes for slow progress.

Monday, November 22nd, 1943

By 8PM on this date, US forces lay claim to portions of the Gilberts at its east and central regions.

Monday, November 22nd, 1943

By night time hours, the Japanese enact a counter-attack against US forces, hoping to regain lost ground and take their invaders by surprise.

Tuesday, November 23rd, 1943

The Japanese assault is repelled with a tremendous loss of life for the IJA. The dead number some 500 personnel in hours of fighting.

Tuesday, November 23rd, 1943

The final Japanese defenders at Betio capitulate.

Tuesday, November 23rd, 1943

With the fall of Betio, the Gilbert Islands are now under control of US forces.

Thursday, November 26th, 1942

Medjez el Bab falls to the Allies.

Wednesday, November 26th, 1941

The Japanese naval fleet leaves home port and heads to Hawaii.

Monday, November 30th, 1942

Despite the consistent progression throughout North Africa, the Allied invasion offensive grounds to a halt in the face of growing German resistance at key junctions. The total liberation of North Africa will have to wait.

Tuesday, November 30th, 1943

The British and Americans devise Operation Argument to counter the Luftwaffe threat through a round-the-clock bombing offensive bad weather postpones any action.

Saturday, November 4th, 1939

The United States government revises its neutral stance and allows for sales of military goods to occur - the buyer responsible for payment and transport.

Tuesday, November 5th, 1940

Franklin Roosevelt is reelected to a third term as President of the United States.

Saturday, November 7th, 1942

Three Allied task forces - the US Western, Central and the British Eastern - approach the coast of North Africa.

The Allied invasion forces reach North African shores.

The first French cease-fires begin to ring out across Algeria and Morocco.

US forces tangle with a suprisingly stout French defense. It was believed that the two country's histories would have brought France to surrender rather than fight a former ally.

Saturday, October 10th, 1942

Japanese reinforcements are shipped to the west and disembarked at Tenaro, some 20 miles from American forces.

A Japanese Navy convoy headed through the Eastern and Western Solomons is intercepted by a US Navy force, beginning what is known as the Battle of Cape Esperance.

At 11:32PM, US Navy warships fire upon IJN vessels in the convoy, sinking the IJN Fubuki and damaging the IJN Furutaka and IJN Aoba, which themselves begin sinking.

At midnight, the Japanese convoy is in retreat and gone from the region in roughly 30 minutes.

The IJN Furutaka officially sinks at 12:40AM.

Thursday, October 14th, 1943

Some 291 USAAF bombers of the 13th Bombardment Wing are once-again launched against Schweinfurt. Though 30% of German ball-bearing production is knocked out, 60 American aircraft do not return to home bases in the UK. The high level of losses in these raids forces the USAAF to temporarily suspend long-range bombing attacks into Germany.

Thursday, October 15th, 1942

American soldiers of the 32nd US Division complete an amphibious assault near Pongani and Wanigela on Papua.

The Graf Spee goes on to sink four more Allied merchant vessels during the month of October.

Some 20,000 Japanese fighters, including elements of the 2nd Division and 17th Army, undertake a new offensive under the direction of General Maruyama.

Japanese Navy supply ships make their way offshore of Guadalcanal where land forces there are attempting to take Henderson Field.

After some 3,500 casualties are netted against the Japanese attackers, the offensive stalls and is ultimately called off.

A USN Consolidated PBY Catalina flying boat scout plane spots the Japanese waterforce and relays their position.

The US Navy sends Task Force 16 and 17 to intercept the Japanese resupply action.

US Navy aircraft are launched from USS Enterprise and USS Hornet but fail to locate the Japanese ships.

A PBY Catalina, capable of limited bombing, misses its mark as it attempts to hit several Japanese aircraft carriers at 2:50AM.

USS Enterprise launches a wave of Dauntless dive bombers in search of the Japanese group. Some 22 total aircraft are launched.

72 aircraft are launched as a combined force from USS Enterprise and USS Hornet.

The IJN carrier launch around 110 aircraft in response.

At 7:40AM, USN dive bombers damage the IJN carrier Zuiho.

US Navy and IJN aircraft formally meet in air to air combat by 8:15AM.

The USS Hornet takes a critical hit at 9:15AM from attacking Japanese Navy dive bombers and torpedo bombers. The IJN forces claim two torpedo hits and a further six bomb hits against her.

The crew of the USS Hornet begin evacuation procedures aboard their doomed ship.

The crippled IJN carrier Zuiho is hit by another four bombs, bringing her tenure at sea to an official close at 9:18AM.

USN bombers score several key direct hits against the carrier IJN Shokaku at 9:30AM.

USS Enterprise receives several direct hits from IJN dive bombers against her flight deck and forward elevator.

The Americans signal a withdrawal of all forces form the battle.

The USS Hornet is cleared of all crew by 11:40AM.

Tuesday, October 27th, 1942

Destroyers of the IJN come across the remains of the USS Hornet and launch torpedoes against her, sending her to the bottom of the Pacific.

8th Air Force B-17 and B-24 bombers are once again launched on Schweinfurt.

Saturday, September 12th, 1942

Some 6,000 Japanese Army personnel are used in a final thrust against the Americans at Henderson field. Among the attackers is the Japanese 35th Brigade.

Sunday, September 13th, 1942

Japanese forces come within a half-a-mile of Henderson Field before being stopped and, ultimately, driven back.

Monday, September 14th, 1942

At the end of the Henderson Field offensive, the fanatical Japanese have lost at least 1,200 soldiers in the fighting.

Tuesday, September 15th - October 7th, 1942

The Japanese begin building up their forces to reclaim Henderson Field.

Sunday, September 17th, 1944

General Dwight Eisenhower, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, approves General Montgomery's Operation Market Garden.

Sunday, September 17th, 1944

Operation Market Garden is activated. Parachute landings take place at Eindhoven, Veghel, Grave and Oosterbeek.

Sunday, September 17th, 1944

The US 101st Airborne Division landing at Eindhoven and Veghel are successful in their capturing of bridges.

Sunday, September 17th, 1944

The US 82nd Airborne Division landing at Grave is successful in capturing its target bridge.

Monday, September 18th, 1944

American B-17 bombers land at Poltava, now under Soviet control, to refuel. Onboard are arms and supplies meant for the Polish resistance.

Monday, September 18th, 1944

Josef Stalin refuses further Allied use of his forward airfields to resupply the Polish insurgents.

Tuesday, September 19th, 1944

The British XXX Corps officially unites with the US 82nd Airborne Division forces having landed at Grave.

Tuesday, September 1st - September 30th, 1942

The month is spent ironing out plans for the Allied invasion of German-occupied North Africa.

Wednesday, September 20th, 1944

The US 82nd Airborne, backed by the British XXX Corps, take the bridge over the Waal River at Nijmegen.

Monday, September 25th, 1944

American air drops deliver their much-needed cargo to the Polish resistance below. However, the drop zones are in firm German control and supplies are captured soon after landing.

Wednesday, September 27th, 1939

The German battleships Deutschland and Graf Spee are let loose on Allied shipping convoys in the North Atlantic.

Wednesday, September 27th, 1944

South of Arnhem, Allied forces continue to hold their gains. Over the next few months, some 3,500 casualties will be counted.

Monday, September 2nd, 1940

The British and American governments agree to a deal for the British to receive some 50 old USN destroyers.

Sunday, September 2nd, 1945

The formal Japanese surrender takes place on the deck of the American battleship USS Missouri. Japanese leaders sign the surrender in front of American General Douglas MacArthur. The end of World War 2 - with VJ day - has arrived.

Tuesday, September 5th, 1939

The United States government declares its neutrality in the European conflict.

Monday, September 7th, 1942

US Marines enact a surprise amphibious landing against Japanese strongholds at Taivu.

Tuesday, September 8th, 1942

The US Marine landings result in the destruction of vital Japanese supplies and the recovery of important operational data.


  1. Phantasos

    Yes, really. It was and with me. We can communicate on this theme. Here or in PM.

  2. Forde

    Oddly enough, but it is not clear

  3. JoJokasa


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