History of USS F-2 SS-21 - History

History of USS F-2 SS-21 - History

F-2

(SS-21: dp. 330; 1. 142'7"; b. 15'5"; dr. 12'2";
s.14k.;cpl.22;a.418"tt.;cl. F)

SS-21, originally named Barracuda, was renamed F-2 on 17 November 1911 and launched 19 March 1912 by Union Iron Works, San Francisco, Calif.; sponsored by Miss A. R. Rolph, daughter of the mayor of San Francisco, and commissioned 25 June 1912, Lieutenant (junior grade) F. L. Chew in command.

F-2 joined the 1st Submarine Group, Pacific Torpedo Flotilla, in operations between San Diego and San Pedro, the Flotilla's base. She continued to play an important part in developing tactics and coordinating the use of underseas craft with the fleet during an extended training period in the Hawaiian Islands, from August 1914 through November 1916.

After Iying in ordinary at Mare Island between 16 March 1916 and 13 June 1917, F-2 became flagship of Division 1, Submarine Force, Pacific Fleet. Returning to operations out of San Pedro, she participated in surface and submerged exercises, torpedo proving practice, experiments in balancing at various depths, and trained prospective submarines. On 18 September 1919, she was placed in reserve commission at San Pedro to be used in elemental school work until decommissioned at Mare Island 16 March 1922. She was sold 17 August 1922.


History of USS F-2 SS-21 - History

Marine Monster off Alcatraz Horrific Marine Monster Encountered Off Alcatraz

Fishermen Fail to Hurl The Harpoon Into Sea Serpent

Two Italian fishermen had a thrilling adventure yesterday on the bay with a marine monster that they described, when they arrived, pale and trembling, at Meiggs wharf as being 600 feet long, possessed of 47 eyes, a big horn, a great mouth and a breath like an automobile. They encountered the leviathan off Alcatraz. Their attention was attracted to a glistening something that projected a foot or more above the water and appeared to be drifting with the tide.

They decided that it probably was metal work attached to a chunk of wreckage which might be worth saving. They decided to save it. They took down the sail of their boat and rowed to within a few feet of the object. One of them took a heaving line and was swinging it around his head preparatory to lassoing the treasure when there came a sudden roar. The object of their attention suddenly rushed through the water at terric speed and as it gained headway there appeared above the surface a great green body that disappeared again in a cloud of smoke.

There was no more fishing for those sons of Italy. They hoisted sail and scooted for Meiggs wharf, where they told their tale. A few hours later somebody heard a member of the crew of the submarine torpedo boat Barracuta tell how they had scared the life out of two fishermen whose preparations with the heaving line they had watched through the submarine's periscope.

Source: San Francisco Call, 11 May 1912, page 10.

"USS F-2, a 330-ton F-1 class submarine built at San Francisco, California, was commissioned in June 1912. She had originally been named Barracuda, but was renamed F-2 in November 1911, prior to being launched. The submarine served in West Coast waters for her entire career, except for August 1914 through November 1915, when she was based at Honolulu, Hawaii. In September 1919 she was placed in commission, in reserve, for training purposes. Designated SS-21 in July 1920, when the Navy implemented its hull number system, USS F-2 was formally decommissioned in March 1922 and sold in August of that year."

F Class Submarines

The first submarines built in Washington were F-class submarines. They were 142 feet long, with a top speed of 14 knots (16 mph). A total of 22 officers and enlisted men served aboard each submarine. They were armed with four torpedo tubes.

The F-class submarines USS F-3 and F-4 were both launched in Seattle in 1912. Along with two San Francisco-built submarines, F3 and F4 formed the first Pacific submarine group, based in San Francisco. They operated along the California coast, conducting exercises to develop submarine warfare strategy.

F Class Submarines and Tender in Dry Dock 2 at Mare Island, California 21 January 1913

Tragedy Strikes USS F-4

While they achieved large technical advances over earlier submarine designs, they were unreliable and had a troubled service record.

USS F4 was the first commissioned submarine of the U.S. Navy to be lost at sea. During submarine maneuvers off Honolulu, she sank on 25 March 1915. The boat came to a rest on the ocean floor, 1.5 miles from the harbor at a depth of 306 feet. Despite courageous attempts to save her crew, all 21 on board perished.

Eventually, F-4 was raised and towed to shore. These photos show the salvage operations.

The exact cause of the sinking has never been conclusively determined. However, it is thought that corrosion of the lead lining of the battery tank allowed sea water to seep in, causing a loss of control. For more on the sinking of USS F-4, see this article from the Submarine Force Museum.

Dick Turpin

One of the divers involved in the salvage operation was John Henry “Dick” Turpin, who was likely the first African-American to qualify as a U.S. Navy Master Diver. He enlisted in the Navy in 1896, survived the explosion aboard USS Maine in 1898, and went on to become one of the first African American Chief Petty Officers in the U.S. Navy. Turpin became a Master Diver and served in World War I. After his retirement from the Navy, Turpin worked as a Master Rigger at the Puget Sound Navy Yard.

USS F-3 Collision and Later Career

On December 17, 1917, F1 and F3 collided during training maneuvers off the California Coast. F-1 sank, taking 19 of her 22 sailors with her. F-3 was damaged in the collision. After repairs at Mare Island Navy Yard, she was assigned operations with a civilian movie company in experiments with underwater photography. F-3 was decommissioned in 1922. Except for a tour in Hawaiian waters between August 1914 and November 1915, she had operated along the West Coast for her entire career.


References [ edit | edit source ]

  1. ↑ staff. "WATER IN HULL OF F-4. Diver Also Reports That Superstructure of Submarine Has Caved In." . http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F70D12FE385C13738DDDAF0994DC405B858DF1D3 . Retrieved 2011-08-24 .  
  2. ↑ Honolulu Star-Bulletin (2000). "The United States Submarine F-4 March 25, 1915". Arlington National Cemetery . http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/sub-f4.htm . Retrieved 2009-04-15 .  
  3. ↑ 3.03.1Searle Jr, Willard F Curtis Jr, Thomas G (2006). "The loss and salvage of F-4, a historic milestone". Navy . http://www.navy.mil/navydata/cno/n87/usw/issue_29/f4.html . Retrieved 2009-04-15 .  

This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here.


Construction and career

The boat was named Barracuda when she was laid down by Union Iron Works of San Francisco, California, but was renamed on 17 November 1911. She was launched on 19 March 1912 sponsored by Miss A. R. Rolph, daughter of James Rolph, the mayor of San Francisco, and commissioned on 25 June 1912 with Lieutenant (junior grade) Francis T. Chew in command.

F-2 joined the 1st Submarine Group, Pacific Torpedo Flotilla, in operations between San Diego, California, and San Pedro, California, the Flotilla&aposs base. She continued to play an important part in developing tactics and coordinating the use of undersea craft with the fleet during an extended training period in the Hawaiian Islands from August 1914-November 1915.

After lying in ordinary at Mare Island Naval Shipyard from 16 March 1916 – 13 June 1917, F-2 became flagship of Division 1, Submarine Force, Pacific Fleet. Returning to operations out of San Pedro, she participated in surface and submerged exercises, torpedo-proving practice, experiments in balancing at various depths, and trained prospective crews of new submarines. On 18 September 1919, she was placed in reserve commission at San Pedro to be used in elemental school work until decommissioned at Mare Island on 16 March 1922. She was sold on 17 August.


The Loss of USS F-1 (SS-20)

On 17 December 1917, USS F-1 (SS-20) and USS F-3 (SS-22), both running on the surface, collided during exercises off San Diego, California. F-3 gouged a giant hole in her sister ship’s port side and F-1 sank beneath the waves in just ten seconds, taking 19 of her 24 crewmen to the bottom with her. Given the depth of the water—nearly 1,500 feet—and the lack of any viable submarine-recovery technology, no attempt was made to locate the wreck. Nearly 60 years later her location finally came to life, as described in the following newspaper article, “Sunken Sub Found by Navy.”

“A World War I U.S. submarine that sank in 1,439 feet of water about 4 ½ miles off La Jolla in 1917 has been found by a Navy deep submersible rescue vehicle.

“ ‘It looked like a big ax had hit her,’ said Lt. Dave Magyar, who took the DSRV2 down off the coast Oct. 24 [1976] and saw the submarine F1 ‘intact.’

“Capt. Willard Johnson, commander of Submarine Development Group I, told newsmen yesterday that the submarine was seen after initial contact was made by sonar on Oct. 22.

“He said the sonar contact was made by the Navy oceanographic research ship DeSteiguer, which was attempting to find an F4 Phantom jet fighter that crashed in 1972.

“…The 142-foot, 330-ton sub settled to the bottom on its right side, pointing about west, northwest.

“Magyar showed several color slides that he took of the submarine. A 10-ft. by 3-ft. hole in the side was visible.

“He said the only apparent damage to the sub was that caused by the collision and through corrosion over the years.

“Magyar said he landed the DSRV on the side of the F1 and looked inside.

“ ‘It will remain the grave of 19 men,’ said Johnson. ‘There is no reason at this time to bring it up.’ ”

One of F-1’s hatches, open for ventilation at the time of the collision, which allowed more water to pour into the already stricken sub


History of USS F-2 SS-21 - History

Marine Corps Vietnam-era Tankers and Ontos Crewmen Have Made History.


Your Historical Foundation is Making it Known.

The Evolution of Marine Tanks.

Thus with the reluctant blessings of the Great White Fathers of the Navy Department in Washington, the first of a long line of Marine Corps tank units was formed. It was officially designated "Light Tank Platoon USMC" at Quantico, Virginia, on December 5th 1923. The Platoon consisted of twenty-two enlisted men and two officers. The Commanding Officer was Captain Leslie G. Wayt, and the Executive Officer was Second Lieutenant Charles S. Finch.

The Platoon was issued three, six-ton light tanks. These tanks had been built in the United States during 1918 under license from the French Government. They were copies of the famous French Renault FT-17 of the First World War. Built to U.S. specifications, they had an ACF Buda Marine Engine, and two of them mounted Browning .30 cal. machine guns. The other one mounted a French 37mm Puteaux one-pounder infantry cannon. One of the reasons that this tank was so famous, was that it was the first tank to successfully mount a weapon in a fully 360 degree traversing turret. Even though it was called the Six-Ton Light Tank, its total weight was 7.8 tons. With that weight powered by the four-cylinder engine, it could really gallop along at a fast 5 1/2 miles per hour. The Tank Commander/gunner sat in a hammock-like affair hung from the turret walls and just sort of bounced around amongst all the ammunition in the fighting compartment, which was 4,800 rounds for the machine guns or 237 rounds for the cannon. The driver was a little better off in that he had a seat, but both men suffered considerably from the exhaust and gasoline fumes of the engine.

During the rest of that winter and all through the next summer the Platoon became familiar with their tanks. Most of the men had never even seen a tank before, but being Marines they went at the job in the typical Marine fashion, head on. Every one in the platoon became familiar with all aspects of the job of an Iron Horse Marine, driving, gunnery and preventive Maintenance They learned what the tanks could do and usually, by trial and error, what they could not do. The platoon also participated in many of the publicity maneuvers and parades, which were a hallmark of the times

During the winter of 1924, the platoon participated in the "Winter Maneuvers" with the East Coast Expeditionary Force from Quantico. These maneuvers were held on the island of Culebra, off the eastern coast of Puerto Rico. The maneuvers were designed to test and perfect amphibious landing techniques. They were of the trial and error type, at least as far as the "Tankers" were concerned. It was defiantly learned that this type of tank was not suited for amphibious operations. The lessons learned during maneuvers such as these would be a tremendous help later on during World War II, when the Marines perfected their amphibious assault techniques in the Pacific.

Upon the platoon's return from Culebra, they received two more tanks, one machine gun and one cannon. It was now a full-fledged tank platoon with five tanks. There was even an experimental tank to try out. It was a standard Six-Ton with the turret removed and fitted out as a communications tank. The platoon was in tank heaven and the haggling over who would drive what was cut to a minimum.

For the next three years the platoon performed peacetime garrison type duties. Going on limited maneuvers and exercises, performing in publicity parades and run of the mill Marine duties, but constantly learning more and more about their tanks. For the Marines it was almost too dull, but, as for all those who wait, an exciting change was in store for these "Iron Horse Marines". The political crisis in China was getting worse and the Third Marine Brigade was asking for reinforcements.

Early in 1927 the platoon was Far East Bound. The "Old Salts" were again telling the "Boots" sea stories about the wonders of the Orient, and some of the boots were looking forward to getting tattooed like the old salts. But they had to wait, for at that time it was an unwritten law that no one got a tattoo until he had served overseas.

The platoon, now under the command of Captain Nathen E. Landon, lashed down their tanks on flat cars and left Quantico by rail on April 6, 1927. Arriving in San Diego on April 12, the platoon didn't take any time out for liberty. In typical Marine fashion the tanks and all the platoon's gear was derailed, moved dockside, embarked, and lashed down aboard the USS President Grant, all in one day. The platoon then had a few days to pull liberty before the ship sailed. The trip from San Diego to Olongapo, Philippine Islands was as usual, uneventful, except for the Marine who were seasick and thought the trip would never end. Upon arrival at Olongapo, it was back to work again for the tankers, as they had to change ships. On May 4th they set to work unlashing their tanks and transferring them to the USS Chaumont, where they were again tied down. After the troops were settled in and the card games resumed the ship set sail for Shanghai, China.

Arriving at Taku Bar, Shanghai, China on the 21st of May the platoon again disembarked and began getting ready for what they hoped would be an exciting tour of duty in China. After the tanks were put back in a ready condition, some of the men went on their first liberty. While some got their firs tattoos, others began to explore the wonders of the Orient. All agreed that Shanghai liberty was all or more than it was said to be. But such a good life is not for Marines and after about two weeks the platoon was on the move again. It was sent up river by barge to Tientsin on the 6th of June. The platoon was assigned the job of protecting the Peking-Tientsin railway. At least that was its official job during the balance of its tour of duty in China. Even though these were troubled times in China, and some of the Marines were looking for excitement the job was considered as dull garrison duty.

With the exception of being a show of force, the platoon's duties were much the same as it was earlier in Quantico. They went on limited maneuvers, performed in good-will shows and publicity parades, stood inspections and kept their tank well maintained. It was almost like the occupation duty that the Marines would again be assigned to do in the same area in 1945. While not on duty the Marines of the platoon could be found on liberty in Tientsin, which they discovered was just as good a liberty town as was Shanghai. This was their life for the next fifteen months until the crisis was lifted and the Marine Corps could no longer afford a tank platoon.

On September 15, 1928, the platoon was administratively detached and transferred to the Light Tank Platoon, Composite regiment, San Diego. The Marines again loaded their tanks aboard barges and left for Shanghai, where they were loaded aboard ship and lashed down for the trip home. When the ship left Shanghai on September 18th, besides their tanks, the platoon took with them lots of wonderful memories of their tour of duty in China.

The platoon debarked in San Diego on November 1st and joined the Composite Regiment. After everyone was settled in they had time to enjoy some of San Diego's nightspots. Then on November 10, (the Marine Corps birthday) the platoon was disbanded. Some of the men were transferred to other units while others were discharged. But once again history leaves something out and we don't know what happened to the tanks.

Many more stories may be written about Marine Tankers, but these were the pioneers of a brand new arm of the Marine Ground-Sea-Air team. During their brief five years of existence they set the trend for the "Iron Horse Marines" of today.

By Lloyd G. Reynolds
Aug. 11 1998

Photo credits, USMC, National Archives, Department of Defence, Imperial War Museum unless otherwise noted.


FT 17 in China. USMC Photo.

Inspection in China. USMC Photo.

The author helped restore this FT 17. Authors photo.

Owned by Dr. Frank Haigler. Authors photo.


Tank Landings/Operations in WW II.

Date Location Tk Bn's/Units Tanks Used
Aug.7,1942
Guadalcanal 1st Tk. Bn. M2A4,M3, M3A1
Mar.6,1943
Talasea 1st Plt. Co. "C" & Co. "A" 1st Tk. Bn. M3A1, M4A1
Apr.22,1943
Hollandia Co "A" 1st Tk. Bn. M4A1
Jun.30,1943 Munda,New Georga 9th,10th & 11th Defence Bn. Tks. M3, M3A1
Nov.1, 1943 Bouganville 3rd Tk. Bn. M3A1
Nov.20,1943 Tarawa 2nd Tk. Bn. Co. "C" I Marine Amphibious Corps Tk. Bn. M3A1, M4A2
Dec.26,1943 Cape Glouster, New Britian 1st Tk. Bn. M3A1, M4A1
Jan.31,1944 Roi-Namur 4th Tk. Bn. M5A1, M4A2
Feb.18,1944 Eniwetok 2nd Separate Tk. Co. M4A2
Feb.18,1944 Engebi 2nd Separate Tk. Co. M4A2
Feb.22,1944 Perry 2nd Separate Tk. Co. M4A2
Mar.20,1944 Emirau Co. "A"3rd Tk. Bn. M4A2
Jun.15,1944 Saipan 2nd & 4th Tk. Bn. M4A2,M5A1, M3A1 (Satan), M32B2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit.
Jul. 21,1944 Guam 3rd Tk. Bn., Tk. Co., 4th Mar., Tk. Co. 22 Mar. M4A2, M32B2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit.
Jul.24, 1944 Tinian 2nd & 4th Tk. Bn. M4A2,M5A1, M3A1 (Satan), M32B2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit.
Sep.15,1944 Pelilu 1st Tk. Bn. M4A2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit.
Feb.19,1945 Iwo Jima 3rd, 4th & 5th Tk. Bn. M4A2, M4A3, M4A3POA H1 Flame Tank, M32B2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit., M4A2 w/M1A1 Flame kit, M4A3 Flail.
Apr. 1, 1945 Okinawa 1st & 6th Tk. Bn. M4A2, M4A3, M32B2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit.

The WW II years 1941-1945. (Light Tanks)

M2A4= 1 37mm Gun, 5 .30 Cal. MG, Continental Radial Air Cooled Engine.
M3= 1 37mm Gun, (later w/a gyrostabilizer) 5 .30 Cal. MG, Continental Radial Air Cooled Engine. (some w/Guiberson Radial Diesel). (Early production M3s had riveted turrets, Later changed to welded.)
M3A1= 1 37mm Gun, (the 1st light tank to have a turret basket, stabilized gun and power traverse) (Welded turret with out copula.) 3 .30 Cal. MG, Continental Radial Air Cooled Engine. (some w/Guiberson Radial Diesel).
M3A3= 1 37mm Gun, 3 .30 Cal. MG, Continental Radial Air Cooled Engine. Welded hull and turret, A new turret incorporating a radio bustle and larger hatches wit no copula. Angled armor.
M5A1= 1 37mm Gun, 3 .30 Cal. MG, Engine, Twin Cadillac V-8's with Hydra-Matic transmission, All welded construction, no copula, large turret hatches. Angled armor.

An M2A4 of the 1st Tank Battalion on Guadalcanal.

An M2A4 leading two M3 Light Tanks on Guadalcanal.

An M3A1 Light Tank on Guadalcanal.

An M3A1 landing on Emirau Island.

Marines of the 7th Defense Battalion, one of the "Rainbow Five," give their new M3 Stuart light tank a trial run at Tutuila, American Samoa, in the summer of 1942.

M5A1 on Boganville.

US Marines sitting atop a M5A1 light tank, Cape Gloucester, New Britain, Bismarck Archipelago, late Dec 1943

M3A1 at Tarawa.

Light tank bogged down in shell hole on Tarawa.

M3A1 Light Flame Tank "Satan".


Early experiments M3A1 with portable M1A1 Flame Thrower in the bow MG position. According to one Marine of this era interviewed, "The flame ginner held the tanks between his knees".

An M3A1 "Satan" Flame Tank with the Ronson Flame Thrower system on Saipan.

A "Satan" on Saipan.

On Saipan a "Satan" with two M5A1's.

Front view of a M3A1 "Satan" Flame Tank.
The Light Flame tanks were not ready in time for Tarawa. As far as the author knows they were only used at Saipan and Tinian by the 2nd and 4th Tank Battalions.

The WW II years 1941-1945. (Medium Tanks)

The M4 Medium Tank went through a lot of variations.
M4A1= 1 75mm Gun, 1 .50 Cal. 2 .30 Cal. MGs. Continental Radial Air Cooled Gasoline Engine. Only used by 1st Tks at Cape Gloucester.
M4A2= 1 75mm Gun, 1 .50 Cal. 2 .30 Cal. MGs. Twin G.M. Diesel Engines. The first combat use of M4 series tanks by the USMC was at Tarawa. Also used at Kwajelein, Roi-Namur, Perry Island, Saipan, Tinian, Guam, Peleliu, Iwo Jima and Okinawa.
M4A3= 1 75mm Gun, 1 .50 Cal. 2 .30 Cal. MGs. Ford V-8 Gasoline Engine. Used by 5th Tk. Bn. on Iwo Jima and 6th Tk. Bn. on Okinawa.
M4A3E8=

A 1st Tk. Bn. M4A1 landing at Cape Gloucester.

M4A1s of the 1st Tk. Bn. on New Georgia.

M4A1s of the 1st Tk. Bn. on New Georgia.

An M4A2 of "C" Co. 1st Corps Tk. Bn. attached to the 2nd Mar. Div. for Tarawa fell into a shell hole and drowned out. No tanks (Light or Medium) had any fording kits at Tarawa.

Of the 14 tanks of Co. "C" 1st Corps Medium Tank Bn. Ten made it to the beach.
See= Marine Armor on Tarawa

Colorado on the beach at Tarawa. See= Tanks on Tarawa

M4A2 with improvised fording stacks. Perry Island, 2nd separate Tk. Co.

M4A2 with improvised fording stacks made from 55 Gal. drums. Improvise, adapt and overcome. 3rd Tk. Bn., Guam.

By Siapan fording stacks were standardized.

Ill Wind on Tinian. C. B. Ash the driver of this tank says note the TCs pericope. They welded two together to get 6" more elevation.

1st Tank coming ashore at Pelilu.

Peliliu was tough on tanks.

Sand bags on the rear deck. Pelilu.

So was Iwo Jima.

An M4A3 of the 4th Tk. Bn. on Iwo Jima.

An M4A2 of the 5th Tk. Bn. on Iwo Jima.

Note the nails welded on the hatches to keep the Japs off.

An M4A3 of "C" Co. 4th Tk. Bn. Note, inprovised water tank with a spigot for the grunts, improvised Tank Infantery phone and clock for infantry to give directions, extended track grousers. C. B. Ash there is 4" of cement between hull and 1" planks on side of the tank.

For Okinawa this M4A2 tank has added extra track blocks for protection.

This one has some added protection and still has some of the fording kit attached.

These tanks have added a lot of added track blocks as added armor.

M4 series Flame Tanks and other varients.


An M4A2 with the M1A1 bow Flame Gun. It was used on Iwo Jima.

An M4A3 POA H1 Flame Tank on Iwo Jima. The Flame Gun was mounted in worn out 75mm gun tubes.

U.S. Army Flame Tank on Okinawa fron the 713th Tk. Bn. The Marines had no Flame Tanks on Okinawa.

Another M4A3 POA H1 Flame Tank on Iwo Jima.

The M32B2 Tank Retriver made its first apperance with the Marines on Saipan.

This M32B2 is getting a souvenir on Guam.

Dozer kits added to tanks were as welcome as Flame Tanks to the Tk. Bn.

M4A2s on Guam with a Dozer Tank.

Rockets (7.2 In.) were expermented with in Europe and the Pacific, but it is not known if they were used in the Pacific by the Marines.

4th Tk. Bn. Flail Tank (home made by GySgt. Sam Johnson and Sgt. Ray Shaw) photographed on Maui. It landed on Iwo Jima but was destroyed on the beach, (C. B. Ash)

Another view of the 4th Tks Flail,

Tanks used
M4A3E8= M4A3,with upgraded horizontal Volute suspension, with 105mm Howitzer & M4A1 Dozer Kit.
M4A3E8 with POA-CWS-H5 Flame Thrower & 105mm Howitzer.
M32B3= M4A3E8 Tank Recovery Vehicle.
M-26= 1 90mm M3 Gun, w/.30 Cal. Co-ax, 1 .50 Cal. on top of turret, 1 .30 Cal. in bow. Used the same engine as the M4A3 series tanks, Ford GAF V-8 500 hp. (very under powered). Torsion Bar suspension.
M26A1= Up graded with Continental AV-1790-5A, V-12, 810 hp. Replaced during July-November by the M-46.
M-46= 1 90mm M3A1 Gun, w/.30 Cal. Co-ax, 1 .50 Cal. on top of turret, 1 .30 Cal. in bow. Engine Continental AV-1790-5A, V-12, 810 hp.
Note it's very hard to tell the difference between the M-26 & M-46 just from photos.

An M-26 during the fighting in the Pusan Perimeter.


M-26 can take a hit.

M-26 with 18 inch searchlight.

A pair of T-34/85s knocked out.

An M-26 during the fighting in the Pusan Perimeter. (Balls'ey T.C.)

An M4A3E8 105mm Dozer tank

Loading up for Inchon.

Street fighting in Seoul.

Moving North on narrow roads.

Winter's coming.

Winter and mountains.

A knocked or abandond SU 76.

An M-46 on the firing line.

M-46 with searchlight bracket.

M-26 or 46 indirect firing at night.

A replacement M-46.

M-46 Dozer tank with anti-tank rocket cage.

The "Porcupine" an M4A3E8 with a fake gun & welded turret.

The "Porcupine" it was all communications inside, to communicate with Air, Infantry, Navy & Artilery.

An M4A3E8 POA CWA H5 Flame Tank. Jack Carty Photo.

Flame Tank Platoon.

Flame tanks at Chosin.

M47= Last tank to have a bow gunner, 1st tank to have a range finder, Stereoscopic M12, Continental AV-17905B gasoline engine, 90mm M36 gun, 1 .50 Cal. 2 .30Cal. MG. 1951 to 1959, 3rd Tk. Bn. last unit to have the M47. Not used in Korea by Marines. See Tank Data.
M48= Continental AVI-1790-5B gasoline engine, 90mm M41 gun, 1 .50 Cal. (sky mounted), 1 .30 Cal. MG., Stereoscopic T46E1 Rangefinder. See Tank Data.
M48A1= Continental AVI-1790-5B to 7C gasoline engine, 90mm M41 gun, 1 .50 Cal. in turret copula, 1 .30 Cal. MG., Stereoscopic T46E1 Rangefinder.
M67= Flame Tank version of M48A1.
M48A2= Continental AVI-1790-8 gasoline engine, Stereoscopic M13A1 Rangefinder, 90mm M41 gun, 1 .50 Cal. in turret copula, 1 .30 Cal. MG.
M51 VTR= Continental AVSI-1790-6 gasoline engine, 1 .50 Cal. HBM2 MG. Built from the M103 chassi. See Tank Data.
M103A1= Continental AVI-1790-7B to 7C gasoline engine, 1 20mm M58 gun, 1 .50 Cal., 1 .30 Cal. MG. See Tank Data.
M103A2= Continental AVDS-1790-2A gasoline engine, 1 20mm M58 gun, 1 .50 Cal., 1 .30 Cal. MG. See Tank Data.
Dozer kits were used for the M47, M48A1 & A2.

M47 on the gun range.

Army M47 in Germany.

M47

M48 w/sky mount .50 Cal. MG. Photo ?

M48 note track tension idler wheel & engineck deck. Photo ?

M48 note engine deck & large box which was a Tank/Infantry phone. Photo ?

Platoon of M48A1 tanks of 2nd Tk. Bn.

M48A1

M67A1 Flame Tank

M48A2 (the track tension idler wheel was cut off of these) Peter Saussy.

M103A1 120mm Gun.

M103A2 on the range at Camp Pendelton, 1967.

M48A2 Rear Photo ?

M51 VTR.

M51 Retriver.

M51

M48A3 Dozer tank. "C" Co. 5th Tk. Bn. 1968. Authors photo.

M48A3= Continental AVDS-1790-2A supercharged diesel, 90mm Gun M-41, 1 .50 Cal. in turret copula, and 1 .30 Cal. MG, Coincidence Rangefinder M17A1, 4 man crew. 1 Dozer Tank per Company. See Tank Data. All M48A3 were upgrades from the M48A1s and A2s.
M67A2= Continental AVDS-1790-2A supercharged diesel, Flame Thrower M7-6, 1 .50 Cal. in turret copula, and 1 .30 Cal. MG, 3 man crew. See Tank Data.
Mod B= Vision Blocks inserted below the copula, armored fraiming above exhaust louvers and around tail lights, improved copula hatch, TI phone moved and other changes.
M51= Continental AVSI-1790-6 gasoline engine, 1 .50 Cal. HBM2 MG. Built from the M103 chassi. See Tank Data.
The 1st Tank Platoon to land in Vietnam was 3rd Plt. "B" Co. 3rd Tks. on Mar. 9, 1965. See Map.

3rd Plt. tanks from Bravo Co. 3rd Tk. Bn. aboard LCU 1476 leaving the USS Vancouver heading for "Red Beach". March 8, 1965

Bravo 31 landing at Red Beach with Joe Tyson driving Mar. 8th 1965. From the Military Channel video. This was the 2nd tank to land, S/Sgt. John Downey was TC of the 1st tank to come ashore.

The first large scale operation (Starlight).

M48A3 Drivers Compartment. Authors photo.

M48A3 Loaders area. Authors photo.

M48A3 Gunners area. Authors photo.

M48A3 Tank Commanders area. Authors photo.

M48A3 Turret rear (Bustle). Authors photo.

View through the gunners pericope. Authors photo.

River Crossing Bob Haller photo.

River Crossing Bob Haller photo.


Keeping every thing clean. Bob Haller photo.

Alpha Co. Blade Tank. James Sausoman photo.

Bravo Co. 1st Tks. Carol Lemmon photo.

1st Plt Alpha Co. 1st Tks. Larry Sterling photo.

Removing the coupla for the Mod B upgrade. Rick Langley.

Coupla with old TC hatch. Rick Langley.

New vision ring inserted and replacing copula thit new TC hatch. Rick Langley.

A few minor adjustment and it' ready to go. Rick Langley.

Lt. Horner’s platoon, from F/2/5 take cover behind an M67A2 Flame Tank and a M48A3 during the battle for Hue. Photo ?

An M48A3 supports grunts in Hue. Photo ?

Highway 9, the road to Khe Sanh. Photo ?

Khe Sanh Tank. Photo ?

Tank as artilery at Khe Sanh. Jack Butcher.

Tank as artilery at Khe Sanh. Jack Butcher.

If you've gotten this far you may be interested in some of the sources I used.


Naval/Maritime History 18th of June - Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
16 December 1941 – World War II: The Japanese super-battleship IJN Yamato is commissioned into the Imperial Japanese Navy and transfers the title of Flagship from IJN Nagato.


Yamato (大和) was the lead ship of her class of battleships built for the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) shortly before World War II. She and her sister ship, Musashi, were the heaviest and most powerfully armed battleships ever constructed, displacing 72,800 tonnes at full load and armed with nine 46 cm (18.1 in) Type 94 main guns, which were the largest guns ever mounted on a warship.


Yamato running machinery trials off Bungo Strait (outside Sukumo Bay) on 20 October 1941

Named after the ancient Japanese Yamato Province, Yamato was designed to counter the numerically superior battleship fleet of the United States, Japan's main rival in the Pacific. She was laid down in 1937 and formally commissioned a week after the Pearl Harbor attack in late 1941. Throughout 1942, she served as the flagship of the Combined Fleet, and in June 1942 Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto directed the fleet from her bridge during the Battle of Midway, a disastrous defeat for Japan. Musashi took over as the Combined Fleet flagship in early 1943, and Yamato spent the rest of the year, and much of 1944, moving between the major Japanese naval bases of Truk and Kure in response to American threats. Although present at the Battle of the Philippine Sea in June 1944, she played no part in the battle.

The only time Yamato fired her main guns at enemy surface targets was in October 1944, when she was sent to engage American forces invading the Philippines during the Battle of Leyte Gulf. On the verge of success, the Japanese force turned back, believing they were engaging an entire US carrier fleet rather than a light escort carrier group that was all which stood between the battleship and vulnerable troop transports.

During 1944, the balance of naval power in the Pacific decisively turned against Japan, and by early 1945, its fleet was much depleted and badly hobbled by critical fuel shortages in the home islands. In a desperate attempt to slow the Allied advance, Yamato was dispatched on a one-way mission to Okinawa in April 1945, with orders to beach herself and fight until destroyed protecting the island. The task force was spotted south of Kyushu by US submarines and aircraft, and on 7 April 1945 she was sunk by American carrier-based bombers and torpedo bombers with the loss of most of her crew.


Line drawing of Yamato as she appeared in 1944–1945 (specific configuration from 7 April 1945)

Design and construction
Main article: Yamato-class battleship
During the 1930s the Japanese government adopted an ultranationalist militancy with a view to greatly expand the Japanese Empire. Japan withdrew from the League of Nationsin 1934, renouncing its treaty obligations. After withdrawing from the Washington Naval Treaty, which limited the size and power of capital ships, the Imperial Japanese Navy began their design of the new Yamato class of heavy battleships. Their planners recognized Japan would be unable to compete with the output of U.S. naval shipyards should war break out, so the 70,000 ton[3] vessels of the Yamato class were designed to be capable of engaging multiple enemy battleships at the same time.

The keel of Yamato, the lead ship of the class, was laid down at the Kure Naval Arsenal, Hiroshima, on 4 November 1937, in a dockyard that had to be adapted to accommodate her enormous hull. The dock was deepened by one meter, and gantry cranes capable of lifting up to 350 tonnes were installed. Extreme secrecy was maintained throughout construction, a canopy even being erected over part of the drydock to screen the ship from view. Yamato was launched on 8 August 1940, with Captain (later Vice-Admiral) Miyazato Shutoku in command. A great effort was made in Japan to ensure that the ships were built in extreme secrecy to prevent American intelligence officials from learning of their existence and specifications.


Yamato near the end of her fitting out, 20 September 1941

Yamato's main battery consisted of nine 46 cm (18.1 in) 45 Caliber Type 94 naval guns—the largest caliber of naval artillery ever fitted to a warship, although the shells were not as heavy as those fired by the British 18-inch naval guns of World War I. Each gun was 21.13 metres (69.3 ft) long, weighed 147.3 metric tons (162.4 short tons), and was capable of firing high-explosive or armor-piercing shells 42 kilometres (26 mi). Her secondary battery comprised twelve 155-millimetre (6.1 in) guns mounted in four triple turrets (one forward, one aft, two midships), and twelve 127-millimetre (5.0 in) guns in six twin mounts (three on each side amidships). These turrets had been taken off the Mogami-class cruisers when those vessels were converted to a main armament of 20.3-centimetre (8.0 in) guns. In addition, Yamato carried twenty-four 25-millimetre (0.98 in) anti-aircraft guns, primarily mounted amidships. When refitted in 1944 and 1945 for naval engagements in the South Pacific, the secondary battery configuration was changed to six 155 mm guns and twenty-four 127 mm guns, and the number of 25 mm anti-aircraft guns was increased to 162.


Cultural significance
From the time of their construction, Yamato and her sister Musashi carried significant weight in Japanese culture. The battleships represented the epitome of Imperial Japanese naval engineering, and because of their size, speed, and power, visibly embodied Japan's determination and readiness to defend its interests against the Western Powers and the United States in particular. Shigeru Fukudome, chief of the Operations Section of the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff, described the ships as "symbols of naval power that provided to officers and men alike a profound sense of confidence in their navy." Yamato's symbolic might was such that some Japanese citizens held the belief that their country could never fall as long as the ship was able to fight.

Decades after the war, Yamato was memorialised in various forms by the Japanese. Historically, the word "Yamato" was used as a poetic name for Japan thus, her name became a metaphor for the end of the Japanese empire. In April 1968, a memorial tower was erected on Cape Inutabu in Japan's Kagoshima Prefecture to commemorate the lives lost in Operation Ten-Go. In October 1974, Leiji Matsumoto created a new television series, Space Battleship Yamato, about rebuilding the battleship as a starship and its interstellar quest to save Earth. The series was a huge success, spawning five feature films and two more TV series as post-war Japanese tried to redefine the purpose of their lives, Yamato became a symbol of heroism and of their desire to regain a sense of masculinity after their country's defeat in the war. Brought to the United States as Star Blazers, the animated series proved popular and established a foundation for anime in the North American entertainment market. The motif in Space Battleship Yamato was repeated in Silent Service, a popular manga and anime that explores issues of nuclear weapons and the Japan-US relationship. It tells the story of a nuclear-powered super submarine whose crew mutinies and renames the vessel Yamato, in allusion to the World War II battleship and the ideals she symbolises. The idea of giant cannon on space battleships has also brought into famous video game Star Craft, with the main cannon of Terran battle cruiser named as "yamato cannon".

In 2005, the Yamato Museum was opened near the site of the former Kure shipyards. Although intended to educate on the maritime history of post Meiji-era Japan, the museum gives special attention to its namesake the battleship is a common theme among several of its exhibits, which includes a section dedicated to Matsumoto's animated series. The centrepiece of the museum, occupying a large section of the ground floor, is a 26.3-metre (86 ft) long model of Yamato (1:10 scale).

Later that year, Toei released a 143-minute movie, Yamato, based on a book by Jun Henmi, to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the end of World War II Tamiya released special editions of scale models of the battleship in conjunction with the film's release. Based on a book of the same name, the film is a tale about the sailors aboard the doomed battleship and the concepts of honour and duty. The film was shown on more than 290 screens across the country and was a commercial success, taking in a record 5.11 billion yen at the domestic box office.


The very large model at the Yamato Museum, with museum visitors (2006)


Iowa’s Early Birds of Aviation

If Ohio claims to be the “Birthplace of Aviation,” Iowa was at least its childhood home. Ohio natives Wilbur and Orville Wright spent a few boyhood years in Cedar Rapids, and a young Amelia Earhart first saw a plane at the Iowa State Fair.

In fact, several Iowans helped get the flying industry off the ground.

Iowa’s earliest aviators “were very much pioneers at the cutting edge of technology,” said Greg VanWyngarden, an author and aviation enthusiast from St. Charles, Iowa. “They were definitely popular heroes and as famous in some ways as today’s astronauts.”

Here are a few early birds from history’s wild blue yonder.

Neta Snook of Ames

When it came to chasing dreams, Mary Anita “Neta” Snook (1896–1991) was unstoppable.

She was fascinated with the new-fangled flying machines as a teenager and enrolled in the Davenport Aviation School in 1917. She was probably the first Iowa woman to attend an Iowa flight school, according to Leo Landis, state curator of the State Historical Society of Iowa.

“When World War I broke out, she wanted to fly for the United States military and enrolled at the Curtiss Flying School in Newport News, Virginia, for additional training,” Landis said.

After graduating, Snook tried to join the Army Air Corps but was turned away. She eventually became a British Air Ministry plane inspector at a factory in Elmira, New York, and worked there until the war ended in November 1918.

Later, she traveled west and organized hunting excursions by plane. She also gave Earhart her first flying lessons, in a plane that had been wrecked in Columbus Junction, Iowa, and repaired at her parents’ home in Ames.

Snook was the first woman to set an altitude record over the Pacific Ocean, soaring to a height of 15,000 feet.

Oscar and Mary Solbrig of Davenport

Oscar Solbrig (1870–1941) and his wife, Mary (1869–1954), jumped into stunt flying when they built their own Benoist biplane in 1917. Mary took booked gigs for exhibitions, maintained the plane’s engine, and surveyed the fields where pilot Oscar took off and landed.

“I do not know of any work that has more ups and downs than building aeroplanes and learning to navigate them,” Oscar said in 1914. “There is always danger attached to air flying. This danger is to some extent being overcome, and I believe aeroplanes will within a few years be generally used as a means of transportation.”

Eugene Ely of Williamsburg

During World War I, the military made use of information daredevil pilots gathered about aerodynamics.

One of the earliest military aviators was Eugene Ely (1886–1911), who was born on a farm near Williamsburg, Iowa, and made history with the first ship-to-shore and shore-to-ship flights.

In October 1910, he flew off the deck of the USS Birmingham in a Curtiss Pusher, bounced off the water and landed safely on shore. Three months later, he became the first pilot to land a plane on a ship when he touched down on the armored cruiser USS Pennsylvania.

“The military had first offered the opportunity to the Wright brothers but they turned it down. That’s when Ely decided to do it,” said Kris Schildberg of the Iowa Aviation Museum in Greenfield. “He also designed the tail-hook system that is used today to stop the planes when they land on aircraft carriers.

“The funny thing is,” she added, “Ely did all this and he didn’t know how to swim. He was terrified of the water.”

Ely died just two days shy of his 25th birthday, when he couldn’t pull out of a dive during an exhibition in Macon, Georgia. He was posthumously award the Distinguished Flying Cross and is buried in East York Cemetery near his hometown.

Join Greg VanWyngarden on Sept. 20 at the State Historical Museum of Iowa, where he’ll discuss the record-setting Bleriot XI airplane and its impact on aviation history.

Designed by Frenchman Louis Bleriot more than 100 years ago, this type of aircraft achieved many landmark flights, including reconnaissance missions during World War I. Around the same time, Bleriot planes circled the skies above Atlantic, Sioux City, Des Moines, Ottumwa and Davenport during air shows that included barrel rolls, figure eights, and 5,000-feet “dips of death.” A Des Moines newspaper published one account under the headline “Daring Bird Men Flirt With Death.”

A historic Bleriot XI airplane is on display at the State Historical Museum of Iowa in Des Moines, along with Oscar and Mary Solbrigs’ Benoist biplane and a Curtiss Pusher similar one Eugene Ely flew for the military. All three planes will be de-installed this fall and moved to temporary storage to make way for museum renovations. Visitors are invited to watch the process from a special viewing zone Sept. 23-Oct. 10.


Grandfather to the Fast Attack – USS Carp (SS 20) F-1 (The Mysterious loss of Bob the Submarine Dog)

A 330 ton Carp (SS-20) lies on the surface with a # 21 painted on its conning tower probably between 6 September & 17 November 1911. If you look closely at the photo, just forward of the diving plane you can see the name “Carp “. This was the original name of the F-1 (SS-20). She carried this moniker from the time of her launching until she was renamed on 17 November 1911. She was commissioned as F-1 on 19 June 1912. This is an unusual photo. There seems to have been an attempt at painting over the print or negative. It doesn’t look like they were trying to alter the photo, just trying to add an artistic element to it.

When the Navy bought its first Holland class submarine, the future of the craft was still as murky as the water it would dive into .

The original boats were very limited in depth capability and the propulsion mechanism was still primitive by today’s standards. The vision for many was to mimic Jules Verne’s novel ideas about 20,000 Leagues under the sea. The limitations in technology included hull construction, propulsion alternatives, atmosphere conditioning, size and on and on. But each new submarine design brought with it a new sense of possibility. By 1912, technology was beginning to move faster and faster. Articles of the day reflected those accomplishments.

Technical world magazine. (1912) Submarine Safety

While it has been conclusively demonstrated — on paper — that the submersible is as much superior to the submarine as the latter is to the former, the significant fact remains that no Holland type submarine has ever been lost, nor has a single life ever been lost on such a craft. Yet in ten years there have been twenty accidents to submersibles, or other submarines, in which one hundred and twenty-nine lives have been lost.

Under these circumstances it is comforting to know that the United States Government has none but Holland type submarines and still more consoling to learn that the requirements of our navy are more exacting than those of any other nation. While submersibles are only capable of descending to a depth of a hundred to a hundred and forty feet at most, no submarine is accepted by this Government until it has undergone the actual test of submersion to a depth of two hundred feet. The boats are really capable of withstanding the pressure at a depth of two hundred and fifty feet.

Should the submarine ever start for the bottom in deep water a safety device is waiting to bring it up again as soon as it reaches a predetermined depth. This device works like the safety valve on a steam boiler. The instant the fixed depth is reached a diaphragm in the outer skin of the vessel yields to the pressure, which opens a cock admitting air at one hundred pounds pressure or more into the ballast tanks, forcing out fifty or sixty tons of water in a few seconds. This tremendous increase in buoyancy, even in spite of a big leak, causes the submarine to dart to the surface at great speed.

In tests the boats jump almost out of the water, sinking back with a resounding splash.

If a Holland type submarine should be irreparably damaged its occupants still stand an excellent chance of escape. All four hatches extent down into the hull so as to form escape tubes. The covers have springs to throw them open when unfastened. If the vessel fills, the pressure is equalized regardless of depth, so there is no trouble in opening the hatches. At the station of every member of the crew where he can lay his hands on it instantly, even if the lights all go out, is an escape helmet with a jacket and belt such as divers wear, together with a breathing apparatus with oxygen enough to last one hour and a life belt. If the vessel fills the water compresses the air at the top so that the men can still breathe while they are putting on their helmets. Then they have but to duck their heads enough to get into the bot tom of the escape tubes and so find their way out. Once at the surface they in flate their life belts, then open the windows of their helmets to the outer air and wait for rescue. In England all members of submarine crews are trained in this method of escape in tanks built for the purpose.

New technology – the diesel engine

The F1 submarine represented the best technology if the day in 1912. Interesting about this submarine was its place in history. The interesting shift from boats named after fish back to numbered hulls must have been frustrating for the sailors. Talk about an identity crisis. This boat would be known as the Carp, SS 20 and F-1.

MISS JOSEPHINE TYNAN, TO CHRISTEN SUBMARINE Torpedo Boat Carp to Be Launched Next Month

Preparations are almost completed at the Union Iron works for the launching of the submarine torpedo boat Carp, which will take place early next month from the yard at the foot of Twentieth Street. Miss Josephine Tynan, daughter of J. J. Tynan, general manager of ‘.the Union Iron works, will christen the boat.

The Carp has been more than two years in building, the contract for its construction having been let to the Electric Boat Company of New York March 5. 1909, the New York company subletting the contract for the: hull to the Union Iron works. The contract price was $454,740, add the specified time for completion was June 5 of this year, but delays were occasioned by slow delivery of materials. A sister boat of the Carp, the Barracuda, will be launched about six weeks after the former. Three more submarines are being built at the Union Iron works the Seawolf, the Nautilus and the Orca. The work on the Seawolf and the Nautilus is 70 per cent completed, but the work on the Orca has not yet been begun although the material is on hand.

The San Francisco Call. (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1895-1913, 07 September 1911, Image 8 via chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.

The submarine torpedo boat Carp (SS-20), the latest and most efficient type of underwater fighter, was launched yesterday at the Union Iron Works. Miss Josephine Tynan, little daughter of Joseph. J. Tynan, general manager of the Iron Works, christened the fish-like craft, and the launching was accomplished on time and without a hitch. On the launching platform were officers of the army and navy, members of the national legislature, representatives of foreign governments – and “men and women prominent in society. Before the launching, W. R. Sands, representing the Electric – Boat Company, pinned a dainty gold watch on little’ Miss Tynan’s breast, and President McGregor of the Union Iron Works “decorated the girl with a jeweled locket.

There was a crash of breaking glass, and the Carp, its green snout dripping with champagne, went scooting down the ways and into the water, which welcomed the latest addition to the navy with a great splash.”

The submarine Carp (SS-20) after her launching at Union Iron Works, San Francisco on 6 September 1911.

From the very beginning, the Carp was a boat that would test its operators and the US Navy in new ways.

She almost didn’t make it through initial testing.

Popular mechanics v.18 JY-D(1912).

Contrary to general practice in testing submarines at great depths, the new U. S. submarine ”Carp” was recently sunk to a depth of 200 ft. at San Francisco with a crew of eight men on board, and an accident which might have ended disastrously kept the little vessel at the bottom for over an hour. The trouble was due to fouling of the hawser pipe of the submarine by an anchor chain, which for a time prevented a return to the surface. During the time the submarine was thus caught telephone communication was maintained with the officers in charge of the test at the surface.

The service of the crew was voluntary, and a considerable bonus was offered.

Technical world magazine. v.18 1912-1913 Sep-Feb.

TO MAKE THE SUBMARINE SAFER By ROBERT G. SKERRETT

SOME months ago one of our submarine boats, while undergoing a deep-water test, gave her crew an hour and a half of hair-raising anxiety. The Carp had been submerged to a depth of two hundred feet in San Francisco Bay in order to prove that’ her hull was structurally up to contract requirements. Ordinarily, it is the custom, in making this initial test, to seal the boat water tight, without anyone inside of her, and then to sink her two hundred feet below the surface, the little vessel being secured to steel cables and these, in turn, controlled from a floating wrecking derrick.

In the case of the Carp, however, the officer in charge and his crew believed the craft sound, and in a spirit of venture decided to go down in her. Apparently the Carp was anchored, and as she sank, the steel anchor cable was hauled inboard until she settled at the bottom right over the anchor. In some manner, the cable became jammed and would not feed’ out when it was time for the Carp to rise. All efforts to release her were unsuccessful* for more than an hour. Finally, after about ninety minutes of suspense, the Carp rose to the surface suddenly at high speed, and her momentum was such that her bow broke clear of the water for nearly fifty feet like the “broaching” of a big whale. The incident had all of the thrills of a narrow escape from death.

Later in the year, the Carp proved her merit by exceeding all previous limits in depth seeking.

Popular mechanics v.18 JY-D (1912). U.S. SUBMARINE BREAKS ALL DIVING RECORDS

The U. S. submarine “F1” broke all diving records recently by plunging to a depth of 283 ft. beneath the waters of San Francisco Bay. On board were Lieut. James B. Howell, in command, and a crew of 26 men. The little vessel remained down 10 minutes.

The United States Navy has for some time held the record of depths attained by submarines. In April of this year the “F1” reached a depth of 200 ft. in San Francisco Bay while undergoing tests previous to acceptance and last June the “Seal” descended to a depth of 256 ft. below the surface of Long Island Sound. The U. S. Submarine That Holds the World’s Record for Diving, Having Attained a Depth of 283 Ft. in San Francisco Bay is now the Carp.

It may be possible that pearl divers and divers in rubber suits and brass helmets have descended to depths a few feet greater than those indicated in the illustration, but it is understood that these depths are records.

Bow view of the F-1 (SS-20), in a West Coast harbor, 1912. A barge loaded with lumber is in the left distance.