History of Antelope - History

History of Antelope - History

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Large, fast, ruminant mammals which generally resemble deer except for their two single-prong horns.

Page 36 of Volume 1, Series II, of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion states that, in 1861, the Navy purchased at New York a sidewheel steamer named Antelope. However, no such ship was entered on the "List of Vessels of the U. S. Navy" in the Navy Register for 1862 or on that in the 1863 edition. Moreover, there is no other reference to this ship in the Navy's Official Records series. In view of these facts, this entry in the series' compilation, "Statistical Data of Ships," seems to be spurious.


(StwStr: t. 145; a. 2 30-pdr. r., 4 24-pdr. sb.)

During the first years of the Civil War, the Federal War Department used Lavinia Logan-a chartered stern-wheel steamer built in 1861 at Parkersburg, Virginia (now West Virginia)- su port operations of the Union Army along the streams of the Mississippi drainag e system, especially Major General Grant's efforts to capture Vicksburg.

Following the fall of that Confederate river fortress in the summer of 1863, Lavinia Logan seems to have returned to private hands for a time. In any case, the Union Navy acquired the vessel at Louisville, Ky., in the spring of 1864; and, on 26 May of that year, Rear Admiral David D. Porter wrote to Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles reporting the purchase and recommending that her name be changed to Antelope. Apparently, he had acquired the ship to meet Rear Admiral Farragut's need for light-draft gunboats and had her hull covered with iron plates by naval shipfitters at Mound City, Ill.

Antelo pe first appears on the list of vessels composing the West Gull Blockading Squadron on 15 August 1864 with the notation that she was then at New Orleans. On 31 August 1864, the paperwork on her purchase was finally completed. By 4 September, the tinclad-commanded by Acting Master John Ross- was at Pass `a I'Outre where she had relieved the sidewheeler Meteor. While she was there, she began taking on considerable water; and her leaks steadily increased. An inspection of the inside of her hull revealed that ". the leak was not confined to any one place, but extended to all parts of the bottom sides." After she had been on station for a full week, Ross reported ". the condition of the vessel and that I was obliged to eep up 60 pounds of steam to work the steam pumps, as we could not keep her free by the hand pum. S."

The ship was relieved as soon as possible and ordered back to New Orleans for repairs. On the evening of 22 September, during her trip upriver, Antelope came upon Suffolk-abandoned and in a sinking condition-and towed that Army transport to shoal water where she would be safe on the flats. Antelope then resumed her ascent of the river.

About 4:30 a.m., upon learning that his ship was sinking, Ross . ordered the helm hard aport, to beach her While filling rapidly, Antelope grounded enabling her crew to save her ordnance and equipment. No record of efforts to salvage the ship has been found.

Maria-a 173-ton stern-wheel steamer built in 1863 at Cincinnati, Ohio-was bought by the Navy on 10 February 1864 at Cincinnati for service in the Mississippi Squadron. After learning of this purchase, Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles wrote to Rear Admiral David D. Porter on 9 April 1864 informing him that "the Navy Department [had] changed the name of the Maria ... to the Antelope, as it had a vessel of ... [the former] name in the course of construction."

However, Porter had meanwhile renamed Maria, Fairy and, in acknowledging message of 9 April, requested the Department to retain the name Fairy (q.v.) since the ship had ". been known by that name for so long a time . On 1 June, Welles agreed to this request.


The term antelope is used to refer to many species of even-toed ruminant which are indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia.

Antelope comprise a wastebasket taxon (miscellaneous group) within the family Bovidae, encompassing all Old World ruminants that are not bovines, sheep, goats, deer, or giraffes. While one New World species, the pronghorn of North America, is sometimes colloquially referred to as the "American antelope", it is in fact not a true antelope.

A group of antelope is called a herd. [1] Unlike deer antlers, which are shed and grown annually, antelope horns grow continuously. [2]


Antelope is a term for many even-toed ungulate species. Antelope is not a strict taxonomic term because they are not a clade. Antelope is a 'wastebasket taxon' in the family Bovidae. It includes the old-world species which are not cattle, sheep, buffalo, bison, or goats.

Antelopes occupy the ecological niche which deer occupy north of the Sahara. Both deer and antelopes are grass-eating mammals which have replaced browsers as the dominant vegetarian animals as forests gave way to grasslands. [1]

Antelope are found mostly in Africa below the Sahara, and parts of Asia. No antelope are native to North America: the pronghorn is a member of the family Antilocapridae, another family. True antelope have horns which are unbranched and never shed, while pronghorns have branching horns, and shed annually.

There are 91 species of antelope, most of which are native to Africa, in about 30 genera. [2] A group of antelope is called a herd. [3]

Species of forest, woodland, or bush tend to be sedentary, but many of the plains species undertake huge migrations. These migrations enable grass-eating species to follow the rains and therefore their food supply. The gnus and gazelles of East Africa perform some of the most impressive mass migratory circuits of all mammals. [4]

All bovids have even-toed hooves, horizontal pupils, ruminating guts, and (in at least the males) bony horns. Many antelope are sexually dimorphic. In most species, both sexes have horns, but those of males tend to be larger. There is a tendency for males to be larger than the females

Horns are not shed and are not made of bone, which distinguishes them from antlers. [5] Gazelles and springbok are known for their speed and leaping abilities. Even larger antelope, such as elands, and kudus, are capable of jumping 8 feet (2.4 m) or greater, although their running speed is restricted by their greater mass.

Antelope Appearance and Behavior

Because of its massive diversity, it is difficult to talk about a single characteristic or appearance of the antelope. Most tend to have a deer-like appearance with spikes or corkscrew horns, but the largest members of the group almost resemble a cross between a deer and cattle.

There are generally two types of antelope, which vary by habitat. Small to medium animals such as the duikers and reedbucks are more adapted to concealed cover in forests and wetlands. Thanks to their short legs, round back, and large rear end, they are capable of fast, sporadic movements to elude predators. These animals have camouflaged colorings or markings to provide an extra layer of defense. They tend to forage on foliage by themselves but then pair together with mates monogamously during the breeding season.

The larger antelopes, on the other hand, are built for the deserts, open plains, and savannas. They graze on the grass and rely on pure speed to help them avoid predators. They tend to congregate into large herds in which a dominant male will mate with multiple females. The size of the herd can vary quite a bit. Some herds consist of no more than 10 or 20 individuals, while other antelopes have herds of thousands, which can make for quite the spectacle on the open plains. These herds may undertake large migrations during certain parts of the year in search of new food reservoirs and grazing land.

Antelopes vary dramatically in size between the small royal antelope, which weighs a mere 4 pounds, and the truly gigantic eland, which weighs up to 1,800 pounds, or about as much as some cattle. The topi is perhaps the longest, reaching nearly 9 feet. Males tend to have larger bodies and horns than females, but in a few species, the females may lack horns altogether, or they will have smaller horns than the males.

Like many other bovids, the entire body of the antelope is remarkably well adapted for the consumption and digestion of vegetation. It has a multi-chambered stomach filled with specialized bacteria to ferment and break down the tough cellulose of the plant matter. The antelope will also regurgitate the food as cud and chew it again with its well-developed molar teeth to aid in digestion.

Another important feature is the antelope’s visual acuity. They have horizontal pupils located on the side of the head that enable them to see predators coming from the periphery of their vision. The acute sense of smell also aids in communication. Specialized fluids secreted from scent glands around the face, knees, and hooves allow them to mark territory and communicate with other members. Antelopes also have a suite of whistles, barks, bleats, grunts, and moos. These vocalizations serve as a means of alarm calls, warnings, or greetings.

The tiny town of Antelope, Oregon, was inundated by the Bhagwan's followers

The Daily Beast reports that the group traveled to the Pacific Northwest in 1981 "having run afoul of Indian authorities." A 60,000-acre ranch was purchased and construction began: residences, a dam, an airport, a garage for the Bhagwan's fleet of 19 Rolls Royces.

"Cult" is a harsh word that's applied liberally whenever the Bhagwan and his followers come up. As The Verge reports, "Rajneesh preached to his followers about the idea of creating awakened people who live in harmony with their surroundings. But his cult also forced members to donate large quantities of money, while creating an isolated community that kept tight control over its members." There were forced sterilizations and forced abortions. Politically, the commune overpowered the local residents, voting Antelope to be renamed Rajneeshpuram. (The Postal Service never accepted the change, says Photograph Oregon.)

How did it happen? Dr. Louis Manza, professor of psychology at Lebanon Valley College in Annville, Pennsylvania, told The Verge, "I think wanting to control is a driving force from the leader, and wanting to belong is the driving force for the member. You put those things together, you create the perfect storm for getting people into a cult." Observers, and survivors, all use that word — cult — for what happened at Antelope.

Pronghorn are one of North America’s most impressive mammals. Not only do pronghorn have the longest land migration in the continental United States, they also are the fastest land animal in North America. Pronghorn can run at speeds close to 60 miles an hour. Although pronghorn are not as fast as cheetahs, they can maintain a fast speed for a longer period of time than cheetahs. Even more amazing than its speed is the pronghorn’s migration. Herds of pronghorn migrate 150 miles each way between Wyoming’s Upper Green River Basin and Grand Teton National Park. The only other land animal to travel farther in North America is the caribou.

Pronghorn are ungulates (hoofed animals) and related to goats and antelope. They have the body shape of a deer with long legs, short tail, and a long snout. The fur is a reddish-brown color, but it can also be tan or darker brown. Pronghorn have white stripes on their necks and additional white markings on the face, stomach, and rump. The rump has extra-long white hairs that the pronghorn can stick up when scared.

The most noticeable characteristic of pronghorn is also the source of their common name. Both males and females have a pair of short horns on the top of the head. The female’s horns are small, usually only a bump. In contrast, the males’ horns are around 10 to 12 inches long. They also have a unique shape, because unlike other ungulates, a pronghorn’s horns point backward. The horns extend straight up and then curve toward the rump. At the front of the horn is a small notch or prong that points forward, hence the animal's name.

Pronghorn have large eyes and fantastic vision. Their large eyes can spot predators from very far away, which is helpful on their flat grassland habitat. Pronghorn are about 4.5 feet long, three feet tall, and weigh between 90 and 150 pounds. Females tend to weigh less than the males.

Pronghorn are found only in North America. Their natural range extended from southern Canada to northern Mexico. Today pronghorn are mainly found in the United States in the Great Plains, Wyoming, Montana, northeast California, southeast Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Some of the highest numbers of pronghorn are in Wyoming in the Red Desert and Yellowstone ecosystems. Pronghorn like open plains, fields, grasslands, brush, deserts, and basins. Between the summer and winter, pronghorn migrate between feeding grounds to survive the harsh winter.

Pronghorn are herbivores. They eat grasses, forbs, sagebrush, and other prairie plants. Pronghorn digest their food twice. After they swallow food, it passes through the stomach and then the pronghorn regurgitates it. This process allows the pronghorn to break the plant material into smaller pieces so that more nutrients are absorbed. The regurgitated food is called cud. They seldom drink water because they receive most of their water from the plants they eat.

Pronghorn depend on their strong vision to communicate. If a pronghorn spots a predator, it raises the white rump hairs. The white patch becomes larger and visible by other pronghorn. They know that the signal means to be on the alert—danger is near. Pronghorn also use smell to attract mates and signal danger.

Pronghorn breed in late summer or fall depending on their location—those in the southern part of the range tend to breed earlier. Males have breeding territories with a group of females that they defend against other males. Fighting between males can become very heated with aggressive movements and even physical combat. Some pronghorn can be seriously injured during these battles.

Male pronghorn breed with multiple females within their territory. After mating, the females are pregnant throughout the winter and give birth in the spring. The females have either one or two fawns. Although fawns can stand within a day of birth, they are still weak for a few days and must be protected from predators. The fawns stay with their mother for about a year until they become independent. Pronghorn have an average lifespan of around 10 years.

The migration of pronghorn depends entirely on where the pronghorn lives. Some do not even need to migrate because the nearby land has plenty of food all year. On the other hand, several herds with about 400 pronghorn make a 300-mile roundtrip migration. In November, the snow starts falling in Wyoming and the local pronghorn herd knows that it will not be long before the snow gets too deep. In small herds, they start migrating south from Grand Teton National Park across government land, private lands, and ranches. For three days, the herd is on the move, and sometimes the pronghorn have to travel under fences and near roads. If they make it to the Upper Green River Valley, then the pronghorn will make the journey back north to greener pastures in April.

Threats to pronghorn include habitat loss, human-wildlife conflicts, and overexploitation due to historic hunting, which greatly reduced the population size. Two subspecies of pronghorn are on the endangered species list: Peninsular pronghorn and Sonoran pronghorn.

The pronghorn's 300-mile migration is grueling and requires crossing private property and fences. In the past, pronghorn had to worry about predators and cold weather. Today the bigger threats are cars, impassable fences and roads, and development. The National Wildlife Federation and its affiliates are working hard to create wildlife corridors for pronghorn and other migratory wildlife and reduce conflicts between animals and people.

Pronghorn are the second fastest land mammal in the world. (Cheetahs are the fastest.)

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– We are located at the entrance to the Antelope Canyon Navajo Tribal Park just 3 miles East of Page, AZ off of Highway 98.

Antelope Canyon’s Formation

Antelope Canyon is a famous slot canyon near Page, Arizona. It is known by the Navajo people as “The place where water runs through rocks.” The slot canyon consists of two sections: Upper Antelope Canyon, which is known as “The Crack,” and Lower Antelope Canyon, which is known as “The Corkscrew.” Both offer their own kind of natural beauty to visitors, with Upper Antelope being famous for its summer light beams and its changing colors in the winter. They were formed over hundreds of years by water running through sandstone. The upper part of the canyon is about 4,000 feet in elevation and its smooth sandstone walls rise 120 feet above the streambed. The entire upper slot canyon is only about 300 feet long and entirely at ground level, making it a great tourist destination for travelers of all kinds.

History of Antelope Valley

The first peoples of the Antelope Valley include the Kawaiisu, Kitanemuk, Serrano, and Tataviam. The valley was first entered by Europeans in the 1770s, during colonization of North America. Father Francisco Garces, a Spanish Franciscan friar, is believed to have traveled the west end of the valley in 1776. By 1808, the invaders forced native peoples out of the valley and into missions.

Jedediah Smith came through in 1827, and John C. Fremont made a scientific observation of the valley in 1844 along with his other California explorations.

Stagecoach lines came through the valley along its foothills after Fremont's visit and were the preferred way of travel for colonists before the coming of the Southern Pacific railroad in 1876. The rail service linking the valley to the Central Valley and Los Angeles started the first large influx of white settlers to the valley, and farms and towns soon sprouted on the valley floor.

The aircraft (now referred to as aerospace) industry took hold in the valley at Plant 42 in 1952. Edwards AFB, then called Muroc Army Air Field, was established in 1933.


Neligh (pronounced Nee'Lee), near the center of Antelope County, is one of the towns with a name that is not duplicated elsewhere in the United States.

In 1872, John Neligh, impressed by the advantage offered by the Elkhorn River for water power, purchased land from the Omaha & Northwestern Railroad. He immediately contracted for brick to build a mill, and set about building a dam across the river. Machinery was installed for a saw mill where the cottonwood was made into lumber for homesteaders and timbers for use in the construction of a flour mill. Even prior to the coming of the railroad, large shipments of flour were made to the Black Hills by wagon train.

Surveyed in 1873, its plat was not filed until 1875. By then homes and businesses dotted the area. The land office, the only one in this part of the state, was established in 1880 (about the time that the Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley Railroad arrived) and the building boom began. In a few years, Neligh challenged Oakdale for the county seat. After a bitter struggle, Neligh won. The records were moved on January 1, 1884.

Neligh was progressive from the start. A water system was established in 1886, and a volunteer fire department organized the following year. Electric street lights were turned on in 1890. The steady growth continued until 1894, when a severe drought caused a set-back. However, by 1900 the town had recovered and street lights appeared. A Carnegie library was built in 1911.

The "Neligh Journal" was published in 1875, and in 1879, "The Republican" appeared. The "Neligh Leader," established in 1885, was edited by three generations of the Best family. Purchased by Loren Fry, it celebrated 100 years of continuous publication. The "Neligh News," established in 1915, was also purchased by Fry. The paper is currently published by Sid Charf, as the "Neligh News and Leader."

A school district was organized in January 1872. In 1896 it became a 12-year institution. Many buildings were added in the west and east wards to accommodate the growing enrollment over the years. In 1975 the Neligh and Oakdale school districts merged to provide the education for students in the area. From 1881-99, Neligh was the home of Gates Academy, established by the Congregational Church.

The community supports many churches: Baptist, Christian, United Church of Christ, Lutheran, Jehovah's Witnesses, Catholic Episcopal, Seventh Day Adventist, United Methodist, and Abundant Life Christian Center.

In addition to the famed Neligh Mill (a NSHS branch museum), three other buildings are also on the National Register of Historic Places: the county courthouse, St.Peter's Episcopal Church, and an original structure at Gates Academy. The building that was the original girls gymnasium at the academy was used for many years as the county jail. It is now restored and serves as a county historical museum. A historical marker is also at the grave-site of White Buffalo Girl, who died during the Ponca Trail of Tears trek from their home in Nebraska to Oklahoma in 1877.

Neligh has three fine parks: Riverside, Russell, and Penn. The community supports 175 businesses and professional offices. In accordance with the present trend, many of these are located along Highways 275, 14 and 70, adjacent to the town. Neligh has the offices usually found in county seat towns, and the businesses common to an agricultural area. The community is also served by a hospital, nursing home, and related professions. Neligh has three manufacturing plants, an apiary, hay pellet plant, an airport, a helicopter service, and a bed-and-breakfast. Ground was broken in 1989 for a new library made possible by a bequest from the late Elvin and Viola Butterfield.

The community also has an Educational Service Unit, an American Legion post, country club, Lions club, low-rent housing, a pre-school, and a senior citizens center.

Events that greatly effected the town include the Easter storm of 1873, grasshopper plague in 1874, the blizzard of '88, severe floods in 1905, 1915, 1949, and 1987, plus serious fires in 1944 and 1960, and the farm crisis of the 1980s.

Neligh celebrated its centennial in 1973. In 1980 the population of the town was 1,893.

By Ruth A. Wagner, 612 N Street, Neligh, NE 68756

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL: History of Antelope County 1868-1883, Leach, 1909 History of Antelope County 1883-1975, Antelope County Historical Society, 1975 History of the State of Nebraska, Andreas Who's Who in Nebraska, 1940 Antelope County History 1868-1985, published by Antelope County Historical Society, 1986 early issues of Neligh newspapers Nebraska Place Names , Fitzpatrick, 1960 and Perkey's Nebraska Place Names, 1982.

The Antelope Valley's History Of Racism

While the L.A. Sheriff's Department continues its investigation into the hanging death of 24-year-old Robert Fuller in Palmdale, some in the area are highly skeptical of the initial finding of suicide, convinced that the young Black man was lynched.

Not only did Fuller's death happen in the midst of the national reckoning about systemic racism, but it occurred in the Antelope Valley, which has a particularly troubled racial history.

Neo-Nazis and skinheads have remained a presence there. And then there was the U.S. Department of Justice investigation a few years ago, which concluded that the L.A. County Housing Authority and the Sheriff's Department had been systematically discriminating against Black people living in Section 8 housing.

The racial situation in the area is "a powder keg — a bomb ready to explode," said Pharoah Mitchell, co-founder of an Antelope Valley activist group.

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