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Funk holes were small areas scraped out of the side of a trench. When it was raining, soldiers would drape a waterproof sheet over the opening and would try to get some sleep. Some officers considered funk holes too dangerous and banned men from sleeping in them.
Encyclopedia - Dug-Out
Dug-outs, usually sited close to the trench line - often within or below the trench wall - were used as a form of underground shelter and rest for both troops and officers. Occupants of dug-outs would eat their meals, arrange meetings and often make their bed there.
Dug-outs were considered much safer than resting or lying in the open since they afforded some form of protection against not only the weather but, far more critically, from enemy shell-fire. However it was not unusual for direct shell hits to burrow through to dug-outs, killing or maiming all occupants.
Dug-outs generally took one of three forms. Those which enabled one, possibly two, men to rest in some discomfort within the trench wall were termed 'cubby-holes' or 'funk-holes'. Propped up by wooden posts and corrugated iron and somewhat deeper, 'Shelters' gave protection to a rather larger number of men.
However the best form of dug-out were the 'Deep' variety and were almost exclusively used by senior officers. Deep dug-outs were entered via a stairway stretching up to 10 feet below ground. Within the dug-out were housed one or more rooms used for meetings as well as rest and relaxation. Electric lights were often installed in such dug-outs as was wire bedding.
The entrance to the dugout would often be draped with a gas curtain to keep out enemy gas. Such protection could work both ways however a soldier who entered the dug-out in the aftermath of a gas attack could carry the remnants of gas on his boots. The gas curtain would then prevent the gas escaping it was not uncommon for all men in a dug-out to be gassed while sleeping as the result of gas inadvertently brought in by a colleague.
Saturday, 22 August, 2009 Michael Duffy
A "blimp" was a word applied to an observation balloon.
- Did you know?
Worldview in Context
Figures 1 and 2 provide a basis for a deeper understanding of worldview. The sensing, thinking, knowing, acting self exists in the milieu of a world (more accurately, a universe) of matter, energy, information and other sensing, thinking, knowing, acting selves (Figure 1). At the heart of one's knowledge is one's worldview or Weltanschauung.
Figure 1. The self and its worldview in the context of the world.
To sense is to see, hear, taste, and feel stimuli from the world and from the self (Figure 2). To act is to orient sensory organs (including eyes and ears), to move body parts, to manipulate external objects, and to communicate by speaking, writing, and other actions. Although we humans are not unique in our ability to sense and to act on our environment, it is in us, so far as we know, that thought as the basis for action is most highly developed.
Thought is a process, a sequence of mental states or events, in which sensed stimuli and existing knowledge are transformed to new or modified knowledge, some instances of which are intents that trigger motor control signals that command our muscles to action. While some actions are merely the result of sensorimotor reflexes, responses to emotions like fear or anger, or automatized patterns developed through habit, we at least like to believe that most of our actions are more reflective, being based on "higher" forms of thought.
For example, there is in most sensory experience an element of perception, in which sensed stimuli are first recognized and interpreted in light of existing knowledge (learned patterns) before they are committed to action. And to bring thought to bear on some stimuli or knowledge rather than others requires a focusing of attention, an allocation of limited mental resources to some mental activities and away from others. But it is in our reason -- and specialized forms of reason like problem solving, judging, and deciding -- that we take the most pride.
Reasoning is focused, goal-directed thought that starts from perceptions and existing knowledge and works toward new and valued knowledge. Reasoning therefore begins with knowledge and ends with knowledge, the opinions, beliefs, and certainties that one holds. By inductive reasoning (which is idealized in empirical science), one works from perceptions and other particular knowledge to more general knowledge. By deduction (exemplified by mathematical logic) further generalizations and, more practically, particular knowledge, is produced. Over a lifetime, reason builds up not only particular opinions and beliefs, but also a body of more and more basic, general, and fundamental knowledge on which the particular beliefs, and the intents for external acts, are based. This core of fundamental knowledge, the worldview, is not only the basis for the deductive reasoning that ultimately leads to action, but also is the foundation for all reasoning, providing the standards of value to establish the cognitive goals towards which reason works and to select the rules by which reason operates. The large red arrows in Figures 1 and 2 symbolize the absolutely crucial role that the worldview plays in one's behavior.
Figure 2. The worldview in the context of the self.
To put this more concisely, and consistently with the definitions considered above,
A worldview is the set of beliefs about fundamental aspects of Reality that ground and influence all one's perceiving, thinking, knowing, and doing.
The elements of one's worldview, the beliefs about certain aspects of Reality, are one's
- epistemology: beliefs about the nature and sources of knowledge
- metaphysics: beliefs about the ultimate nature of Reality
- cosmology: beliefs about the origins and nature of the universe, life, and especially Man
- teleology: beliefs about the meaning and purpose of the universe, its inanimate elements, and its inhabitants
- theology: beliefs about the existence and nature of God
- anthropology: beliefs about the nature and purpose of Man in general and, oneself in particular
- axiology: beliefs about the nature of value, what is good and bad, what is right and wrong.
The following elaboration of these elements and their implications to thought and action is based on Hunter Mead's Types and Problems of Philosophy, which I highly recommend for further study. For each worldview element I pose for you some important questions whose answers constitute your corresponding beliefs. I suggest a few possible answers you could give to these questions. Then I present some of the implications those beliefs could have to your thought, other beliefs, and action.
But first I must acknowledge some assumptions that underlie or constrain what I say. First, your worldview may not be explicit. In fact few people take the time to thoroughly think out, much less articulate, their worldview nevertheless your worldview is implicit in and can be at least partially inferred from your behavior. Second, the elements of your worldview are highly interrelated it is almost impossible to speak of one element independently of the others. Third, the questions I pose to you are not comprehensive: there are many more, related questions that could be asked. Fourth, the example answers I give to the questions -- that is, worldview beliefs -- are not comprehensive: many other perspectives are possible and you may not find your answers among those that I suggest. But, I hope, they illustrate the points. Fifth, my assertion that your worldview influences your action is based on the assumption that thought is the basis for action and knowledge is the basis for thought. Of course, as I wrote above, some actions are reflexive or automatic in nature: conscious thought, much less knowledge and, especially, worldview, probably have little direct influence on them. Nevertheless, even highly automatized or impulsive actions often follow patterns of behavior that originated in considered acts. Finally, my exposition of worldview is based on my own worldview and the questions that I choose to pose to you, the possible answers that I give as examples, and even the way I present those example answers are colored by my worldview.
Tiger Woods: Making his move
Mary Sullivan first saw Tiger Woods play golf in the 1994 U.S. Amateur at the Stadium Course. She was among a group of Players volunteers who were asked to work at the U.S. Amateur and she walked all 36 holes with Woods in the championship match against Trip Kuehne.
"Gosh, he was so skinny back then," said Sullivan a St. Johns County school teacher, who has been volunteering at The Players for more than 40 years. "They didn't rope anything off back then. It was just me and a few other people they asked to walk behind them for 36 holes. It was fun because most of the guys in the tournament were college kids and they looked excited to be there."
Sullivan remembers Woods making his comeback from six holes down, and finally taking the lead when he nearly hit his tee shot at No. 17 into the water, then made a birdie putt from off the fringe.
"My Goodness, he was something special," she said.
Three years later, Woods was in his first Players. Sullivan was on the player escort committee and was asked to be one of the walking escorts with Woods.
Only this time, she had more company. Woods was the hottest rookie in the game's history and was just weeks away from winning his first major at the Masters.
"They had some vice-chairmen [from the Players volunteer staff] and some other muscle men walking him around," Sullivan said.
But a chord was struck between the young international star and the teacher.
She noticed the little things, such as Woods' politeness around the game's older stars and to volunteers. She loved his enthusiasm for the game, the simple joys of being on the putting green or being in the heat of a tournament.
"One time he saw Byron Nelson in the parking lot," Sullivan said. "Byron was walking to someone else and Tiger took his hat off and stood to one side, waiting for them to finish their conversation before he shook his hand and asked how he was doing. I told Tiger later how proud I was of him and the way he dealt with people. I guess it's the school teacher in me."
Sullivan began serving as a walking escort with Woods at every Players. Every time she met him in the parking lot, she got what she calls, "my Momma hug," from Woods. She also baked him chocolate chip cookies (until after 9-11, when the Tour banned players receiving gifts of food from fans), which Woods devoured.
The third round in 2001 was no different. Sullivan and the other walking escorts waited for Woods in the parking lot, went with him to the practice area, and then to the first tee, where Woods teed off with Phil Mickelson.
"He was very relaxed that day," Sullivan said.
Woods played like it. After an opening bogey at No. 1, he made his move, with birdies at Nos. 2, 3 and 4.
After six pars in a row, Woods stepped on the gas with a short eagle putt at No. 11, after spanking a 4-iron 229 yards over water, then a birdie at the 12th.
Three more safe pars and then Woods got up-and-down for birdie at No. 16 and was three shots behind Kelly.
He then nearly out-guessed himself at the 17th tee. Facing the usual Saturday front-right pin, Woods said it was a perfect wedge number, but if he drew it slightly, the ball might spin back into the water.
Instead, he hit a three-quarters, cut 9-iron, hoping to hit it into the slope of the green. But the wind changed as Woods made his swing.
"The ball just got up and flat-lined on me," he said. "It was just gone."
By "gone," Woods meant on the back shelf of the green, a few inches onto the collar. The Tour's ShotLink technology for measure the distance of putts was still two years away, so the historically accepted distance of the putt has been 60 feet.
In terms of where the hole was and where Woods' ball was, it was difficult to have a birdie putt attempt that would be any longer.
It’s been a century since a race massacre killed hundreds of Black residents in the Oklahoma city and destroyed their prosperous neighborhood which they had built with pride, resilience and hard work. If you have been anywhere near the news this past week, you undoubtedly have heard the stories through countless articles, television reports, and Internet commentary. It is a tale of outrage and woe — not only because of what took place on those bloody days of 1921, but because of what happened afterwards. Or more importantly what didn’t: an accounting with the truth.
I wanted to raise this today in our Sunday essay to get at some fundamental realities about the way we tell our American story, to our children, each other, and ourselves. The fact is that for many decades the Tulsa massacre had been largely absent from our classrooms and our history books. If it was included at all, it was merely a footnote. We need to understand why, and why this isn’t the only overlooked chapter of our history.
Many are just finding out about Tulsa’s prosperous Black community of Greenwood (nicknamed “Black Wall Street”) and how it was destroyed in a matter of hours by White townspeople bent on bloodshed. This is a stark reminder: we have holes in American history. Not literal holes, of course —these events certainly happened. But holes in our knowledge, our education, and our national collective consciousness.Dan Rather @DanRather
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We are living in a time where we are seeing cynical attempts to bury the past on many fronts. Even as the world marks what happened in Tulsa, a movement is afoot in my own beloved home state of Texas and many others to stifle the teaching of racism in our classrooms. It is being pitched under the new bogeyman for the political right —so-called “critical race theory”— and educators and historians are deeply worried that it will have a chilling effect on our ability to teach future generations about the forces of hate and bigotry that have played, and continue to play, a significant role in our country’s political, economic, and social systems.
The political movement pushing this historical amnesia isn’t limiting their efforts to the more distant annals of the past. It’s been five months since insurrectionists stormed the Capitol and most of the Republicans in Congress have just voted to try to erase a full accounting of what took place. The same thing is happening around the pandemic. Yes, the truth can be uncomfortable. It can challenge the image we wish to create for ourselves and our nation. It eats away at myth-making and simplistic narratives. But acknowledging history - a full and complete history - is more than just bearing witness to what took place in the past. It is the only way we can understand the forces that shape our world today.
The entire mantra of Make America Great Again was built on a literal whitewashing of our past (I am tempted to write it as “White Washing”). It is an attempt to say that America was a better place when it was more discriminatory and there were fewer opportunities for marginalized groups to have the opportunities of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” This saddens me on many levels. It minimizes the violence, pain, and suffering that has defined America’s tortured journey on racial equality. It promotes a worldview where the very notion of truth is sanitized into false narratives. And it also robs our history of its own sources of strength.
The story of our nation, in all its full complexity, is the story of interwoven narratives —of tragedy and triumph, hope and despair, cruelty and empathy. When we eliminate the negative chapters we also eliminate many of the positive ones. When we ignore the villains we also overlook the heroes. To paper over what happened in Tulsa is to also write out of our history books what the Black community there was able to build in the face of great headwinds of bigotry. It is to ignore the resilience that the survivors had no choice but to summon forth. It is to ignore that our nation has been made better through its diversity, our culture enriched, our democracy strengthened, and our moral compass pointed more firmly on a North Star of progress and justice.
There are so many other stories like Tulsa where the ripples of history still shape our nation. So many groups of people have been made to feel like outsiders —they have felt the deep hurt and often physical pain of injustice. We can start with the Native Peoples of this continent. We must teach their many stories of loss. Their narrative is much more that of the Trail of Tears than greeting-card versions of Thanksgiving. Yet these tribes have fought to survive. They have strived to pass their culture and language to their children. They have etched out pride. We must not only view them for what they have suffered but for how they have endured, how they have made America better. You can say the same of so many groups, religious and ethnic minorities, the LGBTQ community, the disabled, to name a few. All of these groups have their own chapters that have been dismissed for far too long. The bigotries of American society still plague all those who have been marginalized in some form. But again, we must recognize the strength, ingenuity, and resilience that have allowed these communities to not only survive, but to flourish.
Of all the tributes this past week in Tulsa, and around the country, of all the thoughtful and emotional speeches, the detailed documentation of the loss and destruction (links I will share below), the debate over reparations and appropriate atonement, the cumulative acknowledgement that this will be one chapter no longer forgotten, there was one scene that moved me perhaps the most. It centered around three survivors of the massacre, and a whole lot more. And it involved a song I had heard many times covering the Civil Rights Movement.
With these emotional verses, the ties of the present, the past, and a more distant history came into sharp focus. We are bound as a people by a journey we have no choice but to make together. And the fact that there is still in our America a march of progress is a testimony to all who didn’t break. May we work to make the world a better and more just place, remembering and honoring those who are no longer here to march alongside us.
P.S. The first step in mending the holes in our history is awareness. Below are links for further reading. We invite you to engage with an open mind. Please let us know your thoughts and feedback in the comments section below.
Please consider subscribing to STEADY, if you have not already. Our goal is to build a vibrant digital community —the more voices, perspectives, and viewpoints that can add to the conversation, the merrier.
The following history was compiled by Jean Schultz, using local resources including the book A Diamond Sparkles by Lois Webster Welch, which is available in our online shop .
Etienne Brule discovered Michigan while trying to find a northwest passage.
Father Jacques Marquette organized the first white settlement in Michigan at Sault Ste. Marie.
French explorer LaSalle explored the St. Joseph river to South Bend.
Fort Ponchartrain (later named Detroit) was built to protect the French fur trade with the Indians.
Michigan formally passed into the hands of the Americans at the end of the Revolutionary War.
Michigan became part of the newly organized Northwest Territory. Constant Indian attacks prohibited white settlement.
Michigan was organized as a territory. Less than a dozen small white settlements were in all of Michigan.
General Lewis Cass was appointed Governor over the Territory of Michigan.
The British gave up the last of their outlying posts in Michigan. Hunter and trapper Zaccheus Wooden began trapping fur on the shores of Diamond Lake and returned to his home in the East after the trapping season.
Michigan public lands were opened to settlers. Governor Cass encouraged settlement by improved relations with the Indians.
The Chicago Treaty with the Indians stipulated that the U.S. had the privilege of making and using a road through Indian country from Detroit to Chicago. The Chicago Road (South Trail) followed the winding path used for centuries by the Indians. The Potawatomies ceded away all of the land in southwestern Michigan east of the St. Joseph River in this treaty. Three thousand Indians were present at the conference.
The Erie Canal opened and made way for settlers to come to Michigan from the East. Uzziel Putnam became the first permanent white settler in the Cass County area. Putnam founded the settlement of Pokagon Prairie.
Many Potawatomi Indians were still living in the area during the early period of settlement. Some of the Indian leaders during this period are Topinabee—a true friend of the white man, Weesaw—a large man, over 6 feet tall, who had 3 wives and was often seen in the white settlements, Shavehead—an ill tempered, sullen and insolent man who had a lock of flowing hair down his back, Pokagon—a converted Roman Catholic. Indians who lived around Diamond Lake cut large trees and hollowed them out to make fishing canoes used to catch whitefish and enormous pike. At some time Indians apparently built an underwater stepping-stone trail from Geneva Shores to the north point of the island.
Job Wright, the recluse with two thumbs on one hand, isolated himself on the island in Diamond Lake due to his dislike for humanity. He may have been the most unusual man ever to walk the shores of Diamond Lake. He always wore buckskin breeches and a fringed shirt secured at the waist with a leather belt from which he suspended a sheath for his long hunting knife. He built a log cabin on the island where he lived until his death in 1842. His grave marker can be found in Prospect Hill cemetery. A village post office was set up in Mr. Silvers “Old Red Store.”
Cass County was organized and named after Governor Cass. The town of Geneva was platted on the north shore of Diamond Lake and intended to be the county seat. Oxen drawn carts brought supplies from Detroit for the first general store in the new community.
The Village of Cassapolis was platted. Cassapolis was chosen over Geneva as the county seat after a long and bitter controversy. The first double log cabin was constructed and opened as a hotel. A road commission was formed to build corduroy roads in the county.
The settlers had concern for their safety when news of the Blackhawk Indian war reached them. They made plans to fortify themselves on Diamond Island, but the war ends before it reached Cass County. Work on the Chicago Road was interrupted by the war.
The first jail was built in the Village of Cassapolis (The old lock can be seen in the Log Cabin Museum).
Chicago Road was completed and passed just north of Diamond Lake. (This road is now called M-60).
The first Cass County courthouse was built in the Village of Cassapolis. Stage Coach service began on Chicago Road.
Most of the Potawatomi Indians are removed to Kansas. Only Leopold Pokagon’s tribe were allowed to remain in a village about a mile west of the St. Joseph River and just north of the Indiana state line.
The Underground Railroad was established to provide secret shelter for slaves fleeing the South. These safe havens were called stations and the men living at the stations were called conductors. Covered wagons were hitched and ready to go at a moments notice. There were two stations in Cass County kept by Stephen Bogue.
The Ritter General Store opened in the Village of Cassapolis (The store once stood on Broadway where the Village Floral Shop is now located and was moved across from the Post Office where it still stands.) The first schoolhouse was built out of logs.
Hunters and trappers of this time carved the date and their names on a giant Beech tree on Diamond Island. (This tree is still standing on the island.)
The Cass County Advocate rolled off the presses as the first newspaper published in Cassapolis. Its politics were Democratic.
Enraged Kentuckians sent raiding parties into Cass County to try to recover runaway slaves who were being hidden at the farms of Quakers while on their way to Canada.
Black bears were numerous around the Village of Cassopolis and more than 20 were shot.
The National Democrat newspaper, successor to the Cass County Advocate, was published and announced the change in spelling of Cassapolis to Cassopolis.
The Village of Cassopolis was incorporated. The census reports that there were 475 persons residing in the village.
The Airline Railroad tracks were laid linking Chicago with Cassopolis. It soon became the property of the Michigan Central. The Grand Trunk Railroad linking South Bend with Cassopolis was laid about the same time. Fishing without regulations comes to a halt on Diamond Lake as fishing season was closed from September through May and spearing was outlawed.
Passenger and freight service began on the Michigan Central and Grand Trunk Railroads. The area was no longer land-locked and began to flourish.
Three officials of the Michigan Central Railroad purchased a tract of land on the north side of Diamond Lake and built a large house referred to as “The Chicago House” which they intend to share as a vacation home. The grand three-story building with a wrap-around porch sat on top of a knoll overlooking the lake. The Michigan Central Depot was a short distance from the home. There are few roads leading to the water, unless one wishes to trespass over a farmer’s field to get there. The only connecting link between Cassopolis and the lake was the rude road that once led to the Village of Geneva on the north shore. There were a few well-trod paths from the outskirts of town that in time were used by horse and carriages. An article in the Cassopolis Vigilant described Diamond Lake as, “a beautiful sheet of water, a resort for pleasure seekers with boats for fishing,” and, “large parts of the island were taken up with tent…from the main shore it looked like a besieging army had made an encampment on the island.”
The first State Fish Hatchery was established at the Crystal Springs Campground in Pokagon Township. (This is the oldest Methodist camp meeting ground in Michigan.) The South Bend Union proclaimed Diamond Lake as, “A noted pleasure resort with bountiful preparations for guests made by Mr. Moon. Picnic parties to rusticate to hearts content on the island for a reasonably established fee at Moon’s Landing. The railroads offer excursion rates.” It was apparent that the recreational advantages of Diamond Lake are becoming commercial, with fishing and picnicking being the primary interests. Guests came by way of the railroads with easy access to the lake from two depots.
Steam launches began service on Diamond Lake. The Cassopolis Vigilant reported, “The steam yacht ‘O.W. Powers’ bid the land goodbye forever yesterday and now walks on the waters of Diamond Lake like a thing of life.”
Fred Moon and Colonel Allen of Kalamazoo made a croquet court, a roller skating rink, an outdoor dance platform and an amphitheater on the island. Forms of illumination are added so festivities could be enjoyed after dark. Refreshment stands, bathhouses and picnic areas were increased and improved. Charles Morton purchased an interest in the lake business of Moon & Linsley and the leasing of the “Chicago House” with all of its facilities the bowling alley, dance floor, steamer boats and docks of what we know as Forest Hall went public and the competition between it and the island’s activities became evident. South Bend’s Singer Sewing Machine Company held the largest outing of the season on the island with 1600 people in attendance.
The Cassopolis Vigilant reported, “There are now sufficient buildings on Diamond Lake Island to shelter 5000 people from storms.” The Cassopolis School celebrated its first high school graduating class of two students.
The name of the “Chicago House” (also called “The Club House”) was permanently changed to “Forest Hall,” and was leased as a public resort with all of its facilities by the firm of Moon, Linsley & Morton. It has a bowling alley, dance floor at the water’s edge, steamer, boats and docks. The Island boasted of having been brilliantly illuminated by an electric light. The light was in the vicinity of the amphitheater and was augmented by lanterns and torches. A large rowing regatta was held on Diamond Lake between clubs from all over the U.S. and Canada. A gang of roughs who set fire to a tent at Forest Hall and to the steamer Gauntlet evidently to create excitement while they ransacked the rooms of guests marred the event.
The first 4th of July fireworks display was held on the lake. All businesses in Cassopolis closed at noon and the village was almost deserted, nearly everyone went to Diamond Lake. Two steamboats were operating on the lake the O.W. Powers was 65 feet long and was capable of carrying 350 people, the Gauntlet was 55 feet long and carried about 75 passengers. Steamer rides cost 20 cents for a round trip. Forest Hall and the Island shared equally in attracting visitors and offering fine opportunities for recreation.
The Island celebrated the 4th with enthusiasm by shooting off fireworks and artillery, with contests, a minstrel show, the Cassopolis band and releasing 15-foot balloons.
Almeda Moon and her son Fred Moon formed the Joliet Club on Diamond Lake Island. Members of the club built a 300 foot building on the west bank of the Island situated 100 feet from the water. The resort had doors and porches that resembled early motels. Passage was provided to and from the Island by one of the two steamers operating on the lake.
American inventor F.W. Olfeldt produces the first pleasure motorboat in the United States. It has a two horsepower motor was powered by naphtha, which turned out to be a dangerous fuel.
Tent camping began at Kamp Kozy. A single lane carriage path brought campers past the Smith farmhouse to the waters edge. Kamp Kozy was the first beach on the lake named and where Farmer Smith brought his cattle to water them every morning and evening. Businessmen from the village, camping with their families, left early in the morning in their carriages to go to work. The pier at Kamp Kozy was known as Smith’s Landing.
Captain John Bartlett purchases Diamond Lake Island and takes over operation of the Diamond Lake Island Hotel.
Captain Charles Shillaber, a retired English sea captain purchased land and built the Blink Bonnie Hotel. It was a two story building with about 20 rooms for guests, a large dining room and a nice porch on the west side. Elick Lowitz and wife Nellie are first time guests at Forest Hall. Fish stocking became a regular practice in Diamond Lake.
Diamond Lake Park (Park Shore) was platted and Diamond Lake Hotel (later called Anchorage Inn) was built. Mr. Rudd and Dr. Laughton purchased Forest Hall and turn it into a Health Resort. Mr. Rudd was a Clerk of Cass County and Dr. Laughton was a homeopath physician. Dr. Laughton was of extremely small stature with snow-white hair and used an ear trumpet.
Ida and William Rettic build the cottage “Idlewile” on land purchased from Captain Shillaber.
Diamond Lake became a favorite vacation spot for many Mishawaka residents although travel to Diamond Lake from Mishawaka by horse and buggy took most of a day.
Fred G. Eberhart, the Vice President of Ball Band in Mishawaka built the third cottage on Diamond Lake called “The Beeches.”
Diamond Lake Park was renamed Park Shore. The Hutchings family purchased the Diamond Lake Hotel and the boat landing at Park Shore. The Hutchings provided lodging, meals, bait and supplies for fishermen. One of the first telephones in the area was installed at Hutchings Landing. Cyrus Funk, a Cassopolis dentist built the “gingerbread” cottage with the tin roof on the south end of Park Shore. The Blink Bonnie Resort built a 30-foot tall toboggan slide. Water was pumped by hand to the top to provide a wet run for the sleds. James Leach purchased an 80-acre farm on the north side of the lake from James G. Hayden for $75 an acre and started the Shore Acres Hotel. J.C. Eberhart launched the first naphtha-powered boat on the lake.
Capt. Shillaber called a meeting at Sandy Beach to bring all yacht sailors together to form a Diamond Lake Yacht Club. The sailing yachts, “Marguerite,” “Priscilla,” and “Katy Van” were launched from a railway at Sandy Beach. Competitive sailing began on Diamond Lake. The water level was so low that the sand bars at Eagle Point and Willow Point are above the waterline.
J.M. Studebaker built a 22-room summer home at Sandy Beach adjacent to the Blink Bonnie Hotel. The summer home called “Crescent Surf” was built in just two weeks at a cost of $1500. The steamer Cassopoliscarried the Cassopolis band in the first 4th of July boat parade, and over 1000 people watched the fireworks display from the shore and some from boats. Mr. Ellett Hopkins built a double deck steamboat The South Bend on the shore of Diamond Lake and began service in competition with the other steam launches.
Capt. Shillaber became Diamond Lake’s first sailing instructor when he began giving sailing instructions aboard his beautiful sailing yacht, “Marguerite.” (One of his young pupils, John McKinlay, later became President of Marshal Fields & Co.) The Blink Bonnie Dance Pavilion was moved to a more prominent place on the beach. The dances were a highlight of the summer. Mr. and Mrs. Elick Lowitz of Chicago built an eight-room cottage in Park Shore at the corner of Park and Maple streets. An insulated under water telephone cable was laid to the island. Several other telephones were already in use at the lake. Ice deliveries were made from the Stone Lake Icehouse by calling #109. A telephone alarm was called into Cassopolis when a cottage in Park Shore caught fire and burnt down. EE Drake installed 12 arc lamps to light up Park Shore.
An 1863 Civil War cannon was dragged through the mud and placed on the hill at Eagle Point. (The cannon is still on the hill in the lawn of the Walter’s cottage.) There are no roads to the cottages on Eagle Point, rowboats or steamboats provide the only access. J.M. Studebaker set the first timed speed record in an automobile from South Bend to Diamond Lake, one hour and twenty minutes. A street leading to Park Shore from Cassopolis was constructed and paid for by subscription, two or three gates had to be opened and closed to get to the lake via this street. There were five resort hotels competing for the growing resort business Forest Hall, Blink Bonnie Hotel, Diamond Lake Island Hotel, Shore Acres Hotel and Diamond Lake Hotel.
Eagle Point Road was made, allowing access into Eagle Point from Brownsville Road. Captain Bartlett purchased the steamer CASSOPOLIS to go along with his other two steamers Glenn and South Bend, allowing him to corner the passenger steamboat business.
Dr. Cyrus Funk launched a new 18 ft. steel boat powered by a two horsepower gasoline engine.
The Blink Bonnie Hotel was sold, and closed a short time later. The grounds are platted as Sandy Beach. Electricity was brought into Sandy Beach under the influence of J. M. Studebaker. Windmills were replaced by electric power. An electric light line was extended from Cassopolis to light Park Shore Road all the way to the lake.
Ben Birdsell built the cottage “Somerset” in Sandy Beach. Wood salvaged from a livery stable was used to build “Hain Villa,” a fourteen-room resort hotel in Park Shore. Mrs. Hain employed a staff of 24 to maintain her lakeside resort.
Jacob Woolverton purchased the Birdsell cottage “Somerset.” (This beautiful old cottage in Sandy Beach is still in the Woolverton family and has been preserved in close to its original condition and decor by Hugh and Betty Lou Woolverton.)
J. M. Studebaker bought the Blink Bonnie Hotel and then sold half of the building to Walter Bogue for $225 and the other half to James Leach. Mr. Bogue moved his half to his farm on the north side of M-60 and refurbished it for his family home. Mr. Leach moved his half to Shore Acres where it was incorporated into an expansion of his Shore Acres Hotel.
The Carnegie Library was built on the west side of Broadway St. in Cassopolis. (This building is currently the Cass County Historical Library.)
American inventor Ole Evinrude produced the first portable outboard motor, a two horsepower gasoline powered model.
The Diamond Lake Park Improvement Association was formed with a board of directors and seventy-seven members. The purpose of the Association was the improvement of conditions about the lake and the protection of fish. Two houses were razed in the process of improving Park Shore Rd. and made a direct route from Cassopolis to Park Shore. The Association built a long wide pier for the use of its members.
The first Labor Day celebration was held on the lake with water sports and various contests. Suitable prizes were awarded. “Turk” McDermott, the World Champion Long Distance swimmer swam two complete rounds from Park Shore to the other end of the lake without stopping using his famous frog kick and the Australian Crawl. Kamp Kozy was platted and lots were offered for sale.
A road to Kamp Kozy was opened past the Smith’s red brick farmhouse at the curve in the road, and the first two cottages are built in Kamp Kozy. The hymn “The Old Rugged Cross” was completed and sung for the first time at a revival meeting in the nearby Village of Pokagon. The double-deck steamer South Bend caught fire and burned to the waterline off the north shore of the island.
A regulation baseball field was built in Park Shore and named Yost Park. The “Cassopolis” team was good and did very well against semi-pro and local independent teams. Dissatisfied with the 18 mph speed of his father’s boat, J.M. Studebaker Jr. launched a hydroplane, one of the first “fast” boats on the lake. Shore Acres Hotel completed large additions and added a dance hall.
The Association built a dance hall near the “Association Pier” in Park Shore. The dance hall was a unique nearly round structure with outside benches on all but the side facing the lake, where people could sit during intermissions or kneel and watch the dancers inside. Dances were held on Thursday and Saturday nights for Association member families, and not open to the public or maintained for profit.
Spring Beach was platted. The Shore received its name from the many natural springs found along the shoreline. The Diamond Island Hotel was closed.
A nine-hole golf course was constructed on the grounds of the Forest Hall Resort Hotel. Two holes of the Diamond Lake Golf Course were on the north side of the seldom-traveled gravel road (M-60).
Ralph Samuelson invented water skiing at Lake City, Minnesota. A cable was laid for a barge between Shore Acres and the Island, but the distance was apparently too great and too treacherous because the project was abandoned.
The Pioneer Society of Cassopolis built The Log Cabin Museum on Stone Lake. Exhibits were moved from the Court House to the new museum. The Lowitz family purchase the Gar Wood designed and built racing hydroplane “Miss Chicago” and launch her on Diamond Lake, this caused quite a stir among the local populace, as hundreds of people come to Park Shore where she was docked.
Diamond Lake’s Leigh Wade was pilot of one of three U.S. Army Air Service planes to complete the first around the world flight.
1925,p>E.J. Kloss purchases the Island and it was platted for sale as residential lots. Howell Point was platted. Construction of a bridge to the southeast side of the Island was started and many large pilings are driven before lake residents band together to halt the project.1926
Diamond Shores was platted. Forest Hall closes operations as a resort hotel but remained in use as the clubhouse for the Diamond Lake Golf Club. The Vigilant absorbs The National Democrat leaving just one weekly newspaper in Cassopolis.
A dam was constructed by the Diamond Lake Association at the outlet of Diamond Lake that fixed the lake level at 852.25 feet above sea level.
Park Shore was platted. E. L. Lowitz built the nine-hole Park Shore Golf Course with the help of farm hands. The Club House had showers, which was quite a luxury.
The Howell Estates Development Co. was formed to develop the 80-acre tract at Howell Point.
The large pilings remaining from the aborted bridge project, an eyesore for several years, were removed. They had been sticking up out of the water 10 to 15 feet.
“Hain Villa,” one of the last two resort hotels closed. Ed Yost purchased the property and converted it into four apartments.
The derelict hull of the old steamboat South Bend, left on the northeast side of the Island where it sat for many years, was towed out to deep water and blown up with dynamite.
The Forest Hall Resort Hotel was torn down and wood from the building was used to construct a new clubhouse for the Diamond Lake Golf Club. A round of golf cost 25 cents.
The new Diamond Lake Yacht Club was formed at a meeting on the front lawn of Joe Geary’s summer home with 48 members. Horace Fox was elected as the first Commodore with the objective of promoting sailboat racing and good fellowship among its membership. The Anchorage Inn, which was formerly the Diamond Lake Hotel in Park Shore mysteriously exploded and burns just before the 4th of July. Children lit their firecrackers from the smoldering embers. A severe storm suddenly struck during a Sunday DLYC race capsizing all 18 sailboats and causing some masts to break. Fortunately no one was seriously injured.
The Bidwell family purchased the old Hutchings Landing site in Park Shore and built a new store which they operate in conjunction with a dock, boat rental and picnic area. The Michigan Central railroad tracks were abandoned and the rails are taken up to provide steel for the war effort.
N.L. LaMunion purchases the marshy southeast side of the Island and has two canals dug. The digs from the canals are used to fill the marshy areas. He purchases 10 Army barracks and has them ferried to the Island to be sold as summer cottages. Four rooms are detached from the Studebaker cottage and moved to the Island on two barges pulled by a single powerboat. (Wood was scarce after WWII).
The ferryboat Diamond Island Queen operated between Eagle Point and the Island. It took six minutes to cross the 1100 feet of open water and was guided by a cable. The first marina on the lake was opened in Shore Acres and was called Clapper’s Marine Hospital. Wade’s Addition was platted.
The Diamond Lake Yacht Club opened its first clubhouse in the former Clappers Marine Hospital sales office after remodeling and refurbishment. Cassopolis’s Edward Lowe developed his cat litter box filler product called “Kitty Litter.”
Geneva Shores was platted and named after the lost village of Geneva. Clapper’s Marine Hospital was sold to “Cap” Purdy and the name was changed to Purdy Marine Company. Thorpe Marina was opened on the south side of the Island with gas pumps, dock space, boat hoist, warehouse and picnic area.
Diamond Cove was platted. Diamond Lake had the largest registered Snipe fleet in the world with 45 sailboats. The DLYC Nipper fleet was introduced with nine sailboats.
The barge to the island ceased to operate after the death of Mr. Kloss who owned most of the island and operated the barge. Diamond Island Association was formed.
N.L. LaMunion purchases the remaining undeveloped portions of the Island and the barge was reactivated on the south side of the Island connecting the Island with Carleton Drive.
The Barko family purchased the Park Shore Golf Course.
A biological survey was made of Diamond Lake. One finding of the survey was that Diamond Lake was not suitable for trout because the cool water strata is deficient of oxygen during the summer season. The first aluminum pontoon boat designed by Godfrey Marine was launched on the lake. There are 262 waterfront cottages on the mainland and 24 on the Island. (Old-time Island residents dispute this number as being too low.) There are also 69 boathouses at the waters edge. Most roads to the lake are unimproved with only M-60 and Eagle Point Road paved.
An attempt was made to build a road to the Island. The Diamond Lake Yacht Club and other Lake Organizations combined their legal talent and financial aid to stop the project. Walt Bieneman worked on a Bill prohibiting bridges and causeways to be built across lakes less than 1500 acres in area, which was passed by the Michigan Legislature.
The Studebaker Corp. used the Diamond Island barge in their ads introducing the new Lark model automobile. Click here for picture of this ad.
The old Shore Acres Hotel was renovated with a modern contemporary addition and opened as the Diamond Harbor Inn Restaurant and Gift Shop. Dave and Danny Herman purchased the Bidwell store and grounds in Park Shore and open the Park Shore Marina. Jack Mell completed a three-year scientific study of bass fishing in Diamond Lake, and the findings of this study were published in Outdoor Life Magazine.
The marina in Shore Acres, called the Purdy Marine Company, was sold to the Newall family and the name was changed to Diamond Lake Marina.
The Lowitz and Hepler families began sponsoring the 4th of July fireworks displays shot from the point in Shore Acres.
Some of the Diamond Island residents formed The Diamond Island Lake Corporation and purchased the remaining undeveloped portion of the Island from N.L. LaMunion in order to preserve it in its natural state.
The dam was relocated to a new site just west of Eagle Point Road as part of a plan by developer Karl Jones to dredge the marsh and wildlife areas on the south side of the lake. The Jones plan to create a 46 home site Sail Bay area followed by a Yacht Bay area with over 400 home sites became a very controversial issue and was met with stiff opposition. The dredging and platting of Sail Bay was completed. The Gem Theater was razed in Cassopolis. It had been a landmark for 127 years used first as the courthouse and then as a movie theater for the previous 40 years. Thorpe’s Marina on the Island ceased operations.
Steve Palatinus and John Landaw purchase the Park Shore Marina. The first Hobie Cat catamaran was launched on Diamond Lake. The grave of Job Wright, the first white inhabitant of the Island, is located in Prospect Hill Cemetery by Dr. Ray Spenner and a marker was placed at the site.
A Diamond Sparkles, a 232 page hardbound edition of Diamond Lake history written by Lois Webster Welch, was published. The Diamond Lake Yacht Club built a new clubhouse on Shore Acres Road next to the Diamond Harbor Inn. The Cass County Health Department in cooperation with the Diamond Lake Yacht Club conducted a pollution survey and control program for Diamond Lake.
The first sewer plans are developed.
Dr. Fred Matthews and Earl Marhanka bought Diamond Harbor Inn from Mr. Charles Zeman.
Twenty-five condominium units were built in the Colony Bay area on the southeast side of the lake.
Wayne Meagher launched “Diamond Belle,” an 18-foot steam powered boat complete with a steam calliope. The boat was an instant hit with residents who enjoyed seeing and hearing the boat make its almost daily trips around the lake in the summer.
Scuba divers Zoltan and Diane Tiser and some friends discover the wreck of the old steamboat South Bendoff the northeast point of the Island.
A Grumman “Widgeon” amphibian plane makes a hard landing on Diamond Lake damaging the fuselage. The plane began taking on water making it too heavy to lift off again. After several attempts to bail water and take off, the plane sank in over 50 feet of water near the island. The pilot was rescued, and a team of divers using flotation devices later salvaged the plane. The Lowitz and Hepler families end their sponsorship of the 4th of July fireworks display and Louie Beehler took over with financial support from Diamond Lake residents.
The new Diamond Lake Association was formed. The Edward Lowe Foundation was created to provide education, information, research, and assistance to small businesses.
Divers Jim Couch, Dave Yates, Bill Archer and Zoltan Tiser do an underwater reconstruction of the steamboat South Bend. The old 60-foot boat was a favorite dive site. A buoy marker with the words “Ship Wreck” was placed near the bow section that is about 40 feet below the surface.
One half of the old Blink Bonnie Hotel was moved from the former Walter Bogue farm on M-60 to the Big Rock Valley Farm complex on the east side of Decatur Rd. and was restored.
The Diamond Lake sewer system was completed.
The Diamond Lake Newspaper On and Around the Water was established for the purpose of better lake communication and to preserve and develop the history of Diamond Lake. Zebra Mussels were found for the first time in Diamond Lake.
Diamond Lake property owners got a welcome tax reduction with the enactment of Michigan’s new property tax law.
The Diamond Lake Association took over responsibility for the 4th of July fireworks celebration under Doug Horstmann.
A survey of watercraft on Diamond Lake showed that there were 430 powerboats, 224 jet skis, 213 pontoon/deck boats, 165 rowboats with motors, 148 pedal boats 70 rowboats without motors, 74 Sunfish sailboats, 53 M Class sailboats, 41 Hobie Cat sailboats, 31 Butterfly sailboats, 63 other type sailboats, 48 canoes, 11 windsurfers, 7 rowing shells, 5 kayaks, 1 steamboat, and 1 barge.
The Diamond Lake Yacht Club celebrated its 60th anniversary with an Art Show, a Vintage Boat Show and a Lake Home Tour.
The Council on Aging opened their new facility, The Edward Lowe Center, on Decatur Road. The Diamond Lake Marina closed operations on Shore Acres Rd. leaving Park Shore Marina as the only waterfront marina.
Louis and Donna Csokasy, founded the Diamond Lake Orchard off of Eagle Point Road, fulfilling Mr. Csokasy’s dream of having his own apple orchard.
The barge transfers the first modular home to the Island. The Village of Cassopolis attempts to annex Park Shore and Howell Point. The Diamond Lake Association purchases Fireworks Island on behalf of the lake residents. The uninhabitable remaining part of the Diamond Island Hotel was torn down.
Diamond Lake Orchard expands to include cherry trees, and plans on adding peaches.
Formation (1969) Edit
Grand Funk Railroad was formed as a trio in 1969 by Mark Farner (guitar, keyboards, harmonica, vocals) and Don Brewer (drums, vocals) from Terry Knight and the Pack, and Mel Schacher (bass) from Question Mark & the Mysterians.  Knight soon became the band's manager and also named the band as a play on words for the Grand Trunk Western Railroad, a well-known rail line in Michigan.  First achieving recognition at the 1969 Atlanta International Pop Festival, the band was signed by Capitol Records. After a raucous, well-received set on the first day of the festival, Grand Funk was asked back to play at the 1970 Atlanta International Pop Festival II the following year. Patterned after hard-rock power trios such as Cream, the band, with Terry Knight's marketing savvy, developed its own popular style. In August 1969 the band released its first album titled On Time, which sold over one million copies and was awarded a gold record in 1970. 
In February 1970 a second album, Grand Funk (or The Red Album), was awarded gold status.  Despite critical pans and little airplay, the group's first six albums (five studio releases and one live album) were quite successful.
Early 1970s Edit
The hit single "I'm Your Captain (Closer to Home)", from the album Closer to Home, released in June 1970, was considered stylistically representative of Terry Knight and the Pack's recordings. In the spring of 1970, Knight launched an intensive advertising campaign to promote the album Closer to Home.  That album was certified multiplatinum despite a lack of critical approval.  The band spent $100,000 on a New York City Times Square billboard to advertise Closer to Home. 
By 1971, Grand Funk equalled the Beatles' Shea Stadium attendance record, but sold out the venue in just 72 hours whereas the Beatles concert took a few weeks to sell out.  Following Closer to Home, The double disc Live Album was also released later in 1970, and was another gold disc recipient.  Survival and E Pluribus Funk were both released in 1971. E Pluribus Funk celebrated the Shea Stadium show with an embossed depiction of the stadium on the album cover's reverse.
By late 1971, the band was concerned with Knight's managerial style and fiscal responsibility. This growing dissatisfaction led Grand Funk Railroad to fire Knight in early 1972. Knight sued for breach of contract, which resulted in a protracted legal battle. At one point, Knight repossessed the band's gear before a gig at Madison Square Garden. In VH1's Behind the Music Grand Funk Railroad episode, Knight stated that the original contract would have run out in about three months, and that the smart decision for the band would have been to just wait out the time.  However, at that moment, the band members felt they had no choice but to continue and fight for the rights to their careers and name. The legal battle with Knight lasted two years and ended when the band settled out of court. Knight came out the clear winner with the copyrights and publisher's royalties to every Grand Funk recording made from March 1969 through March 1972, not to mention a large payoff in cash and oil wells. Farner, Brewer and Schacher were given the rights to the name Grand Funk Railroad. 
In 1972 Grand Funk Railroad added Craig Frost on keyboards full-time. Originally, the band had attempted to attract Peter Frampton, late of Humble Pie however, he was not available due to signing a solo record deal with A&M Records. The addition of Frost, however, was a stylistic shift from Grand Funk's original garage-band based rock and roll roots to a more rhythm and blues/pop rock-oriented style. With the new lineup, Grand Funk released Phoenix, its sixth album of original music, in September 1972. 
To refine Grand Funk's sound, the band then secured veteran musician Todd Rundgren as a producer. Its two most successful albums and two number-one hit singles resulted: the Don Brewer-penned "We're an American Band" (from the number two album We're an American Band, released in July 1973) and "The Loco-Motion" (from their 1974 number five album Shinin' On, written by Carole King and Gerry Goffin and originally recorded by Little Eva).  "We're an American Band" became Grand Funk's first number-one hit on Farner's 25th birthday, followed by Brewer's number-19 hit "Walk Like a Man". "The Loco-Motion" in 1974 was Grand Funk's second chart-topping single, followed by Brewer's number-11 hit "Shinin' On". The band continued touring the U.S., Europe and Japan. 
In 1974 Grand Funk engaged Jimmy Ienner as producer and reverted to using their full name: Grand Funk Railroad. The cover of All the Girls in the World Beware. (December 1974) depicted the band members' heads superimposed on the bodies of Arnold Schwarzenegger and Franco Columbu. This album spawned the band's last two top-10 hits, "Some Kind of Wonderful" and "Bad Time" in late 1974/early 1975.
Although they were highly successful in the mid-1970s, tensions mounted within the band due to personal issues, burn-out and disputes over musical direction. Despite these issues, Grand Funk forged ahead. Needing two more albums to complete their record deal with Capitol, Grand Funk embarked on a major tour and decided to record a double live album, Caught in the Act (August 1975). 
The double album should have fulfilled the contract with Capitol however, because it contained previously released material, Capitol requested an additional album to complete Grand Funk's contractual obligation. While pressures between the band members still existed, the members agreed to move forward and complete one more album for Capitol to avoid legalities similar to the ones that they endured with Terry Knight in 1972. The band recorded Born to Die (January 1976), but its lower sales (it only managed to reach #47 on the Billboard chart) and lack of hit singles disappointed the group. They began to drift apart and a breakup was rumored. 
However, Grand Funk found new life from interest by Frank Zappa in producing the band. Signing with MCA Records, the resulting album Good Singin', Good Playin' (August 1976), though it netted them some of their best critical reviews ever, yielded little success.  After this, a totally disillusioned Grand Funk Railroad decided to disband in earnest in late 1976.  Farner recalled what happened at that time: "Things were disenfranchised within the band. I don't want to speculate about what was going on in Brewer's life—his first wife died, and that was rough—but one day he walked into the studio and said, 'I've had it. I need to find something to do with my life that's more stable.' He was done. He walked out and slammed the door. It was him, not me. Everybody thinks I broke the band up, but it was him." 
Disbanded, 1976–1981 new lineup in the early 1980s Edit
Following the breakup, Farner began a solo career and signed with Atlantic Records, which resulted in two albums: Mark Farner (1977) and No Frills (1978). Brewer, Schacher and Frost remained intact and formed the band Flint. Flint released one 1978 album on Columbia Records a second record was finished but never released.
After being approached in 1980 by their former manager Andy Caviliere (who had taken over from Terry Knight in 1972), Grand Funk Railroad reunited in February 1981 without Frost (who was playing with Bob Seger) and with Dennis Bellinger replacing Schacher on bass. Schacher begged off saying he had developed a fear of flying but later confided that he had no longer wanted to be involved with Caviliere. 
The new line-up released two albums on Irving Azoff's Full Moon label, distributed by Warner Bros. Records. These releases included Grand Funk Lives (July 1981) and What's Funk? (January 1983).  Neither album achieved much in the way of critical acclaim or sales but the single "Queen Bee" was included in the film Heavy Metal and its soundtrack album. 
The band toured in 1981 and 1982 with Rick Baker joining them on the road to play keyboards. But the dismal sales of Grand Funk Lives and the death of manager Caviliere in 1982 caused the group to disband a second time in early 1983, shortly after What's Funk? was released. 
Farner continued as a solo performer and became a Christian recording artist while Brewer went on to join Frost in Bob Seger's Silver Bullet Band.  Farner was promoted by David Fishof in the late 1980s and was a part of Fishof's concept Ringo Starr & His All-Starr Band in 1995. After that, Fishof began sounding out Farner, Brewer and Schacher about reuniting again. 
Disbanded, 1983–1996 re-formation, 1996–present Edit
After some rehearsals in late 1995, Grand Funk Railroad's three original members (joined on tour by keyboardist/guitarist and background vocalist Howard Eddy, Jr.) once again reunited in 1996 and played to 500,000 people during a three-year period. 
In 1997 the band played three sold-out Bosnian benefit concerts. These shows featured a full symphony orchestra that was conducted by Paul Shaffer (from Late Show with David Letterman). The band released a live two-disc benefit CD called Bosnia recorded in Auburn Hills, Michigan. This live recording also featured Peter Frampton, Alto Reed and Howard Eddy Jr.
In late 1998, Farner left the band and returned to his solo career.
After this, two years passed before the two remaining members recruited some well-regarded players to reform the band. Lead vocalist Max Carl (of 38 Special), former Kiss lead guitarist Bruce Kulick and keyboardist Tim Cashion (Bob Seger, Robert Palmer) completed the new lineup.
In 2005 Grand Funk Railroad was voted into the Michigan Rock and Roll Legends Hall of Fame. 
In 2018 bassist Stanley Sheldon (ex-Peter Frampton) sat in for Schacher, who lost his wife, Dena, to cancer. 
Grand Funk Railroad continues to tour, and kicked off its "The American Band Tour 2019", "Celebrating 50 Years of Funk" tour on January 17, 2019. 
On June 25, 2019 The New York Times Magazine listed Grand Funk Railroad among hundreds of artists whose material was reportedly destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire. 
David Fricke of Rolling Stone magazine once said, "You cannot talk about rock in the 1970s without talking about Grand Funk Railroad!"  
- United States
- Swings: R
- Turned Pro: 1981
- PGA Debut 1982
- College University of Maryland
- Birth Date June 14, 1956 (Age: 65)
- Birthplace Takoma Park, Maryland
- Height 5-8
- Weight 165 lbs.
Bermuda Championship - Oct 29 - Nov 1, 2020
FRED FUNK NEWS FEED
Smith takes Encompass lead with 8-under round
Jerry Smith matched a tournament record with an 8-under-par 64 Saturday to take a three-shot lead after the second round of the Encompass Championship.
Funk, 64, shines Armour, Clark lead in Bermuda
While Ryan Armour and Wyndham Clark hold the lead at the Bermuda Championship, 64-year-old Fred Funk stole the spotlight Friday by shooting a 72 to make the cut.
Pernice, Goydos, Bryant share Allianz lead
Tom Pernice Jr. closed with a double bogey for a 6-under 66 and a share of the first-round lead Friday in the Allianz Championship with Paul Goydos and Bart Bryant.
Funk takes 2nd-round Regions Tradition lead
After shooting a 7-under 65 on Friday, Fred Funk took the second-round lead in the Regions Tradition.
Leaney leads Funk seeks Tour Champions record
While Stephen Leaney leads the Chubb Classic by a stroke over Bernhard Langer heading into Sunday's final round, it's Fred Funk looking to make history. Two shots back, Funk looks to become the oldest competitor to win a PGA Tour Champions event.
Goydos closes out Allianz Championship win
Paul Goydos closed with a birdie for a 3-under 69 and a one-stroke victory over Gene Sauers on Sunday in the Champions Tour's Allianz Championship.
Frost makes two eagles for 62, leads in Calgary
David Frost made two eagles and shot a bogey-free 8-under 62 on Friday to take the first-round lead in the PGA Tour Champions' Shaw Charity Classic.
Janzen among four tied for Encompass lead
Lee Janzen shot a 7-under 65 at North Shore Country Club to share the first-round lead in the Encompass Championship with Fred Funk, David Frost and Brad Bryant.
Funk keeps 1-shot lead at Regions Tradition
Sixty-year-old Fred Funk maintained the Regions Tradition lead Saturday after shooting a 2-under 70 in the third round of the first PGA Tour Champions major tournament of the year.
Bohn takes lead into final round in Mexico
Jason Bohn looked out toward the ocean Saturday and knew it was going to be tough day at the OHL Classic. He kept it together long enough to take the lead.
2 players are tied for the most holes in one in PGA Tour history
There isn’t just one golfer that holds the record for most holes in one in PGA Tour history. It’s actually two players tied at the top. Robert Allenby and Hal Sutton are tied for the most aces in Tour history with 10. No one else has reached double digits.
Allenby won four times on the PGA Tour during his career. He still plays professionally today at the age of 48. If he can make one more ace on Tour, he’ll take the top spot by himself.
Sutton won 14 times on Tour, including two wins at The Players. He’s most famous for his “be the right club today!” moment on the 18th hole of TPC Sawgrass in 2000. It turned out to be the right club, and Sutton went on to win the tournament over a charging Tiger Woods.
Because of Her Story: The Funk List
It is with heavy hearts that we say goodbye to Dr. Vicki Funk, a botanist at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, and advisor to the American Women's History Initiative (AWHI), who died October 22, 2019. Dr. Funk was Curator of Asteraceae (daisies for the non-scientists) in the Botany Department for a stunning 38 years. She has over 280 publications credited to her as either lead or contributing author. She was named as an AAAS Fellow in 1987 and received the Linnaean Society's Linneaen Medal for Botany and the American Society of Plant Taxonimist's Asa Gray Award over the past several months.
Effie Kapsalis, AWHI's digital strategist, shares her reflections on Dr. Funk's work to ensure Smithsonian women in STEM received the recognition they deserve:
On March 27 th , 2014, I added Dr. Funk's name to a worklist for a Wikipedia edit-a-thon held at the Smithsonian Institution Archives on the history of women in STEM. I know this because of the page "edit history" on Wikipedia. Her article was written at an event that same month for women's history month. I followed up by featuring her as a "Women in Science Wednesday" in the Archives' weekly feature of notable woman in science. The Women in Science Wednesday campaign was a way to make quick "secondary sources" for Wikipedia which editors rely on for the references in articles.
Women in Science Wednesday: Dr. Vicki Funk
I didn't meet Dr. Funk until we were both serving on AWHI's coordinating committee (the Smithsonian has over 6,300 employees). She approached me after one of those meetings and said, "You're the one who got my article written." She went on to describe how her niece saw the page and called her to say she was impressed her aunt was "on Wikipedia", and that she had gained a little "cred". That moment solidified for me the importance of being named and acknowledged, and additionally left me daunted by how much work we had to do with only 18% of biographies on Wikipedia about women.
Dr. Funk and I, along with Pam Henson and Tammy Peters at the Archives, hatched a plan to apply to the AWHI Curatorial Pool Fund to hire a digital curator to write a comprehensive history of women in science in America with Smithsonian women scientists as a case study. In the meantime, Dr. Funk got to work and reached out to her network of dozens of scientists to write down, in a shared spreadsheet, "female firsts and seconds" in their various disciplines, from astrophysics to zoology. She then had her summer intern write Wikipedia notability statements for this list of over 125 names.
This list of notable Smithsonian women in science was crowd-sourced by Dr. Vicki Funk with Smithsonian staff.
Today, the list, which I've referred to as the "spreadsheet of awesomeness", has grown to over 400 names due to the work of Dr. Elizabeth Harmon, a digital curator at our Smithsonian Institution Archives. The Smithsonian's data scientists in our Research Computing Division have already computed against this list to compile the "life's work" of these women, aggregating publications, collections, and archives across the Smithsonian. When it is complete, we will seed hundreds of Wikipedia articles.
It was started with Dr. Funk's spirit, can-do attitude, and the desire to highlight many other women who helped to build in-roads into the field of science. From today on, the list will be called "The Funk List".