Thomas Graham - History

Thomas Graham  - History

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Thomas Graham

(Tr: t. 202; 1. 115'6"; b. 22'2"' dph. 12'2", s. 10 k.;cl. "Strath' )

Thomas Graham—a steel-hulled screw steam trawler built in 1918 at Bowling, Scotland, by Scott and Sons, for the British Admiralty—was leased by the Navy for service with the North Sea Minesweeping Detachment in May 1919. Based at Kirkwall, Scotland, she served with the detachment into the summer of 1919. Apparently, the ship's last official duty was to transport the body of Capt. Roscoe C. Bulmer, the commander of the North Sea Minesweeping Detachment, from Kirkwall to Inverness, Scotland. Capt. Bulmer had been severely injured in an automobile accident at Kirkwall on 4 August 1919 and had died on board Black Nawk (Destroyer Tender No. 9) on the following day.

Thomas Graham was returned to the Admiralty on 7 August.


Elizabeth Graham, my Grandmother wife of James Graham Glenwherry, her great Great Grandfather Alex Graham took part on the attack on Belfast Military barracks in 1737, and folklore has it that he was the man who shot the sovereign (Mayor) dead, during the 'Heart's Of Steel' disturbances, hence his family became known for generations as the "Sovereign Graham's'.

Ann Graham, 1st of Elizabeth's and James three children

Richard Graham, served in 1st W.W. second child of Elizabeth and James. Was later O.C of the I.R.A during pogroms in Ballinahinch, Co. Down. 1920's. In the USA he joined with Cathal O'Byrne, as Cathal's musical support to raise funds through travelling concerts to raise money there to build houses for Catholics who had been burned from their homes in ther pogrom, Amcomria Street, Beechmount was one such street of new houses.

My Father aged 17 at Los Angeles

James Graham, my father,3rd child of Elizabeth and James, Served in Irish Army.

Catherine 'Kitty' Graham (nee Mullan), My mother and reared in Ardoyne. Her family originated from Toomebridge County Antrim Came from proud Irish Catholic Republican background. She was named after her grandmother Catherine Mullan.

My Sister Bridie, eldest of 12 Children

My Sister Patsy

My Sister, Elizabeth. (Betty)

My Brother Richard, Richard escaped from the Crumlin Road Prison in Belfast 7th June 1957, a prison that was at the time said to be the most secure jail in Ireland and the U.K. Very individualistic and non conformist

My Sister Annie

My Brother Paddy

My Sister Myrtle, 1965

My Sister Geraldine

My Sister Myrtle Doris, 1951

My Brothers, Twins, Brian & Noel

James Graham, my Father,Very Proud Irish Catholic yet as proud of his Irish Presbyterian roots

My Fathers Grave

Joe and daughter Deborah at my father's Coventry Grave February 2007

Joe, Richard and Brian at fathers grave.2007

My Brother Hughie at Fathers Grave

My Mother's Grave. Milltown.

Joe Graham,April 1981, on Los Angeles Radio putting lie to the black propaganda about the Hunger Strikers which was being peddled by Adam Butler of the British Government and N.I.O around California TV and Radio.

My Grandchildren

Deborah and Simon

Click above for more Graham Genealogy

Dr. Thomas Graham

Dr. Graham has been with Flagler College since 1973. He presently is Professor Emeritus of History in the Humanities Department.

He received his PhD in history from the University of Florida in 1973. His MA and BA degrees came from Florida State University in 1967 and 1965.

Dr. Graham's research interest is in Nineteenth Century United States History. He is the author of Flagler's St. Augustine Hotels (Pineapple Press, 2004), The Awakening of St. Augustine (St. Augustine Historical Society, 1978), Charles H. Jones, Journalist and Politician of the Gilded Age (University Presses of Florida, 1990) and Mr. Flagler's St. Augustine. Jones founded the Jacksonville, Florida Times-Union in the 1880s.

He is a past president and honorary life member of the St. Augustine Historical Society and has served on the Board of Directors of the Florida Historical Society.

Born in Miami in 1943, his family tree reaches back through the Sanchez and Alvarez families to the early 1600s in St. Augustine.

Black Enterprise , October 1996, p. 60 September 2001, p. 80 February 2005, p. 112.

Boston Globe , June 6, 1999, p. N5 December 4, 2001, p. D1.

Boston Herald , May 17, 1998, p. 67.

BusinessWeek , October 9, 2000, p. 206 October 3, 2005, p. 48 October 10, 2005, p. 95.

Business Wire, July 24, 2001.

Daily News (New York, NY), September 20, 2005, p. 54.

Multichannel News , January 28, 2002, p. 22W.

New York Times , April 3, 1998, p. B2 May 2, 1999, sec. 3, p. 2 July 18, 1999, sec. 14WC, p. 3 September 20, 2005, p. C8.

Dublin Core



In interview 1, Graham discussed his authorship of a forthcoming book on nuclear-free zones the negotiations that led to the extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1995 his memories of learning the art of diplomacy and the path that he took to becoming an arms control negotiator. He then shared his experience of having been politically persecuted for his work commented on Linus Pauling's anti-nuclear activism and praised President Barack Obama's activities with regard to nuclear non-proliferation.

From there, Graham relayed his memories of negotiating on behalf of multiple presidential administrations, and spoke of his work to ban the use of chemical and biological weapons. The interview concluded with Graham's thoughts on climate change, including the crucial role that nuclear power might play in reducing the world's dependence on fossil fuels.

From 1970 to 1997, Ambassador Graham was a participant in the negotiation of every major arms control and nonproliferation agreement that involved the United States. During this same time period, he engaged in diplomatic discussions with representatives of more than one hundred countries.

Dublin Core



In interview 2, Graham discussed his early years, including his family's involvement in politics, the shaping of his political perspective, and his first work in law and government. He then commented on the attempt, in 1993, to eliminate the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) the Reagan-era struggle over the Anti-Ballistic Missiles treaty that was ushered in by the advancement of the Strategic Defense Initiative, also known as "Star Wars" and his own personal memories of being denounced by political foes who harbored vested interests against his work. Next, he reflected on the ultimate dissolution of ACDA in 1999 and the role played by Sen. Jesse Helms in bringing about the agency's demise.

Later on in the session, Graham spoke of participating in a group called Republicans for Obama provided a lengthy remembrance of the negotiations that led to the signing and ratification of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe in the early 1990s and shared his recollections of the collapse of the Soviet bloc in Eastern Europe, including his personal experience of observing the final departure of Communist ministers from Prague. The interview concluded with Graham's reflections on the role that ACDA played in defending the nuclear test ban moratorium, including a pivotal decision related to Chinese nuclear testing ambitions. He also responded to a closing question asking for advice that he would offer to those hoping to rid the world of nuclear weapons.

From 1970 to 1997, Ambassador Graham was a participant in the negotiation of every major arms control and nonproliferation agreement that involved the United States. During this same time period, he engaged in diplomatic discussions with representatives of more than one hundred countries.

Thomas Graham - History

A few of the physical properties of gases depend on the identity of the gas. One of these physical properties can be seen when the movement of gases is studied.

In 1829 Thomas Graham used an apparatus similar to the one shown in Figure 4.15 to study the diffusion of gases -- the rate at which two gases mix. This apparatus consists of a glass tube sealed at one end with plaster that has holes large enough to allow a gas to enter or leave the tube. When the tube is filled with H2 gas, the level of water in the tube slowly rises because the H2 molecules inside the tube escape through the holes in the plaster more rapidly than the molecules in air can enter the tube. By studying the rate at which the water level in this apparatus changed, Graham was able to obtain data on the rate at which different gases mixed with air.

Graham found that the rates at which gases diffuse is inversely proportional to the square root of their densities.

This relationship eventually became known as Graham's law of diffusion.

To understand the importance of this discovery we have to remember that equal volumes of different gases contain the same number of particles. As a result, the number of moles of gas per liter at a given temperature and pressure is constant, which means that the density of a gas is directly proportional to its molecular weight. Graham's law of diffusion can therefore also be written as follows.

Similar results were obtained when Graham studied the rate of effusion of a gas, which is the rate at which the gas escapes through a pinhole into a vacuum. The rate of effusion of a gas is also inversely proportional to the square root of either the density or the molecular weight of the gas.

Graham's law of effusion can be demonstrated with the apparatus shown below. A thick-walled filter flask is evacuated with a vacuum pump. A syringe is filled with 25 mL of gas and the time required for the gas to escape through the syringe needle into the evacuated filter flask is measured with a stop watch. The experimental data in the table below were obtained by using a special needle with a very small (0.015 cm) hole through which the gas could escape.

The Time Required for 25-mL Samples of Different Gases to Escape through a 0.015 cm Hole into a Vacuum

Compound Time (s) Molecular Weight
H2 5.1 2.02
He 7.2 4.00
NH3 14.2 17.0
air 18.2 29.0
O2 19.2 32.0
CO2 22.5 44.0
SO2 27.4 64.1

As we can see when these data are graphed below, the time required for 25-mL samples of different gases to escape into a vacuum is proportional to the square root of the molecular weight of the gas. The rate at which the gases effuse is therefore inversely proportional to the square root of the molecular weight. Graham's observations about the rate at which gases diffuse (mix) or effuse (escape through a pinhole) suggest that relatively light gas particles such as H2 molecules or He atoms move faster than relatively heavy gas particles such as CO2 or SO2 molecules.

A graph of the time required for 25-mL samples of different gases to escape into an evacuated flask versus the square root of the molecular weight of the gas. Relatively heavy molecules move more slowly, and it takes more time for the gas to escape.

The kinetic molecular theory can be used to explain the results Graham obtained when he studied the diffusion and effusion of gases. The key to this explanation is the last postulate of the kinetic theory, which assumes that the temperature of a system is proportional to the average kinetic energy of its particles and nothing else. In other words, the temperature of a system increases if and only if there is an increase in the average kinetic energy of its particles.

Two gases, such as H2 and O2, at the same temperature, therefore, must have the same average kinetic energy. This can be represented by the following equation.

This equation can be simplified by multiplying both sides by two.

It can then be rearranged to give the following.

Taking the square root of both sides of this equation gives a relationship between the ratio of the velocities at which the two gases move and the square root of the ratio of their molecular weights.

This equation is a modified form of Graham's law. It suggests that the velocity (or rate) at which gas molecules move is inversely proportional to the square root of their molecular weights.

Graham History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The distinguished Graham family, which is thoroughly woven into the intricate tapestry of Scottish history, finds its origin with the proud Norman people. The name comes from the place Grantham in Lincolnshire, recorded in Domesday Book as Graham.

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Early Origins of the Graham family

The surname Graham was first found in Midlothian, where they settled after accompanying Earl David of Huntingdon into Scotland during the 12th century. In 1128, King David I granted the lands of Abercorn and Dalkeith to William de Graham, who is the first recorded member of the Graham Clan in Scotland and was witness to several royal charters.

Henry de Graham inherited the estates of his father-in-law in Eskdale in 1243. Sir John de Grahame was a faithful companion of the Scottish patriot Sir William Wallace and was killed at the Battle of Falkirk in 1298.

"[Grahamston] derives its name from Sir John the Graham, who was killed here in the battle which Wallace fought with Edward I." [1]

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Early History of the Graham family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Graham research. Another 422 words (30 lines of text) covering the years 1086, 1128, 1237, 1298, 1488, 1427, 1707, 1450, 1603, 1715, 1745, 1782, 1464, 1513, 1505, 1548, 1608, 1612, 1650, 1648, 1689, 1648, 1695, 1634, 1694, 1702, 1680, 1689 and are included under the topic Early Graham History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

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Graham Spelling Variations

Spelling variations of this family name include: Graham, Grahame, Graeme, Grame, Greumach (Gaelic), Montross and many more.

Early Notables of the Graham family (pre 1700)

Notable among the family at this time was William Graham, 4th Lord Graham (1464-1513), who became the Earl of Montrose in 1505 John Graham (1548-1608), 3rd Earl of Montrose was the Chancellor of the University of St Andrews James Graham (1612-1650), 5th Earl and 1st Marquess of Montrose, a Scottish general in the English Civil Wars, who fought for the Royalists of Charles.
Another 63 words (4 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Graham Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Graham family to Ireland

Some of the Graham family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 62 words (4 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Graham migration +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Graham Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • Ant Graham who settled in Virginia in 1651
  • And Graham, who arrived in Virginia in 1651 [2]
  • Donell Graham, who landed in Virginia in 1655 [2]
  • Elizabeth Graham, who landed in Maryland in 1676 [2]
  • Jane Graham, who landed in Maryland in 1677 [2]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Graham Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • Francis Graham, who landed in New England in 1719 [2]
  • Jo Graham, who settled in Georgia in 1733
  • Catharine Graham, who arrived in New York, NY in 1738 [2]
  • Eliz Graham, who arrived in New York in 1738 [2]
  • Angus Graham, who arrived in New York in 1740 [2]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Graham Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • James W Graham, who landed in New York in 1801 [2]
  • Alexander Graham, aged 34, who landed in New York, NY in 1803 [2]
  • Humphry Graham, aged 50, who landed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1804 [2]
  • Gilbert Graham, who landed in America in 1804 [2]
  • Joanna Graham, who landed in America in 1805 [2]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Graham migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Graham Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
  • Augustine Graham, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1749
  • Donald Graham, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1773
  • Donald Graham, who arrived in Pictou, Nova Scotia in 1773
  • Mr. Mires Graham U.E. (b. 1764) who arrived at Annapolis Royal, Annapolis County, Nova Scotia c. 1782 he died in 1833 in Centreville, Digby County, Nova Scotia, married to Anna Waggoner they had 4 children [3]
  • Mr. Oliver Graham U.E. who settled in Eastern District [Cornwall], Ontario c. 1784 [3]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Graham Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
  • Elizabeth Graham, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1814
  • Elizabeth Graham, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1821
  • Duncan Graham, who arrived in Canada in 1832
  • Sarah Graham, aged 40, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the brig "William" from Cork, Ireland
  • Catherine Graham, aged 18, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Quintin Leitch" in 1833
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Graham migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Graham Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • Mr. John Graham, (b. 1786), aged 15, Irish convict who was convicted in Dublin, Ireland for 7 years, transported aboard the "Atlas" on 29th November 1801, arriving in New South Wales, Australia, he died in 1859 [4]
  • Miss. Mary Ann Graham, Irish convict who was convicted in Cork, Ireland for 7 years, transported aboard the "Atlas" on 29th November 1801, arriving in New South Wales, Australia[4]
  • Mr. John Graham, Scottish convict who was convicted in Perth, Scotland for 14 years, transported aboard the "Caledonia" in 19th June 1822, arriving in Tasmania ( Van Diemen's Land) [5]
  • Thomas Graham, a cabinet-maker, who arrived in New South Wales, Australia sometime between 1825 and 1832
  • William Graham, a weaver, who arrived in Van Diemen’s Land (now Tasmania) sometime between 1825 and 1832
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Graham migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:

Graham Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century
  • Thomas Graham, who landed in Bay of Islands, New Zealand in 1836
  • David Graham, who landed in Auckland, New Zealand in 1840
  • George Graham, who landed in Auckland, New Zealand in 1840
  • W S Graham, who landed in Auckland, New Zealand in 1840
  • Mr. Graham, Australian settler travelling from Sydney aboard the ship "Bee" arriving in Bay of Islands, North Island, New Zealand in 1840 [6]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Contemporary Notables of the name Graham (post 1700) +

  • Katharine Meyer Graham (1917-2001), American publisher of The Washington Post her memoir, Personal History, won the Pulitzer Prize in 1998 and she received the Presidential Medal of Freedom
  • Martha Graham (1894-1991), American dancer, choreographer and recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom
  • William Franklin "Billy" Graham KBE Jr. (1918-2018), American evangelical Christian evangelist and an ordained Southern Baptist minister, host of the annual Billy Graham Crusades (1947-2005), spiritual adviser to every president from Harry Truman to Barack Obama
  • Julia "Julie" Graham (b. 1965), Scottish television and film actress, known for her roles in The Bletchley Circle and Shetland
  • Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham (1852-1936), Scottish author and politician
  • Elizabeth Jennings Graham (1827-1901), American civil rights figure who insisted on her right to ride on a New York City streetcar in 1854, leading to the desegregation of New York City transit systems
  • Andrew Alexander Kenny "Alec" Graham (1929-2021), English Anglican bishop for the Diocese of Newcastle (1981-1997)
  • Lawrence Otis Graham (1961-2021), American attorney and New York Times best-selling author
  • Ronald Lewis Graham (1935-2020), American mathematician credited by the American Mathematical Society as "one of the principal architects of the rapid development worldwide of discrete mathematics in recent years"
  • Chuck Graham (1965-2020), American politician in the Democratic Party
  • . (Another 32 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Historic Events for the Graham family +

Arrow Air Flight 1285
  • Mr. Thomas Lyle Graham (b. 1958), American Specialist 4th Class from Jacksonville, Florida, USA who died in the crash [7]
  • Mr. Kelly O Graham (b. 1966), American Specialist 4th Class from San Jose, California, USA who died in the crash [7]
Empress of Ireland
  • Mrs. Elizabeth Graham (1868-1914), née Humphreys British First Class Passenger returning from Hong Kong, China who was traveling aboard the Empress of Ireland and died in the sinking [8]
  • Mr. Walter Graham (1859-1914), British First Class Passenger returning from Hong Kong, China who was traveling aboard the Empress of Ireland and died in the sinking [8]
Flight TWA 800
  • Mr. Steven K. Graham (1958-1996), aged 38, from Napa, California, USA, American Marketing Director flying aboard flight TWA 800 from J.F.K. Airport, New York to Leonardo da Vinci Airport, Rome when the plane crashed after takeoff he died in the crash [9]
Halifax Explosion
  • Mr. Francis  Graham (1892-1917), Canadian Ironworker at Halifax Graving Dock from Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [10]
  • Mrs. Florence  Graham (1894-1917), Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [10]
HMAS Sydney II
  • Mr. George Albert Graham (1920-1941), Australian Ordinary Seaman from Belmore, New South Wales, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [11]
HMS Hood
  • Mr. Donald Graham (b. 1916), English Supply Assistant serving for the Royal Navy from Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [12]
HMS Prince of Wales
  • Mr. William Marcus Graham, British Lieutenant, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [13]
  • Mr. William Graham, British Able Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [13]
  • Mr. Alastair Kennedy Douglas Graham, British Midshipman Paymaster, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [13]
HMS Repulse
HMS Royal Oak
  • Samuel Graham (d. 1939), British Seaman with the Royal Navy Reserve aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk he died in the sinking [15]
  • Philip William Colles Graham (1920-1939), British Midshipman with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk he died in the sinking [15]
  • George Munroe Graham (1922-1939), British Boy 1st Class with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk he died in the sinking [15]
Lady of the Lake
  • Miss Jane Graham (b. 1817), Irish traveller from Coleraine, Northern Ireland who sailed aboard the "Lady of the Lake" from Greenock, Scotland on 8th April 1833 to Quebec, Canada when the ship hit ice and sunk of the coast of Newfoundland on the 11th May 1833 and she died in the sinking
  • Miss Mary Ann Graham (b. 1815), traveller who sailed aboard the "Lady of the Lake" from Greenock, Scotland on 8th April 1833 to Quebec, Canada when the ship hit ice and sunk of the coast of Newfoundland on the 11th May 1833 and she died in the sinking
RMS Lusitania
  • Mr. Gordon Graham, American 3rd Class passenger from San Francisco, California, USA, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking [16]
RMS Titanic
  • Mr. Thomas G. Graham, aged 28, Irish Fireman/Stoker from Belfast, Ireland who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and survived the sinking [17]
  • Mrs. Edith Ware Graham, (née Junkins), aged 59, American First Class passenger from Greenwich, Connecticut who sailed aboard the RMS Titanic and survived the sinking escaping in life boat 3 [17]
  • Miss Margaret Edith Graham, aged 19, American First Class passenger from Greenwich, Connecticut who sailed aboard the RMS Titanic and survived the sinking escaping in life boat 3 [17]
  • Mr. George Edward Graham (d. 1912), aged 38, Canadian First Class passenger from Winnipeg, Manitoba who sailed aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking and was recovered by CS Mackay-Bennett [17]
SS Alcoa Puritan
  • B.F. Graham, American Able Seaman from Mobile, Alabama, who was working aboard the SS Alcoa Puritan traveling from Port of Spain, Trinidad to Mobile, Alabama when it was torpedoed by U-boat U-507 he survived the sinking [18]
USS Arizona
  • Mr. Donald A. Graham, American Aviation Machinist's Mate First Class working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he survived the sinking [19]

Related Stories +

The Graham Motto +

The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: Ne oublie
Motto Translation: Do not forget.

In 1928, Thomas Graham (1868-1946) wrote a series of articles in the Colville Examiner entitled “50 Years Ago,” recounting his experiences and observations as a teenager in the Colville Valley. The memoirs that follow are excerpted from Colville Collection, Book One, compiled by Patrick J. Graham (Colville: Colville Examiner, 1989), 79-120. They are reprinted with kind permission of Mr. Graham. Material in brackets has been summarized from the text or supplied for clarification by Tom Graham’s memoirs provide a fascinating first-hand glimpse of pioneer life in the Colville Valley.

Background of Thomas Graham and His Memoir

Thomas Graham's family had arrived in Stevens County from County Monaghan in Ireland On October 14, 1878, assisted by James Monaghan (1839-1916), who was a brother of Tom’s mother, Rosanna Graham. Tom’s father, also Thomas Graham, had emigrated from Scotland to Ireland, where he married Rosanna Monaghan. The family of nine sailed from Liverpool to New York, took the Southern Pacific to San Francisco, then a ship to Portland and the riverboat from Portland to The Dalles, where it was always necessary to portage around the cascades before continuing on by steamboat to Wallula. From there, they traveled over the Dr. Baker wood railroad to Walla Walla where James Monoghan met the family with two wagons to transport them over the Colville Road to the Colville area, a distance of more than 200 miles. This trip via Monaghan’s LaPray Bridge over the Spokane River, took seven days, the family camping out all the way. They spent one night at the Monaghan homestead, now part of Chewelah, before continuing to Pinkney City, the town that grew up adjacent to military Fort Colville, just over three miles north of present Colville.

Tom was only 10 or 11 when his family arrived in the Colville Valley. He spent that winter attending the Catholic mission boarding school at the location of present Ward. He left school that spring and launched his career as a very young mail carrier working for his uncle, James Monaghan, who had the contract to carry mail three times a week between military Fort Colville and Colfax, a route of about 130 miles. Tom and his slightly older brothers, John and James, interspersed the mail carrying with chores on the Monaghan ranch on land that is now the town of Chewelah.

Interspersed between Graham’s memories of incidents are long lists of names of settlers and their families and the general locations of their homesteads. Some were former soldiers who had been stationed at Fort Colville some were French-Canadian former Hudson’s Bay Company employees and others, like the Monaghan and Graham families, were immigrants from Europe or pioneers from Eastern United States. Many of the families were of mixed blood, the male settlers having taken Indian wives. These lists are invaluable to genealogists but too long for reprinting here.

Historylink has divided the Graham memoir into three parts: The first deals with the Graham brothers’ adventures delivering the mail between Spokane Falls and Fort Colville. The second covers farming, ranching, and freighting in the Colville Valley. The third recounts Tom Graham’s memories of the Indians in the valley.

Part 1: The Arrival and the Mail Route

. Our first entrance into Pinkney City was on Sunday. There was only one street in the town, and it was lined solidly by Indians and cayuses, together with their riders -- in some cases two and three rides to one horse. As Sunday was market day, everyone came to town, and of course dressed in their Sunday best. The Indians, in their gaudy blankets and headgear, were a surprising sight to a bunch of greenhorns such as we were.

We soon learned how things were done in America. When Sunday came a good-sized congregation, regardless of creed, assembled at the Catholic Church . . The first priest that we met celebrating mass there was Father Joset, a Swiss who came here in 1844 as one of the attendants at the Mission church near Kettle Falls. Needless to say, Father [Joseph] Joset did not have a very good command of the English language. So after Mass Mr. Monaghan asked my mother how she liked the sermon. Quick as a flash came the answer: “It was fine, but I don’t know yet whether he was blessing us or cussing us.” Services were held at this church once a month, and were attended by the soldiers from the garrison as well as the settlers.

. In the early part of April ’79, I left school and made my first trip out of Fort Colville, carrying the United States mail. . On reaching a point opposite the present [1928] Monaghan home, north of Addy, I drove into a mud hole that proved almost bottomless. In their struggles to get out of the mud hole, the horses tore the tongue out of the stagecoach and got out of the mud. Looking over the damage, and seeing no way of repairing it, I just left the rig there, unhitching the horses from the tongue. I took the harness of one horse and put it on the other one, also strapping the two mail sacks on the same horse. I rode the other horse bareback to Chewelah, where I turned the outfit over to my brother John, who made the trip to Walker’s Prairie, in turn giving the mail to the driver between that point and Spokane Falls. It might be well to mention at this time that the driver on the line from Colfax to Spokane Falls was a Mr. Yale . one of the best stage drivers I have ever seen.

. I shall always have a vivid recollection of the hospitality of the [Joseph] LaPray family during the spring of 1883. I was carrying the U.S. mail between Chewelah and Fort Spokane when overtaken by an unusual storm. After leaving the Guy Haines home, the rain, sleet and wind were so severe that I was nearly frozen while crossing Walker’s Prairie. So I went to the LaPray home, at that time a log cabin about a quarter of a mile from the main road.

When I rode up to the door and called out to Mr. LaPray, he came out and helped me to get my left hand open so I could get the bridle reins loose, my clothing being frozen stiff. He helped me into the house, where a blazing fire burned in the large fireplace. Mrs. La Pray got my clothing thawed out while Mr. La Pray was putting my horse in the barn. While having no clothing to fit me, I was put to bed naked while Mrs. LaPray dried my clothes.

Mr. LaPray in the meantime came in and reported he could not get the mail sack untied from the saddle. So for one night, the U.S. mail was left to rest in the stable. When supper was ready, I wrapped a blanket around me and had supper with the family. .

Guy Haines was postmaster at Walker’s Prairie, a position he held for a long period of years. At his home was one of our stage stations where we usually transferred the U.S. mail to the driver from Spokane Falls. The Haines home was a stopping place for all travelers, where they were always sure of a friendly welcome, a square meal and a good bed. The Haines homestead was located on the same spot where the first Congregational missionaries, [Elkanah] Walker and [Cushing] Eells, commenced their missionary labors among the Indians of Stevens County. . Father Eells, as he was called, as well known to all the old settlers of Stevens County. He was often a passenger on our stage. The best part of the time he drove his own rig, a sorrel horse and buggy. His kindly ways endeared him to all who met him.

. It was a standing order from Mr. Monaghan, owner of the stage line, that all priests and ministers, regardless of creed or color, were to be carried at half fare. So an incident that occurred in ’79, while in no way reflecting on the traveling ministers, will bear repeating. A minister and his wife came from Walla Walla, riding on the stage, receiving the benefits of the lower fare rates due to all [those] of his supposed calling. However, on arriving at Fort Colville or Pinkney City, their subsequent actions proved they were imposters, he being a tinhorn gambler, while the wife was just a little lower in the scale of humanity. Having them again for passengers on the return trip, this time they paid full fare with the remark from the woman that they could afford it as following the U.S. paymaster was a paying proposition.

. The next [homestead was that of] James Monaghan, where the greater part of the town site of Chewelah now stands. My parents, brothers and sisters resided on and operated the farm for some years after coming to Stevens County. There in the fall of 1879 my oldest brother, Philip, join the family, coming from Australia. It was here also that my sister Rosanna was born in the same house where my cousin, John Robert Monaghan, the hero of Samoa, was born. [James Monaghan’s son, a Navy ensign and graduate of the Naval Academy at Annapolis, was killed defending a wounded comrade during in a skirmish in Samoa in 1899. In 1906 a large statue of him was erected at Riverside and Monroe streets in Spokane.]

. It was during our residence at Chewelah that my brothers and I each took our turn in handling Uncle Sam’s mail, as well as operating the farm. In those early days my brother John was the only one of us [legally] old enough to carry the mails, as a carrier had to be 16 years old before Uncle Sam would entrust him with anything so valuable. However, the good nature of the different postmasters throughout Stevens County kept them from inquiring too closely into the age of the drivers.

. The postmaster at Spokane Falls, Sylvester Heath, had some trouble with Mr. Yale, the driver between Colfax and Spokane Falls, with the result that Mr. Yale was ordered out of the post office. Not moving as fast as the postmaster thought he should, Mr. Heath came from behind his counter and ejected Mr. Yale bodily. This was what Mr. Yale was playing for, and as soon as he got Mr. Heath out of the post office, he turned on him and gave him a good thrashing. As soon as he was able to do so, he wrote Mr. Monaghan to discharge the fighting driver. I suppose that was one of the letters that were never answered. So Mr. Heath retaliated by refusing to allow my brother James to take the mail out on the next trip, saying he was not old enough to carry the U.S. mail. Being informed by friends of what was to happen, Jim took a mail sack in each hand, hefted them, saying: “Pshaw! They ain’t heavy. I can carry both of them.” With that he put them into the stage and drove off, leaving Postmaster Heath to make the best of it. There was no more trouble after this because of our age.

Let me relate an incident that occurred in the summer of 1879. Perhaps there are still [1828] old timers living who will remember the old log bridge that spanned the Colville River at the Reid Montgomery place. Every stick in it was round logs, even to the floor. On the day of this incident a heavily laden U.S. government mule team had crossed on its way to Fort Colville. At the point where the structure crossed the main stream the heavy wagon had broken one of the outside stringers. When a few hours later my brother John crossed with the stage wagon, he drove onto the broken part, innocent of the fact that anything was amiss with the bridge.

In less time that it takes to tell it, the broken part upset into the river, taking horses, rig and driver with it. The driver escaped by swimming, and on reaching the riverbank, called for help. The neighbors working in the hay fields soon responded to his call, as did also a band of Indians, who were camped nearby. It was found one of the horses was dead. An Indian named Buckskin Jim swam to where the outfit was and unharnessed the dead horse and started the carcass down the river. He then took the live horse and swam down the river perhaps 300 yards to a point where the bank of the river was clear of brush and low enough to get the animal ashore. In the meantime, my brother, who was an excellent swimmer, had rescued the sacks of mail and brought them to our home. When postmaster James O’Neil heard of the accident, he came over there with the keys, opened the mail sacks and dried the contents in the oven over our kitchen stove. In the meantime the rig was gotten out of the river and taken across the bridge by hand. Another horse was brought from our place, and the broken parts mended, and everything was ready to finish the trip to Walker’s Prairie.

. [Another incident occurred] in the summer of 1882, while we were operating a daily stage from Spokane to Colville. Mr. Monaghan had exchanged three large mules . for nine head of horses. The animals were corralled at Wild Goose Bill’s place, where the town of Wilbur now is. Six of them were sold for cavalry horses to the U.S. government to be used at the garrison at Walla Walla. But the other three proved to be outlaws and could not be used for the same purpose, so they were sent to the Monaghan ranch at Chewelah [for my brothers and me to work with them.] We got them quiet enough to drive them on the stage, but had not had the time to break them to ride.

The arrangement of the daily stage was to bring all the passengers in [the mail stage] over the Cottonwood Road. This left the mail for the Walker’s Prairie and Deep Creek post offices to be continued as usual three times a week. There was not much mail to be carried over that route, so it was carried on horseback. . On one occasion it was found that one small sack of first class mail had been overlooked in the post office at Spokane. This, of course, was an awful breach of regulations. When it was called to my brother Jim’s attention, he undertook to remedy the mistake by taking the mail to Chewelah on horseback over the Cotton Road. But on reaching our first stage station at Peavine Jimmie’s place on the Little Spokane, he found there was nothing to ride but one of the unbroken outlaw horses.

It so happened that L. W. Meyers was there at the time with a load of freight for his own store that he operated at his home near the Colville mission. . Telling his troubles to Mr. Meyers, who himself was a splendid horseman and a great lover of horses, he assisted Jim to get the animal saddled and the sack of mail tied behind the saddle. But from the caper that the outlaw horse was cutting up, it was decided to lead the animal across the bridge spanning the Little Spokane River before mounting him, because of the fact that the land there was level and [there were] no fences or other obstructions to contend with except a stand of open timber. For a time, Mr. Meyers enjoyed the sight of a real bucking match, with horse and rider each striving for mastery. The animal finally plunged between two trees literally tearing both rider and saddle off. In spite of the shock he sustained, [Jim] held onto the lariat, so the horse did not get away from him. Mr. Meyers tried to persuade [him] to let the whole thing go to the devil, but the boy had his Irish up and would not be dissuaded, so the whole performance was gone through again.

This time the rider had proved the master, and the outlaw was ridden to Chewelah that day, and from there to Spokane by way of Walker’s Prairie and Deep Creek. On the return trip, needless to say, that horse was broken before he reached Spokane again. Mr. Meyers never forgot that incident, and when we realized there was not a single settler to be met with between the Little Spokane and the Joe Morrrell ranch near Chewelah, except our stage station three miles east of Loon Lake, it was a strenuous job for anyone to undertake.

Part 2: Farming and ranching in the Colville Valley, freighting on the Colville Road.

. Let us remember that even at that early day, that part of the Colville Valley now known as Chewelah was on the map. That point was a natural stopping place for all travelers, where they could be sure of finding all accommodations necessary to make traveling as comfortable as could be expected. If some of the people of today [1928, during the agricultural depression of the 1920s that preceded the Great Depression of the 1930s] think it impossible to eke out any existence at the time of which I write, I wonder what they would have done had they come into the valley of the Colville when those old settlers did. For instance, John Inkster came to this valley in 1848, Thomas Brown in 1854, Guy Haines in 1859, Peter King in 1851. Many others came into the Colville Valley in the early ‘60s and resided here until their deaths. How did they make a living for themselves and their families? . They were all engaged in farming, producing an abundance of all farm crops, hay, oats, wheat potatoes and other vegetables . [as well as large bands of cattle, horses, sheep, and sometimes hogs].

. In those days every settler, as well as most of the Indians, raised a great number of horses. We never thought about feeding them -- except the ones we were using. The other ones ran on the open range, and were taken up when it was necessary to break some of them to work or ride. We were all handy with a lariat in fact it was seldom necessary to throw a second time at the animal you wanted. Every boy caught and broke his own riding horse. The animal was usually ridden bareback for the simple reason that we did not have a saddle to ride.

. On the James Monaghan ranch was a large band of cattle, purchased around Colville during the time he was engaged in the mercantile business there. They were driven to Chewelah every fall and fed there during the winter. It fell to the lot of my brothers and myself to round up these cattle during the fall of 1879. Usually all range cattle would come from the range into the valley as soon as the weather commenced getting stormy, so the work of gathering them began during the last of December. We started at the John Wynne farm, where the town of Colville is now, picking them up at the different farms on the way. .

Mr. Heller had a large band of cattle. He always fed them in an open timber lot outside of his field, where a branch of Heller Creek ran through his feedlot. It took considerable hard driving to cut the cattle out from his band. In running after a large steer the animal jumped across the creek, but my horse stopped at the edge of the water so suddenly that I went over his head, but fortunately landed on the opposite bank, pretty well shaken up, but no bones broken. . Joe LaPray was probably the largest cattle raiser in the county, grazing a great many of them on the breaks of the Spokane River during the entire year.

. There was always a good market for our livestock. The hogs were used for home consumption, every settler curing his own bacon, and all extra dressed pork found a ready market at the Oppenheimer mill. . The cattle were always in demand, not only in the home market, but buyers from outside points came here to purchase them.

The late D. M. [Daniel] Drumheller of Spokane never missed a year without coming to the Colville Valley and purchasing a large band of cattle. I also remember in the summer of 1881, a young man named Thomas McKenzie came here from Montana and purchased about 700 head of steers and dry cows, at an average price of $14 a head. He drove these cattle over the old Mullan Road through Idaho, and when swimming them across the Coeur d’Alene River, near the old mission, in trying to keep them together, he was drowned in the river at that point. The cattle were held on the range at that point until his sister came and took charge of them.

Again I remember in the summer of 1894, D. M. Drumheller and associates from Wyoming purchased all the cattle available throughout Stevens County. I sold several head to this outfit and helped to deliver them to the shipping point at Spokane. We arrived in Spokane with 1,200 head of cattle just a few days after the strike on the Northern Pacific Railroad. We were unable to ship them, as there was not a wheel turning on that road. We held them on the prairie east of Spokane for three weeks, finally shipping them over the Great Northern road to Miles City [Montana], this being the nearest point at which they could be unloaded and driven to the range where they were to be kept. The average price paid for these cattle was about $22.

There was always a ready market for all grain raised in the valley. The wheat was sold to the Oppenheimer Bros. And delivered to their flourmill on the Little Pend Oreille River. The oats were delivered at the garrison of Fort Colville, being purchased by whomever had the contract to furnish such supplies to the U.S. government at that point. The wheat usually sold for $1 per bushel and oats at 50 cents per bushel. Potatoes also brought 50 cents per bushel to the grower. Hay brought $12 per ton, delivered loose at the garrison, where about 400 tons were consumed. In those days every farmer absolutely owned his livestock and farm products. There were no mortgages on their farms or livestock or crops, so the prices received were their own to do with as they pleased.

The Oppenheimer gristmill was owned by the three Oppenheimer brothers, Samuel, Joseph, and Marcus. Here the greater part of the wheat grown in the Colville Valley was manufactured into flour and other mill products. .

There were two grades of flour made at the mill. Their best brand was known as the XXX and this brand was equal to any manufactured in any part of the Northwest. The flour was shipped as far south as Walla Walla, and also to all the mining camps operating on both sides of the international line on the north. On the mill farm there was produced a large band of hogs, numbering about 200 head. These hogs were fattened, dressed and cured into the finest hams, shoulders and bacon. .

The main road to Fort Colville passed by the mill. So I was a frequent visitor there carrying their mail to and from the post office, as well as any express matter that might be shipped to the mill. The kitchen latchstring was always out, a nice slice of well cooked ham to be found in the cupboard.

. Besides their regular farm operations, every farmer had one or more four-horse teams on the road to haul freight from Walla Walla during the slack season, between the time of planting and harvesting of their crops. The prices paid for such hauling during the summer months was about 3 cents per pound. This brought to the team owner a nice sum of money on the side. The cost of the trip was small, as there was plenty of bunch grass to be found at all points along the road. There was very little grain fed on these trips, and it usually took 12 days to make the round trip. Of course the trip was not pleasant during the early spring months, when the roads were soft. In fact, I have seen the road through the Chewelah valley so bad that it took four good horses to pull an empty wagon through it. During this time it was necessary to [use Cottonwood Road rather than the main road for this portion of the trip].

Freighting during the late fall was not very pleasant, as it was no unusual thing to get caught in a snowstorm. I remember one such instance, when John Morrell got caught in a storm. He unhitched his four-horse team and tied them to the wagon to wait until the storm had passed. Taking his blankets, he got under the wagon for shelter, but during the night the horses broke loose and drifted with the storm with their harness on them. One of the horses was a bay stallion owned by his father. Not being able to get any trace horses, he struck out on foot and reached Lyons Ferry on the Snake River. When spring opened up only one of the horses could be found, that was the stallion, and he had lost all his harness but the collar, which was still on his neck.

. [I always remember] the homestead of Antoine Gendron, a former employee of the Hudson’s Bay Company, [who came to] the post about 1846. He was married to a native [Indian] woman. They were the parents of a large family. . Besides the regular farm crops, there was also raised a large band of both cattle and horses. The latchstring was always out at the Antoine Gendron home, as it was with all the old pioneers. The honesty of the settlers was never questioned in those days. Let me illustrate a few incidents in proof of this. During the time James Monaghan was in the mercantile business at old Colville he carried charge accounts, as was the custom of the period. Some years after closing his business, in looking over his old accounts, he found some of his old customers still indebted to him. Apparently he had never sent them a statement of how their accounts stood. So, during the winter of 1884, he sent a memorandum of a few of those whose names appeared on his books, asking me to see what I could do about collecting them.

The first one I approached was Mr. Gendron, who not only acknowledged the indebtedness, but also offered to deliver two tons of oats at the Monaghan ranch at Chewelah in payment of the account. I also visited Michael La Fleur on the same mission. He took me out to his horse corral and told me to pick out any horse there and give him a receipted bill, which I did. I picked out a beautiful sorrel mare, and while I was in the house writing the receipt, his boys roped the animal and helped me take her to the Chewelah ranch.

Another thing that would also illustrate the honesty of the community of those days is worth telling here. During such times as Mr. Monaghan was away from his place of business, Antoine Paradis was placed in charge of the store. When the day’s business was over, Mr. Paradis pocketed the day’s receipts and returned to his home on the west side of the Colville Valley several miles distant, always making the trip on horseback, with no thought of ever meeting a holdup man.

Part 3: Memories of Indians

. That winter, ’78-’79, I was a pupil at the Catholic Sisters’ school at the Colville Mission, now Ward. This was an Indian school with about 250 children -- all Indians and half breeds except Miss Lizzie Labrie and my sister Mary Ann -- the only white girls, and myself -- the only white boy. . I will never forget one occasion when, with an Indian boy named Edward, I played hooky from school. We roamed over the hills east of the mission. When hunger overtook us I wanted to return to school. But hunger had no terror for the Indian boy. He made out a good dinner by eating the stalks of the wild sunflowers that grew luxuriantly all over the hills. [This was probably balsamroot, which the Indians of the Northwest used as a survival food.] However, when evening came, we returned to school and took our punishment, which was going to bed without any supper.

. [In the Colville Valley, Indians and whites] did plenty of hunting, fishing, horseracing, also foot racing. I do not think any people love a horserace more than the Indians did, and they would bet the last thing they had on their favorite horse. With them it was strictly a question of the best horse winning. There was no trickery of any kind. If a race was not satisfactory, they would insist it would be run over again until it was satisfactorily settled.

I will illustrate this to show their inherent honesty. The rider [myself] with his own horse was matched against an Indian horse and the rider in a three-mile race . Just north of the present magnesite plant [at Chewelah], for the first two miles it was nip and tuck between the two horses, but toward the finish the Indian boy left me so far behind that there was no question as to who had the best horse. But unfortunately the Indian boy did not ride through the gate. I took advantage of his mistake and rode through the gate, of course winning the race. However, it was decided that the other fellow had the best horse. So all bets were paid to the Indian without any kick from anyone.

While the Indians were horseracing every day during the week, it was only on Sunday afternoon that the settlers had time to indulge in the sport. On one occasion, after an afternoon of this sport, we boys had a bay stallion that had cleaned up everything that was pitted against him. We put him in the barn for the night, but on Monday morning he was nowhere to be found. After more than a month had elapsed, the horse was found in the barn, he had been returned as quietly as he had been taken away. It transpired that the Indians had taken him . [to] use for breeding purposes. He was returned in good condition, so no questions were ever asked. This was the only thing that ever occurred between us and the Indians that might be considered unfriendly. We used to employ the Indians during the haying and harvesting season, and most of them were good workers.

Whatever failings the Indians or half-breeds might have, dishonesty was not one of them. It often happened that a freighter would break down his wagon or have some other trouble that would compel him to leave his wagon and load of freight on the road for a considerable length of time, but I have never heard of a single instance where any article on the wagon was stolen. We never thought of locking a door. The latchstring was always out. Someone might come in, eat a lunch, but nothing was ever stolen.

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James Monaghan family, ca. 1893

Courtesy Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture

Oppenheimer Mill on the Little Pend Oreille River, ca. 1880

History of the Graham Family

The treatment and torture dealt out to these pious religious people, who held tenaciously to the principles of the Presbyterian faith, by the [2] church of England, under the false cloak of religion, would of itself fill a volume much larger than that contemplated in these pages, and reference is merely made to show the stern and unwavering character of a people who were driven from post to pillar, and suffered almost unendurable hardships and degradations, rather than depart from a principle which they believed to be the teachings of the Bible, as well as having the approval of their conscience. Thus, more than two centuries ago our ancestral parents left their beautiful homes in their native land, and looking for the last time on the green sloping swords of the Grampian Hills and bid farewell forever to the graves of their fathers and mothers, and left behind all that was near and dear to them, even as their own lovely Scotland, and took up their march for the Emerald Isle, in the vain hope that the persecutions and trials which had hitherto made life hideous, would cease and they would be free to exercise their faith[,] which had so long been the desire of their conscience. [3] But alas! for human expectations. Their sojourn is but for a while, until the broad and inviting land across the Atlantic bade them once more take up their line of march and plant their homes in the New World, where they would be free to worship God according to the dictates of their own conscience, unhindered by church or state. Among the many families who thus emigrated from Scotland to Ireland and later from Ireland to America, we might mention the following names: Forbesses, Stuarts, Hamiltons, Montgomerys, Alexanders, Grahams, Shaws, Moores, Lewises, Pattons, Mathews, Prestons, Baxtons, Lyles, Grigsbys, Crawfords, Comminses, Browns, Wallaces, Wilsons, Caruthers, Campbells, McClungs, McCues, McKees, McCowns, Lockridges, Boyds, Barclays, McDonals and Baileys, described as, “knights and gentlemen of Scotland, whose prosperity holds good to this day.” They were Irish Presbyterians, who, being of Scotch extraction, were called Scotch-Irish.

[4] These names are to-day familiar house-hold words of the names of our own land and are but a repetition, and of the same lineal descent of their noble ancestors, who, more than two centuries ago stood ever firm to the Magna Charta of Scottish rights, and rallied under their brave banners, emblazoned with the faith of their own creed, in the famous golden letters, “For Christ’s Crown and Covenant,” they waited undaunted, the tyranny of their foes.

As we have said, their sojourn in Ireland was but temporary, as to a large proportion of those who emigrated there. Of course, many hindered by poverty and other causes no doubt, made that their permanent home.

The relief which they sought, they found but temporary in their new found homes in Ireland. Under the rule of tyrant kings, their suffering and punishment was endurable only for its contrasts with their former suffering. Tithes and taxes demanded from their wrecked estates to support a church, not of their own choice restrained [5] from speaking their own opinions living in a strange land dwelling among enemies of their faith, all combined to make them an unhappy and restless people. Longing for new homes, the silent whispers came across the ocean that the Mayflower, years before had landed others, persecuted like themselves, safely on the other side of the blue waters. This gave them hope. “For thou, O, God, hast proved us, and thou hast tried us as silver is tried thou broughtest us into the net thou layest afflictions upon our loins thou hast caused men to ride over our heads we went through fire and through water but though broughtest us out into a wealth place.” Gathering together what little worldly goods they possessed, which was very meagre, and often nothing, save their Bible. They embarked for the New World, landing upon the banks of the Deleware, [sic] and many rested for a season in the land of Pennsylvania.

William Penn, having been formerly a subject of the King of England, and witnessed the perse- [6] cution of his own church (though he himself was a favorite of King James) it was but natural that these people should seek out in the New World, those that had been persecuted for conscience sake in the old world.

Among those who sought fresh relief and new homes amid the untrodden forests of America, few stood higher or occupied positions more exalted than the Grahams. During that bloody, treacherous, and ever memorable struggle in England, Ireland and Scotland, in which King James was dethroned, and William, Price of Orange, a presbyterian, became his successor — a time when no man could remain neutral, but, all must declare, either for the time honored established church of England the papistry of King James or for that faith which they believed to be taught in Holy Writ. According to the dictates of their own conscience, the Grahams occupied prominent positions on either side.

One Richard Graham, known as Viscount Preston, held the position of Secretary of State of [7] Scotland, under King James, about the year 1685 and history tells us that he was one [of] the privy council, and most trusty advisers of the king that his plans and recommendations were often adhered to, rather than those of the king himself. As a leader of the House of Commons, he counseled King James to reassemble the Houses of Parliament, in order to secure a peaceful settlement of differences between church and state. He was also made Lord Lieutenant for both the counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland, a position very rare and remarkable for one man to occupy.

During the absence of King James from the throne, who, on account of his fear of opposers, had fled to Salisbury, Richard Graham and four associates were appointed a committee, known as the Council of Five, to transact the business of the Throne until such time as might be deemed expedient for the king to return.

The positions of high honor and trust, held and occupied by this one man were many, and to rehearse [8] them all in detail, would require more space than it is our purpose here to consume in this brief sketch suffice it to say that he seems to have been a leader of his party in both civic and military affairs a minister at the courts of foreign countries honored, trusted and adhered to, and we might add, obeyed by kings feared and esteemed by the House of Commons, and held in the highest respect by the common people. While he was true and devoted to King James, in the sense of patriotism, it does not appear that he was a persecutor of those who differed from the king’s religious views.

James Graham, of Claverhouse, viscount of Dundee, was also a noted character in that eventful struggle, and while his persecution of those who differed from the religious persuasions of King James, must ever be deplored, we take consolation in the fact that he but carried out the dictates and decrees of his Master. That his fidelity to the king was ever true through life, and even in the hour of death, is fully substantiated [9] in his last utterance, after having spent an eventful life in the king’s cause.

After King James had vacated the throne, and William and Mary had been triumphantly crowned, and the armies of James abandoned and scattered, General Graham, with his indomitable will and ever-to-be admired energy, hoping against hope, collected together such as he could of the remaining fragmentary army of his escaped master and repaired to the Highlands of Scotland, where he succeeded in interesting the Scottish Chiefs of those Highland Clans, in behalf of the cause of the late king. The remoteness of these semi-barbarians from the active scene of war, coupled with their disinclination to inform themselves of the nature of the conflict, soon led them through the fluency of Graham’s speech to espouse his cause. Having sought and obtained the sympathy of all the principal chiefs of the various clans, he assembled them together and a council was held to decide the mode of warfare. The detached fragmentary of the army whom [10] Graham hitherto commanded, chagrined with former defeats, protested against a battle with those who espoused the cause of King William. While the leaders of the Highland Clans urged immediate assault, saying their men were ready and eager for the fray.

General Graham was influenced by the counsel of the Highlanders, assuring them that he would lead them to victory that he himself would march in front of his army to this, his subordinate officers objected, saying, he was too valuable a leader to expose his person in front of the battle, and urged him to remain in the rear and dictate the movements of his army in the on-coming conflict. To this Graham replied, “your people are accustomed to seeing their leader in the van of battle, and there I shall be seen this day, but after the decision of this day, I shall be more careful of my person and not expose myself in action as heretofore has been my custom.” After that statement, his army was commanded to move forward, himself being in the lead. [11]

Soon the foe was met and the battle of Killikrankie was fought. Early in the engagement Graham was shot, having raised his hand above his head and standing erect in his stirrups, giving command, his shield or armour raised above his waistband, exposing his person, when the ball took effect, he fell from his horse and one of his subordinate officers coming up to him, inquired if his injuries were fatal, Graham answered by saying, “How goes the cause of the king?” The attendant answered, “the cause of the king is well how is your lordship?” Graham replied, “it matters not for me, so the cause of the king is safe.” These were his last words. Though dying on the field, his army won a great victory and the battle of Killikrankie has passed into history, as one of the most memorable events of that time. History hands down to us other names of the Grahams, who were more or less noted in their day and time, of which we might mention, Malcolm Graham, who is last, but by no means least, stood high in society and was [12] bound with a golden chain by King James the II to Ellen Douglass, the girl he loved so well dishonoring thus thy loyal name.

Fetters and warden for the Greame (Graham)
His chain of gold the king unstrung
The links o’er Malcolm’s neck he flung,
Then gently drew the glittering band,
And laid the clasp on Ellen’s hand.

SCOTT’S LADY OF THE LAKE.From the above selection it will be noticed that the name is spelled Greame. Whether the author drew upon his poetical license for this misnomer or whether the name was sometimes so spelled by the Scotts, we are unable to determine.

In the early settlement of this country, when people paid but little attention to the orthography of names — the name was often spelled Grimes. There seems, however, to have been no authority whatever for this contortion of the name.

The only excuse that might be offered for this misapplication of the name is that the names of the early settlers were scarcely, if ever, seen in print and but seldom in writing, but were handed [13] orally from one to another, thus giving plenty of opportunity for misunderstandings. We can recall many names, which in our youth were pronounced differently from what they now are. To illustrate, the name Stevenson was called “Stinson” the name Withrow was called “Watherow” Stodghill was called “Stargeon” and so on. We even find in this day a few of the old-styled fathers and mothers who do not like to discontinue the old-fashioned way of expressing these names.

The Graham name in all English history and in the history of our country, as well as in all the legal writings pertaining to the family, from the earliest settlement in America down to the present time, is spelled as we now have it — Graham.

The people of Scotland of the same family tree were known as clans and these clans seem to have been bound together by very strong and endearing ties.

Such were the adhesion of these family clans that they kept themselves almost entirely aloof [14] from other clans marriage and intermarriage by members of one clan to another was scarcely admissible. If a member of one clan provoked or insulted a member of another clan, the insult was resented by the clan whose member had been insulted thus we find arose many of the clan feuds, with which Scottish history so much abounds.

Each clan had its official head chief or leader, whose duty it was to dictate to his people such a course as seemed to him most wise and discreet or that happened to please the whims of his own fancies. In military affairs this leader or chief was expected to occupy the most dangerous positions and to perform the most daring of the exploits in the heat of battle. He must either win a victory, in which he performed some noble part, or die in defeat.

The Graham clan was a very large and influential one, and, perhaps, at the time of its greatest power, had for its official head James Graham, the Earl of Montrose, who laid down his life for love to his king.

[15] It is claimed in Scottish history that the Graham family dates back for a thousand years, and has been conspicuous in the annal of their country, “from hovel to the palace, in arts, in eloquence and in song”. “It was a daring man by the name of Graham that first broke through the walls of Agricola which the Roman general had built between the firths of the Clyde and Forth to keep off the incursions of the Northern Britons, and the ruins of which, still visible, are called to this day the ruins of Graham’s Dyke”.

From Scotland to Virginia

The first immigration of the Grahams to this country, of which we have any account, occurred about the year 1720 to 1730, the exact date of which cannot now be known.

It is, however, a matter of history that one Michael Graham settled in Paxtong Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, about the date referred to and that he was a direct descendant of the Earl of Montrose, who was beheaded. The descendants of Michael Graham afterwards settled in the Valley of Virginia and became noted [16] for their scholarly attainments, as well as their religious zeal.

Of these, however, we may speak further on. It is known that at or near the same period of the coming of Michael to this country other members of the same family, kith and kin, also settled in this country, among whom were John Graham (the writer’s great grandfather), who settled for a time, it is believed, in Pennsylvania and later moved to the Great Calf Pasture River in Augusta county, Virginia. It is to be regretted that we cannot give the exact date of the settlement on the Calf Pasture River, but conclude that not earlier than the year 1740, nor later than 1745.

We find that he purchased a tract of six hundred and ninety-six acres of land in the year 1746, from John Lewis and James Patton. It will be remembered that John Lewis was the first settler in Augusta county, or rather in the territory which afterwards became Augusta, having planted his home in the then remote wilderness in the [17] year 1732, at Belle Fontaine Springs near Staunton. He was the father of General Andrew Lewis who commanded in the famous battle of Point Pleasant in 1774. John Graham (whom we will call senior) reared a family of four sons and five daughters on the banks of the Calf Pasture and died there about the year 1771, born about the year 1700. His oldest son’s name was Lanty (Lancelot). The names of the other three were John, James and Robert. His daughters’ names were Jane, Elizabeth, Anne, Rebecca and Florence, who was the writer’s grandmother on his mother’s side, she having married James Graham (her cousin).

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