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Junkers Ju 86B
The Junkers Ju 86B was the designation given to civil versions of the Ju 86 medium bomber that were intended for the German market. It was only produced in small numbers, each of which was given its own dash number. The Ju 86B carried a crew of three and ten passengers.
Lufthansa received the largest batch, using five Jumo 205C powered aircraft (-01, -02, -04, -05 and -06) and two BMW 132 powered aircraft (-07 and -09). Ju 86B-07 was later exported to Sweden as the Z-7. A number of B-0 pre-production aircraft were also produced, one of which (D-AKOP Kismet won the 3rd International Flying Meet of the Aero Club of Egypt at Cairo.
Engine: Two Jumo 205 C diesel engines
Power: 600hp each
Crew: 2 pilots and 1 radio operator
Wing span: 73ft 9 ¾ in (22.5m)
Length: 57ft 8 7/8 in (17.6m)
Empty Weight: 11,464lb/ 5,200kg
Maximum Weight: 17,306lb/ 7,850kg
Max Speed: 192 mph/ 310km/h
Cruising Speed: 173mph/ 280km/h
Service Ceiling: 19,350ft/ 5,900m
The bomber was field tested in the Spanish Civil War, where it proved inferior to the Heinkel He 111. Four Ju 86 D-1s arrived in Spain in early February 1937, but after a few sorties one of them (coded 26-1) was shot down on 23 February by Republican fighters with the loss of three crewmen killed and one captured. A replacement aircraft was sent from Germany, but in the summer of 1937 another D-1 was lost in an accident, and the three remaining aircraft were sold to the Nationalist air forces. It was again used in the 1939 invasion of Poland, but retired soon after. In January 1940, the Luftwaffe tested the prototype Ju 86P with a longer wingspan, pressurized cabin, Jumo 207A1 turbocharged diesel engines, and a two-man crew. The Ju 86P could fly at heights of 12,000 m (39,000 ft) and higher on occasion, where it was felt to be safe from Allied fighters. The British Westland Welkin and Soviet Yakovlev Yak-9PD were developed specifically to counter this threat. 
At the outbreak of the Second World War, South Africa's Ju 86Zs were militarized and armed as bombers with defensive guns and external bomb racks. The aircraft were initially used for coastal patrols along with the sole Ju 86 K-1, playing an important role in the interception of the German blockade runner SS Watussi in December 1939. In May 1940, they were used to re-equip No. 12 Squadron SAAF, which was deployed in the East African Campaign from June 1940. It flew its first bombing missions on 14 June 1940.  As more modern aircraft became available, the South African Ju 86s were passed from squadron to squadron, seeing their last use with No. 22 Squadron SAAF at Durban, who used it, along with the Avro Anson in the coastal reconnaissance role, finally retiring its Ju 86s in September 1942, when it re-equipped with Lockheed Venturas. 
Satisfied with the trials of the new Ju 86P prototype, the Luftwaffe ordered that some 40 older-model bombers be converted to Ju 86 P-1 high-altitude bombers and Ju 86 P-2 photo reconnaissance aircraft. Those operated successfully for some years over Britain, the Soviet Union and North Africa. In August 1942, a modified Spitfire V shot one down over Egypt at some 14,500 m (49,000 ft) when two more were lost, Ju 86Ps were withdrawn from service in 1943.
Junkers developed the Ju 86R for the Luftwaffe, using larger wings and new engines capable of even higher altitudes - up to 16,000 m (52,500 ft) - but production was limited to prototypes.
Junkers Ju 86B - History
Built by Junkers in 1937 in Dessau, Germany. Constructors Number Werk Nummer 086 0952 as "Ju 86B-Australien". Registered in Germany as D-AGEY.
During March 1937, flown by pilot Hans Kommoll from Germany to Australia. In Australia, registered on May 14, 1937 as VH-UYA. Nicknamed "Lawrence Hargrave". This aircraft was acquired in trade by Sydney wool broker, H. Beinssen for £23,000 worth of Australian wool being shipped to Germany in exchange for this aircraft. No other wool ordered were placed, this aircraft was dismantled in Melbourne and shipped back to Germany arriving on August 25, 1937.
Back in Germany, re-registered as D-AREY. This aircraft became the personal aircraft of Junkers director Koppenberg. Assigned code D-ARJF and nicknamed "Herbert Norkus". Later, fuselage code DD+VL. Ultimate fate unknown, likely scrapped or otherwise disappeared.
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Junkers airliners in Australasia
James Kightly examines the story of Junkers thirties transports &ndash almost as synonymous with airlines then as Airbus and Boeing are today.
It is often overlooked today that the aircraft developed by Hugo Junkers&rsquo company in the interwar period were highly effective freighters and airliners, able to undertake tasks that no other aircraft of the period managed.
The development of the revolutionary all metal aircraft (in an era when most machines were wood or metal framed with fabric covering) gave Junkers a practical advantage with robust, weatherproof machines. In some ways they set the standard and outlined how the future of airline and cargo aircraft would work.
Junkers airliners feature widely in advertising of the period, but freighters were never promoted to the same degree, and if it were not for Australia&rsquos work in New Guinea, that aspect may well have been totally forgotten.
The remarkable story of the New Guinea goldfields airlift was a world record achievement of aviation in the era, and is too well known to need retelling here, but the performance of the Junkers G.31 (supported by other types including other Junkers machines) is highlighted by a selection of photographs. Australia&rsquos use of several Junkers airliners is another near-forgotten chapter of history, and this photo survey illustrates this story.
Junkers Commuter Liner &ndash The F.13
The Junkers F.13 was the world&rsquos first successful all-metal airliner and, while rare today, examples were used all over the world. This radial-engined example with Sky Travel, [ABOVE] and first registered in November 1930, is seen outside Hart Aircraft Service hangar at Essendon. It carries an advertisement to &lsquoStay at the Gresham Hotel&rsquo on the cabin door, and a long list of the advantages of an all-metal aircraft, including: &lsquoAll Metal, No Wood, No Fabric, and No Fire&rsquo on the rudder.
While these advantages were significant, they came at a greater initial cost. This machine had moved on by mid-1932, it was registered to Union Airways Ltd. in South Africa, and passed onto South African Airways in 1934, and was impressed to the South African Air Force in 1940, and written off in a crash near Darling in 1943.
The Junkers F.13 normally came with an inline engine, and this example also has the standard suspension as supplied. However it seems likely that the normally plush four-seater passenger cabin interior has been removed for its work in New Guinea.
This machine had a fascinating history, earlier as &lsquoMt. Wedge&rsquo of Eyre Peninsula Airways being used in &lsquothe first documented use of flight for Masonic purposes&rsquo &ndash this &lsquooccurred on 6th November 1929, when a team of Grand Lodge Officers flew from Parafield Aerodrome across Gulf St Vincent to Yorketown, for the purpose of taking part in the Installation meeting of Melville Lodge No. 36.&rsquo
The Grand Master was &lsquomuch concerned at the possible loss of the Grand Lodge regalia and . suggested that a buoy might be attached to the tin trunk.&rsquo
Later on, the same Junkers is seen re-engined with a Bristol Jupiter and with Guinea Airways Ltd. Before arriving in New Guinea, it was the first all-metal aircraft to fly into Kalgoorlie on 18 December 1930, and went to the Goldfields Air Navigation Co. Ltd. in 1931, being acquired by Guinea Airways in 1931 and being re-engined with a 425hp Bristol Jupiter VI in 1932 &ndash this in turn being replaced by a Pratt & Whitney A2 engine in 1935 to achieve commonality with the G.31s.
After a couple of repairs following accidents, it was finally written off after a crash on 26 August 1939, at Narakapor, after engine failure.
A Bigger F.13 &ndash the W.33/4
The W.33 and W.34 were a step up in carrying capability to the Junkers F.13, and saw heavy use as a bush plane around the world, as exemplified by VH-UNM here. From Canada (often with skis) to New Guinea, and as seen here in this Bristol advertisement, on floats as well. The Junkers W.33 and 4 where equipped with a wheel undercarriage with low-pressure tyres on a non-standard Junkers suspension) and VH-UOX had a Pratt & Whitney Wasp tuning a three bladed propeller, while the others had Bristol Jupiters.
Derelict at Alexishafen, this aircraft was strafed by Japanese attackers during the Pacific war. After the war, only the fuselage section remained, without the wings or tail. It is often identified as an F.13 &ndash and, confusingly, sometimes specifically as VH-UKW, which it certainly is not, as this is a W.34, identified by the proportions and the window locations. The wreckage remained in situ until the early 1980s, when, after recovery by the PNG Defence forces, it subsequently seems to have disappeared from storage.
World Record Weightlifters &ndash The G.31s
One of the goldfields&rsquo Junkers G.31s VH-UOU at Bulolo about to be loaded. The Junkers G.31 freighters (VH-UOV, VH-UOU and VH-URQ) were used to ship parts to the gold fields at Bulolo in what is now present day Morobe Province. They were used by Guinea Airways to ferry dredge parts for Bulolo Gold Dredging Ltd. The dredge parts were designed to fit through the cargo door of the Junkers. A fourth Junkers G.31 used in the gold fields was owned by Guinea Airways and was registered VH-UOW.
The loading hatch through the roof of the fuselage measured 11ft 10in (3.6metres) by 5ft (1.5 metres) while the removable hatch itself was also domed, increasing the height of the compartment, which measured a remarkable 24ft (7.3 metres) long by 6ft 5in (1.9 metres) wide and 5ft 9in (1.7 metres) high.
The only problem was that it was obstructed by structural A-frames.
The domed hatch being removed (or replaced) from G.31 &lsquoBulolo 1 / Paul&rsquo VH-UOU, still marked on the tailplane as a &lsquoJ.31go&rsquo before the type designation was changed. The extended centre engine mount is evident here, to assist centre of gravity requirements after the type&rsquos conversion from an airliner to a freighter.
This Junkers survived a crash landing after a full 44 gallon drum broke loose from the tie downs and rolled into the aircraft&rsquos rear fuselage. It was repaired and returned to service.
It wasn&rsquot just heavy machinery and human passengers that were carried, but sometimes other items like this cow!
The cockpit of the G.31has taps that look like they would be more at home in a ship&rsquos engine room, and an increased number of instruments because of the three engines (but limited blind flying equipment). Contrast with the single thickness of corrugated skinning, and the cockpit was open to the elements as was the common standard in the day. Just on either side of the cockpit were the outer engines&rsquo propellers.
The Goldfields G.31s had three American Pratt and Whitney A2 Hornets, nine cylinder radial air-cooled direct-drive engines of 525 hp. These engines had to be hand started via an inertia starter which was a series of geared cogs turning a flywheel. Incidentally the pilot in this shot is Ian Grabowsky.
The Lae aerodrome, with Guinea Airways hangar centre, with three Junkers G.31 freighters visible (VH-UOU & W on the left) and two more Junkers (W.34 type) in between them. A monoplane Westland Widgeon is in the foreground, and two de Havilland Moths complete the aircraft present list.
The rare sportster
Australia was also lucky enough to have an example of the rare Junkers A.50 Junior sportsplane for many years (another example seen here in this 1933 advert for the engine builders). Returned to Germany by current owner Albrecht Würker in 2008 (as covered in Flightpath V.20 N.4) VH-UCC is under restoration to fly once again, and, as he told Flightpath, he would be delighted to hear from anyone with material relating to this machine.
Australia&rsquos first Diesel-powered aircraft
The most modern Junkers type to serve or visit Australia was the Ju 86. Over 20 hours between 22-3 of August 1936, Ju86A-1, D-AXEQ &lsquoBuckeberg&rsquo flew non-stop from Dessau in Germany to Bathurst in Gambia, a distance of 5,800km. Afterwards, flights to South America followed, as well as to Melbourne, Australia, and North Africa.
In 1937, under a unique set of circumstances, Australia temporarily acquired the illustrated Junkers Ju 86B-1. [TOP] It was built in 1937 at Dessau and was described as a &lsquoJu 86B-Australien&rsquo by the company. Flown to Australia by Hans Kommoll as D-AGEY and named &lsquoLawrence Hargrave&rsquo, on arrival it was registered VH-UYA. One of the engines failed on final into Darwin but the landing was made without incident. After replacing the engine, it flew to Charleville in Queensland before a non-stop flight to Melbourne, where it arrived on 27 April.
The aircraft was in Australia as part of barter agreement with a Sydney wool broker, Mr H. Beinssen. Apparently the trade was for £23,000 worth of wool going to Germany and Mr Beinssen got the aircraft for sale in Australia. It was fast for the period, taking ½ of the usual Sydney-Brisbane time, and was intended to take a regular (stopping) passenger run north from Sydney to Townsville, operated by Airlines of Australia. With diesel engines, it was also expected to be very economical with the added benefit of non-flammable fuel.
The trouble was that the Jumo 205 engines proved unreliable, with a number of failures. It was finally dismantled in Melbourne and shipped back to Germany on 25 August 1937.
Saturday, 16 January 2021
Heinkel HD 42 / He 42
Heinkel HD 42/He 42 BB+P? (it could be BB+PI) seaplane trainer. Both floats appear to be damaged at the front. The aircraft's rather unfortunate orientation on the crane's hook seems to indicate that it is being recovered from the water, suggesting an incident in connection with the damaged floats.
The HD 42 was powered by a Junkers L 5 Ga inline engine. Note that the underside of the tips of BB+P?'s upper wing are painted in a darker colour. Exact date and location unknown. (German Aviation 1919-1945 collection)
Junkers Ju 86B - History
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Ju 86E & G
Model: BMW 132
Type: 9-cylinder radials
Number: Two Horsepower: 800 or 880hp
Model: Mercury XIX
Type: 9-cylinder radials
Number: Two Horsepower: 905hp
Ju 86P & R:
Model: Junkers Jumo 207A-1 or 207B-3/V
Type: turbo-charged opposed-piston diesels
Number: Two Horsepower: 1,000hp
Typical: 22.6m (73 ft. 10 in.)
Ju 86P: 25.6m (84 ft.)
Ju 86R: 32m (105 ft.)
Typical: 17.9m (58 ft. 8½ in.)
Ju 86G: 17.2m (56 ft. 5 in.)
Ju 86P, R: 16.46m (54 ft.)
Height: 4.7m (15 ft. 5 in.)
Wing Surface Area: 882.67 sq. ft. (82.00m²)
Single fixed 7.92mm MG 17 Same bomb load
Ju 86R: None
Ju 86abl: First prototype, bomber configuration. Originally powered by Siemens SAM 9 radials.
Ju 86bal: Second prototype, transport configuration. Originally powered by Jumo 205C diesels.
Ju 86cb: Third prototype, bomber configuration. Later powered by Jumo 205C diesels.
Ju 86V4: Production prototype for commercial Ju 86B.
Ju 86V5: Production prototype for Ju 86A bomber.
Ju 86A-0: 13 pre-production bombers.
Ju 86B-0: 7 pre-production transports.
Ju 86C-1: Six Lufthansa transports with Jumo 205C diesels.
Ju 86E-1: Luftwaffe bombers with BMW 132F radials.
Ju 86E-2: Uprated version of E-1.
Ju 86G-1: 40 aircraft modified from Ju 86E-2s with round, glazed nose.
Ju 86K-1: Export version for Sweden & South Africa.
Ju 86K-2: 66 aircraft built for Hungary.
Ju 86K-4: Built for Sweden (B 3A) with Pegasus III radials.
Ju 86K-5: Built for Sweden (B 3B) with Pegasus XII radials.
Ju 86K-6: Export version for Chile and Portugal.
Ju 86K-13: Swedish built with Pegasus radials.
Ju 86P-1 & P-2: High Altitude reconnaisance. Converted from Ju 86D.
File:Four pilots of No. 92 Squadron RAF based at Manston, Kent, pick through the wreckage of a Junkers Ju 87B, which they shot down while it was attempting to attack a convoy in the English Channel on 5 February 194 CH2065.jpg
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Junkers Ju 86B - History
Italeri's 1/72 scale
Junkers Ju 86 Civilian
by Bob Aikens
HyperScale is proudly supported by Squadron.com
Anyone who is interested in finding out more about this aircraft cannot do much better than going to Julian Herrero's fine build and history article (Hyperscale 2003). Trying to improve on that is like trying to re-invent the wheel. I took inspiration from Julian's pictures in trying to get my model to look respectable.
The model pictured here was done straight from the box using the kit decals with no enhancements other than masking tape seat belts, Like most of my builds nowadays it was "keep it simple and don't overeach yourself".
A mild case of 'modeler's block' percipitated this build - having trouble getting something to do from my meagre and dwindling stash, a visit to the small local hobby shop provided a temporary antedote. Almost at random I chose this re-box of the old Italeri kit from the mid - 70s.
Building was pretty straightforward and simple - plain elbow grease eliminating seams. Due to some sort of modeling 'Law of Unintended Effect', even quite basic kits seem to have at least one small saving grace. The one on this model is the nearly perfect [retro] - fit of the engine nacelles they slip onto the wings like fine tiny gloves!
Painting and Markings
Painting was done in two Alclad tones, but I didn't do the requesit laying down of a dark glossy undercoat.
Quite a number of fillings, sanding and primings were needed to get a merely acceptable level of smoothness, so I didn't take it any farther than a good rub-down with 3600 cloth paper.
As might be expected, this didn't produce the usual nice smooth Alclad surface. So I was forced to use several layers of Testors Glosscote to ready the surface for decaling.
The decaling proceeded in the way that it does when you use Italeri kit decals.
Overall this was an interesting and mildly challenging build. The model represents Ju-86B -O, Kismet Race aircraft, 1937. Using circle masks I painted on the white tail disks - and being unsure if a hakenkreuze would have been applied for the race, I left it blank.
Versioner av Ju 86 [ redigera | redigera wikitext ]
- Ju 86A-0 - prototyp 1936, 7 st tillverkade
- Ju 86A-1 - bombflygplan serieproduktion 1936, tillverkade vid ATG, Blohm & Voss, Henschel
- Ju 86B-0 - passagerarflygplan tillverkat för Lufthansa 1936
- Ju 86C-1 - förlängd flygkropp tillverkat för Lufthansa 1937
- Ju 86G-1 - se nedan.
- Ju 86K-1 - med 2 st Pratt & Whitney Hornet export Sverige 1936, 3 st tillverkade
- Ju 86K-4/5 - bombflygplan med Bristol Mercury XII, 12 st sålda till Sverige
- Ju 86K-13 - bombflygplan med Bristol Mercury, licenstillverkade av Saab som B 3C och B 3D
- Ju 86P-2 - se nedan.
- Ju 86Z-7 - passagerarflygplan tillverkat för Sydafrika, Sverige och Bolivia
- Ju 186 - höghöjdsspaningsflygplan med 4 st Jumo 207 motorer, inga tillverkades
- Ju 286 - höghöjdsspaningsflygplan med 6 st Jumo 207 motorer, inga tillverkades
Specifications (Ju 86 R-1) Junkers Ju 86_section_7
Data from The warplanes of the Third Reich, Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II and Warbirds Resource Group Junkers Ju 86_sentence_57
General characteristics Junkers Ju 86_sentence_58
Junkers Ju 86_unordered_list_43
- Crew: 2 (pilot and radio operator) Junkers Ju 86_item_43_50
- Length: 16.46 m (54 ft 0 in) Junkers Ju 86_item_43_51
- Wingspan: 32 m (105 ft 0 in) Junkers Ju 86_item_43_52
- Height: 4.08 m (13 ft 5 in) Junkers Ju 86_item_43_53
- Wing area: 97.06 m (1,044.7 sq ft) Junkers Ju 86_item_43_54
- Empty weight: 6,780 kg (14,947 lb) Junkers Ju 86_item_43_55
- Max takeoff weight: 11,530 kg (25,419 lb) Junkers Ju 86_item_43_56
- Fuel capacity: 1,937 l (512 US gal 426 imp gal) Junkers Ju 86_item_43_57
- Powerplant: 2 × Junkers Jumo 207B-3 6-cylinder liquid-cooled 2-stroke opposed-piston diesel engines, 750 kW (1,000 hp) each for take-off Junkers Ju 86_item_43_58
Junkers Ju 86_description_list_44
- Junkers Ju 86_item_44_59
- Junkers Ju 86_item_44_60
- 560 kW (750 hp) at 12,000 m (40,000 ft) with GM-1Nitrous Oxide injection Junkers Ju 86_item_44_61
Junkers Ju 86_unordered_list_45
Performance Junkers Ju 86_sentence_59
Junkers Ju 86_unordered_list_46
Junkers Ju 86_description_list_47
- Junkers Ju 86_item_47_64
- Junkers Ju 86_item_47_65
- 370 km/h (230 mph 200 kn) at 9,000 m (30,000 ft) Junkers Ju 86_item_47_66
Junkers Ju 86_unordered_list_48
- Cruise speed: 250 km/h (160 mph, 130 kn) at 13,700 m (44,900 ft) Junkers Ju 86_item_48_67
- Range: 1,750 km (1,090 mi, 940 nmi) Junkers Ju 86_item_48_68
- Endurance: 7 hours 10 minutes Junkers Ju 86_item_48_69
- Service ceiling: 14,400 m (47,200 ft) Junkers Ju 86_item_48_70
- Junkers Ju 86_item_47_65
- Junkers Ju 86_item_44_60