Miltiades the Younger (c.554-489 BC)

Miltiades the Younger (c.554-489 BC)


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HTML>Miltiades the Younger (c.554-489 BC)<p>Miltiades the Younger (c.554-489 BC) was the victorious Athenian commander at the battle of Marathon, but he died in disgrace in the following year, a victim of the often poisonous politics of Athens.</p><p>Miltiades was born into a wealthy Athenian family. His uncle had established Athenian authority over an area in the Thracian Chersonese, but died childless. In around 516 BC Miltiades moved from Athens to the Chersonese (Gallipoli), where he ruled as a tyrant, complete with a bodyguard of 500 men. He also married Hegesipyle, a Thracian princess. This all came during a period when Athens was ruled by a series of Tyrants, starting with Peisistratus (ruled 546-528 BC). Miltiades was sent to the Chersonese by his son Hippias, tyrant from 546-510.</p><p>Soon after Miltiades arrived in the Chersonese the Persian Emperor Darius I crossed into Europe for the first time, in preparation for a campaign against the Scythians west of the Black Sea. The Chersonese fell to the Persians and Miltiades was forced to acknowledge Persian rule. He accompanied Darius to the Danube in 513. Darius and the Persians crossed to the north bank to campaign against the Scythians, leaving the Greeks to defend the bridge across the River. According to Herodotus Miltiades tried to convince his fellow Greeks to destroy the bridge, trapping the Persians on the northern side of the river, but was overruled.</p><p>In 499 the Ionian Revolt began. After the Ionian cities of Asia Minor won some victories over the Persians Miltiades joined the revolt. During this period he entered into friendly relations with the recently established Athenian democracy. This may also have been when he captured the islands of Lemnos and Imbros, which he later gave to Athens. After some early successes the Ionians were defeated. In 493 a Persian fleet arrived off the Chersonese. Miltiades realised that his time was up, and fled to Athens with a small fleet of five boats. One boat, captained by his oldest son Metiochos, was captured by the Persians, but he was treated very well and even married a Persian princess. Miltiades did escape with his younger son, Cimon, who was born in c.510 and thus a young adult at the time of the escape.</p><p>Soon after his arrival on Athens, Miltiades was put on trial, accused of tyrannical rule in the Chersonese. However his part in the Ionian Revolt and escape from the Persians meant that he had much support in the city and he was acquitted.</p><p>In 493 Miltiades became one of ten Athenian generals who shared command of the army, a post he held for the next four years. It was clear that the Persians would soon mount an invasion of mainland Greece. The Athenians and Spartans ended a war, and agreed to unite against the invaders.</p><p>The invasion finally came in 490. The Persians landed on the plains of Marathon, near Athens. The Athenians had 10,000 of their own men and 1,000 Plataeans at hand. Miltiades was able to convince the Athenian Assembly to send the army to the heights overlooking the plains of Marathon, where he hoped the terrain would negate the Persian cavalry. As the Athenian army moved towards Marathon, a runner was sent to Sparta, calling for help. The Spartan's replied that they could only come in six days time, at the end of a religious ceremony.</p> <center> <script async src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script><ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:inline-block;width:336px;height:280px" data-ad-client="ca-pub-7135854190016113" data-ad-slot="6327310442"></ins> <script> (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); </script> <div style="display: inline-block !important; vertical-align: top !important;"> <div id="no-mobile"> <script async src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script><ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:inline-block;width:336px;height:280px" data-ad-client="ca-pub-7135854190016113" data-ad-slot="6327310442"></ins> <script> (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); </script> </div> </div> </center> <p>The Athenian generals were now divided on what to do next, with half wanting to wait for the Spartans and half, including Miltiades, wanting to attack at the first opportunity. Miltiades was able to win over an eleventh official, the <em>polemarchos</em>, Callimachus, who had the casting vote. Command of the army was held by each general for a day in turn, but his supporters gave Miltiades their days, so he had command for half of the time.</p><p>He was in command when some Ionian deserters reported that the Persian cavalry was away from the camp. He ordered a general attack, with a thin centre and strong wings. The strong Greek wings defeated the Persians on both flanks and then turned inwards to defeat the Persian centre. The battle of Marathon was a crushing Greek victory. According to Herodotus the Athenians and Plataeans only lost 192 men, while the Persians lost 6,400.</p><p>The Persians had been defeated, but it was clear that their morale had not yet been broken. Once they were back on their ships they attempted to launch a surprise attack on Athens, but the army had made a forced march and arrived back just in time. The Persians then gave up and returned home.</p><p>Miltiades next suggested that Athens should attack Paros and other islands that had supported the Persians. He was given command of this expedition, but it ended in failure. He was accused of misconduct and found guilty. He was punished with a heavy fine, but died in disgrace of a wound suffered on the expedition. His son Cimon managed to clear his debts, and after performing well at the Battle of Salamis came to dominate Athenian politics for twenty years before also falling from grace. Miltiades was remembered in Athens as the man who had saved them from Persian rule.</p> <br> <h2>Miltiades</h2> <p><img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_FIA1w8420rara3qxflEKx80.jpg"></p> <p>"Helmet of Miltiades". The helmet was given as an offering to the temple of Zeus at Olympia by Miltiades. Inscription on the helmet: ΜΙLTIAΔES. Archaeological Museum of Olympia. His helmet read Miltiades dedicates this helmet to Zeus.</p> <p><b>Miltiades</b> (Greek: Μιλτιάδης c. 550 BCE – 489 BCE) was the son of Cimon Coalemos, Ώ] a renowned Olympic chariot-racer. ΐ] Miltiades considered himself a member of the Aeacidae, ΐ] and he was a member of the prominent Philaid clan. He is known mostly for his role in the Battle of Marathon as well as his rather tragic downfall afterwards. His son Cimon was a major Athenian figure of the 470s and 460s BCE. His daughter Elpinice is remembered for her confrontations with Pericles, as recorded by Plutarch.</p> <center> <script async src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script><ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:inline-block;width:336px;height:280px" data-ad-client="ca-pub-7135854190016113" data-ad-slot="6327310442"></ins> <script> (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); </script> <div style="display: inline-block !important; vertical-align: top !important;"> <div id="no-mobile"> <script async src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script><ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:inline-block;width:336px;height:280px" data-ad-client="ca-pub-7135854190016113" data-ad-slot="6327310442"></ins> <script> (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); </script> </div> </div> </center> <br> <h2>Miltiades the Younger (c.554-489 BC) - History</h2> <p><img src=""></p> <p> <b>THE GREATEST WARRIORS IN HISTORY</b></p> <p><img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_0ddtKn6smyv.jpg"> <br>King David <br><i>(c. 1040–970 BC)</i></p> <p><img style="float: left margin-right: 10px" src=""> <br>Joshua ("Yeshua") <br><i>(c. 1500–1390 BC)</i></p> <p><img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_yefZf8Kuvpv8kOH7vu1b4.jpg"> <br>King Leonidas<br> <i>(Born c. 540 BC - died 9 August 480 BC)</i></p> <p> <br><img style="float: left margin-right: 10px" src=""> <br>Hannibal Barca <br> <i>(247–183 or 182 BC)</i> <br></p> <p><img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_Nh7epI95MM6FpTh.jpg"> <br>Alexander The Great<br> <i>(20/21 July 356 – 10/11 June 323 BC)</i></p> <p><img src=""></p> <p> <br> <br>Seleucus I Nicator<br> <i>(ca. 358 BC – 281 BC)</i></p> <p> <br><img src=""> <br>Ptolemy I Soter<br> <i>(c. 367 BC – c. 283 BC)</i></p> <p>Lysimachus (Lysimachos) <br> <i>(360 BC – 281 BC)</i></p> <p><img src=""></p> <p> <br> <br>Antigonus I Monophthalmus<br> <i>(382 BC – 301 BC)</i></p> <p><img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_sPaeJH2EWIt31F.jpg"></p> <p> <br> <br>Spartacus <br><i>(c. 109–71 BC)</i></p> <p> <br><img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_zbo0h2VsmO0bywB.jpg"> <br>Attila The Hun<br> <i>(?–453)</i></p> <p> <br><img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_1c99lepbKs1mEbd5.jpg"> <br>Ghengis Khan<br> <i>(1162? – August 1227)</i></p> <p> <br><img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_3L9MlrZB7aVlhx8MY3.jpg"> <br>William Wallace<br> <i>(born ? - died 23 August 1305)</i></p> <p> <br> <br>Vercingetorix<br> <i>(c. 82 BC – 46 BC)</i></p> <p> <br><img src=""> <br>Tokugawa Ieyasu <br><i>(January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616)</i></p> <p> <br><img style="float: left margin-right: 10px" src=""> <br>Miltiades the Younger <br><i>(c. 550 BC–489 BC)</i> <br></p> <p> <br>Miyamoto Musashi <br><i>(c. 1584 – June 13, 1645)</i></p> <p><img style="float: left margin-right: 10px" src=""> <br>Gaius Julius Caesar <br><i>(13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC)</i></p> <p><img src=""></p> <p><br> King Pyrrhus of Epirus (The Eagle of Epirus) <br><i>(319 - 272 BC)</i></p> <p><img src=""></p> <p> <br>Richard The Lionheart <br><i>(8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199)</i></p> <p><img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_Bwg0bQBD8ld82Zox88rd0o8W.jpg"> <br>Saladin <br><i>(1138-1193)</i></p> <p><img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_wzd5iErScqkA7bq.jpg"> <br>Sun Tzu <br><i>(c. 544—496 BC)</i></p> <p><img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_jzumMr1dPqgItxx.jpg"> <br>William the Conqueror <br><i>(c. 1028 – 9 September 1087)</i></p> <p><img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_lw23rG98I9iC642x.jpg"> <br>Marcus Ulpius Nerva Trajanus Augustus (Trajan) <br><i>(18 September 53 – 9 August 117)</i></p> <center> <script async src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script><ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:inline-block;width:336px;height:280px" data-ad-client="ca-pub-7135854190016113" data-ad-slot="6327310442"></ins> <script> (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); </script> <div style="display: inline-block !important; vertical-align: top !important;"> <div id="no-mobile"> <script async src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script><ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:inline-block;width:336px;height:280px" data-ad-client="ca-pub-7135854190016113" data-ad-slot="6327310442"></ins> <script> (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); </script> </div> </div> </center> <p>King Sitalkes <br><i>(end of VI century B.C.)</i></p> <p><img style="float: left margin-right: 10px" src=""> <br>Shaka Zulu <br><i>(c. 1787 – c. 22 September 1828)</i></p> <p><img src=""></p> <p> <br>Erik "Bloodaxe" Haraldsson <br><i>(born ? - died 954)</i></p> <p><img src=""></p> <p> <br>Brian Boru <br><i>(c. 941–23 April 1014)</i></p> <p><img style="float: left margin-right: 10px" src=""> <br>Meng Tian <br><i>(died 210 BC)</i></p> <p><img src=""> <br>Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Sulla) <br><i>(c. 138 BC – 78 BC)</i></p> <p><img style="float: left margin-right: 10px" src=""> <br>Theodoric the Great <br><i>(454 – August 30, 526)</i></p> <p><img style="float: left margin-right: 10px" src=""> <br>Childeric I <br>(c. 440 – 481/82)</p> <p> <br>Stephen Uroš IV - Dušan the Mighty <br><i>(c. 1308 – 20 December 1355)</i></p> <p><img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_rKDq676bbXG.jpg"> <br>Cyrus the Great <br><i>(c. 600 BC or 576 BC–530 BC)</i></p> <p><img src=""></p> <p> <br>Miloš Obilić <br><i>(born ? - died 1389)</i></p> <p><img src=""></p> <p> <br>Tigranes the Great <br><i>(140 – 55 BC)</i></p> <p>Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey) <br><i>(September 29, 106 BC – September 29, 48 BC)</i></p> <br> <h2>Miltiades the Younger</h2> <p><img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_c3brOm9mhw7.png"></p> <p>Miltaides the Younger: the Athenian mastermind behind who defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon!</p> <p> <br>Miltiades the Younger (550-489 BC) fought a very short battle at the Battle of Marathon. At this battle, the Persians, led overall by the Persian King Darius, went on to try to conquer Greece and expand the Persian Empire, but Miltiades and the Greeks had other ideas. Believing that the Battle of Marathon would be a lengthy battle, Dacis of Persia decided to load up a majority of the Persian elite and sail to Athens while the battle was transpiring, but the Greeks defeated the remaining Persian army within a few hours. After the battle ended with the Greeks destroying the Persians at the Battle of Marathon, Miltiades sent a runner, Pheidippides, to let the Greeks know of the victory, then he died from exhaustion. Datis and the Persians arrived at Athens, and as they went to unload the army off the ships, they were shocked to find the Greeks ready for a second go round, this time with them. Stunned by this, Datis and the Persians sailed back to Persia, much to the dismay of Persian King Darius. This was the first time ever that the Greeks had ever defeated the Persians in battle, which took place in 490 BC. Miltiades was sent to prison after he suffered a serious leg wound, in which he died from gangrene, possibly from the leg wound. </p> <br> <h2>Miltiades is Remembered</h2> <center> <script async src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script><ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:inline-block;width:336px;height:280px" data-ad-client="ca-pub-7135854190016113" data-ad-slot="6327310442"></ins> <script> (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); </script> <div style="display: inline-block !important; vertical-align: top !important;"> <div id="no-mobile"> <script async src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script><ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:inline-block;width:336px;height:280px" data-ad-client="ca-pub-7135854190016113" data-ad-slot="6327310442"></ins> <script> (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); </script> </div> </div> </center> <p>Miltiades is still an iconic legend. Next to Leonidas, Hector, and a few more warriors of ancient Ellada, he is sort of a superstar of ancient Greek legends. Every year, thousands of people read Herodotus’ book discussing the Greek warrior and visit the museum in Olympia where the ancient gift of general Miltiades reminds them of the heroic story of its famous owner.</p> <p><img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_hJv8n6osntIwucCBcg8E1kMh.jpg"></p> <p><em>"Head of Miltiades". Roman-time copy after Greek original from the 5th century BC. ( Public Domain )</em></p> <p><em>Top Image: Helmet of the ancient Greek warrior Miltiades the Younger, Archaeological Museum of Olympia. Source:</em> <em>P</em><em>ublic</em> <em>D</em><em>omain</em></p> <br> <h2>The Historic Battle Of Marathon – Between The Greeks And Persians In 490 BC</h2> <p><img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_gu28hbPY30.jpg"></p> <p>In many ways, the Battle of Marathon ―fought between the ancient Greeks (Athens aided by the Plateans) and the Persian Empire―is arguably one of the greatest battles ever recorded in human history.</p> <p>The reason for this assertion is simply because of the impact it had on the whole of western civilization and the world in general. Believed to have taken place in September 490 B.C., around the bay of Marathon plain of northeastern Attica, Greece, it is largely considered as the first battle in the Greco-Persian Wars.</p> <p>The battle saw the Persian forces commanded by Datis and Artaphernes to invade Athens with a very large army. To counter the invading forces, the Greeks led by the general Miltiades the Younger put up a strong fight by charging at the Persians first. This brave and decisive move by the Greeks helped secure victory over the Persians an event that went on to shape the course of history for over two millennia.</p> <h3>Cause of Hostility</h3> <p>Over the centuries, debates on what might have been the major cause of the battle continue to go on. Historians, however, reason that the root cause of the Battle of Marathon was a classic case of vengeance. In 490 B.C., the mighty Persian king Darius looked west, towards two insignificant Greek city-states―Athens and Sparta―that had insulted and supported the Ionian rebellion against his empire. While Sparta had sent emissaries to the Persian capital warning Darius to cease his attacks on the Greek cities in Asia, Athens, on the other hand, had summoned the audacity to send troops onto Persian soil and to burn the Persian city, Sardis, before scurrying home to safety.</p> <p>Weary of the insults, King Darius sent emissaries to Athens and Sparta demanding the gifts of submission—earth and water. In answer, the Spartans threw the king’s messengers into a well and told them to help themselves to all the earth and water they desired, while the Athenians had the king’s messengers killed. Enraged, King Darius decided to invade the Greek mainland as a way of teaching the Greeks a lesson. And so the first battle in a series of Greco-Persian battles was born.</p> <center> <script async src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script><ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:inline-block;width:336px;height:280px" data-ad-client="ca-pub-7135854190016113" data-ad-slot="6327310442"></ins> <script> (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); </script> <div style="display: inline-block !important; vertical-align: top !important;"> <div id="no-mobile"> <script async src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script><ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:inline-block;width:336px;height:280px" data-ad-client="ca-pub-7135854190016113" data-ad-slot="6327310442"></ins> <script> (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); </script> </div> </div> </center> <h3>Preparation and Battle</h3> <p>Darius ordered his army to destroy Athens and to enslave the survivors. However, trouble within the empire forced Darius to delay retribution. Eight years after Athens had reduced Sardis to ashes, the Persian army finally arrived in Greece and mustered its strength on the Plain of Marathon―a scant two dozen miles from Athens.</p> <p>For nine days, about ten thousand Athenian hoplites watched the Persian army prepare for battle and wondered how best they would be able to resist an army of professional warriors three times their number.</p> <p>The Athenians sent a message to the Spartans seeking support, but the Spartans who were involved in a religious festival refused to come to their aid. Miltiades, however, led his contingent of 10,000 Athenians and 1,000 Plataeans to meet a Persian force of about 15,000 men.</p> <p>For about 5 days, both armies camped on the plains of the Marathon without engaging each other. During this period, the Athenians and their allies succeeded in blocking the two exits from the plain of marathon. This prevented the Persian cavalry from joining the infantry. On September 12, 490 BC, the waiting ended. Before dawn, ten thousand hoplites formed up in columns and waited for the trumpets to signal the order to advance.</p> <p>Their charge created confusion among the Persian ranks who at first could not believe their eyes and wondered how such a meagre force could ever hope to break their lines. Considering how thin the Athenian army was, this charge was seen as madness.</p> <p>However, General Miltiades had ordered the Athenians to form a line equivalent to the stretch of the Persian army in a phalanx formation, and strategically placed his swift men out on the wings while those that weren’t fast were placed in the middle. He hoped to use those on the wings to outflank the incoming Persian soldiers.</p> <p>With regard to Persian army, the strongest men were placed down the middle, while the not so strong soldiers (typically enslaved men) were placed on the flanks. This move would prove costly because those Persian soldiers on the flanks started to disband the moment the battle got severe. This allowed the Greek soldiers on the flanks to move further inroads into the heart of the Persian army and inflict heavy damage on them, which caused the Persians to begin to panic.</p> <p>Realizing that they were outmaneuvered by the Greeks, the Persian soldiers retreated to their ships and upon order from their generals made haste and headed for Athens which was by then without any form of defense. Weary and battle-fatigued, the Greeks raced against them, arriving earlier than the Persians. There, the Greek Athenians defended their homeland with the same vigor and tenacity.</p> <p>After the defeat at Marathon, King Darius desired to attack the Greeks again however, this plan of his was kept on hold because he had to crush a revolt in Egypt, which erupted around 486 B.C.E. Darius would die shortly after the campaigns in Egypt, leaving the task of revisiting the Greeks to his son, Xerxes the Great (also Xerxes I).</p> <center> <script async src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script><ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:inline-block;width:336px;height:280px" data-ad-client="ca-pub-7135854190016113" data-ad-slot="6327310442"></ins> <script> (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); </script> <div style="display: inline-block !important; vertical-align: top !important;"> <div id="no-mobile"> <script async src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script><ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:inline-block;width:336px;height:280px" data-ad-client="ca-pub-7135854190016113" data-ad-slot="6327310442"></ins> <script> (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); </script> </div> </div> </center> <h3>Historical Importance of the Battle of Marathon</h3> <p>The battle of Marathon is noted by scholars to have been important in different ways. Prior their defeat at Marathon, the Persians rarely tasted defeat in battle. Darius had successfully built the Persian army into a fierce and unbeatable force. However, their defeat at Greece showed that even the mightiest of armies can fall, and that resistance if pursued properly could triumph over tyranny.</p> <p>After the battle, the Greeks started to hold a strong belief that they could securely defend themselves from any army seeking to bring them harm. Most importantly, the Battle served as a vital pillar upon which the entire classical Greek civilization was built. Obviously, Greek civilization is what would end up forming the melting pot in which western civilization was brewed, influencing all of the Mediterranean and European history for two millennia.</p> <p>From the Persian perspective, the Greek city-states represented a threat to stability of the Persian Empire. The Persian generals believed that should Greek’s interference in the affairs of the Persia go unchecked, the Persian Empire would go on to fall. Darius’ goal was to make an example of the Greeks and show to the world what could happen to anyone who dare to defy the Persian Empire.</p> <p>Also importantly, the battle of Marathon is a contribution factor to the existence of today’s marathon race. According to legend, an Athenian messenger was sent from the plains of Marathon to Athens―a distance of about 25 miles (40 km). There, he announced the Persian defeat before dying of exhaustion. This tale would later become the basis for the modern marathon race. Herodotus, also relates that a trained runner, Pheidippides, was sent from Athens to Sparta before the battle in order to request assistance from the Spartans. He is said to have covered about 150 miles (240 km) in about two days.</p> <p><strong>(By Ejiofor Ekene Olaedo)</strong></p> <p><strong>SOURCES OF AUTHOR’S INFORMATION</strong></p> <p>Encyclopoedia Britannica. (n.d.). <em>Battle of Marathon</em>. Retrieved May 12, 2020, from Encyclopoedia Britannica: http://www.brittanica.com/event/Battle of marathon</p> <p>Lacey, J. (2011). <em>The First Clash: The Miraculous Greek Victory at Marathon and Its Impact on Western Civilization.</em> Bantam.</p> <p>World History. (2020, January 2). <em>Battle of Marathon: Major Cause and Historical Importance.</em> Retrieved May 22, 2020, from World History Education: https://www.worldhistoryedu.com/battle-of-marathon-major-cause-and-historical-importance/</p> <h4>Liberty Writers Africa</h4> <p>We are a group of writers and editors who is passionate about African liberation, African history, African-American History, African-American Liberation, and General world history. Our platform is dedicated to reporting the good, bad, and ugly sides of African past, and present conditions. We are dedicated to using our voices to speak out for the oppressed peoples of the world and use our opinions to shape ideologies that will save our people.</p> <br> <p>Themistocles (/θəˈmɪstəkliːz/ Greek: Θεμιστοκλῆς Greek pronunciation: [tʰemistoklɛ̂ːs] Themistoklẽs "Glory of the Law" c. 524–459 BC) was an Athenian politician and general. He was one of a new breed.</p> <p><img src=""><img src=""><img src=""><img src=""></p> <br> <h2>Late Archaic Period Events (Ancient Greece) 525 BC to 490 BC</h2> <p><img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_MdZtwc5zBNrX04hzBMnE.jpg">When Egypt becomes the possession of Persian Darius I in 525 BC, the son-in-law of Cyrus the Great will cause a change in the way the Athenians and Spartans view politics and protecting their land. Darius I (later called Darius the Great) was the third Zoroastrian emperor to rule over the land. In this article, you will learn about the change in power that took place in Athens and conflicts involving the Persians.</p> <p>The Persian Empire is believed to have been at its strongest when Darius was in power. The collapse of the empire is usually attributed to his death, which also marked the coronation of his son, Xerxes, who took his place.</p> <p>508 BC: Around 515 BC, Hippias became the sole ruler of Athens, but in 508 BC, the tyrant was forced to leave the city. Before the end of his rule, Hippias gained entryway into Darius’ court at Susa by arranging the marriage between his daughter, Archedike, to Aiantides (son of Hippoklos), who was the tyrant of Lampsakos. A free, democratic Athens without Hippias spelled trouble for the Spartans, who later believed that it would affect Spartan power if their rival city did not have the heavy hand of a tyrant to keep them in line. They made a move to recall Hippias and help him regain his tyranny.</p> <p>However, during this time, Hippias had fled to Persia and the Persians threatened to attack Athens if they did not restore power to Hippias. Ignoring the threats, the Athenians decided that it was more important to fight for democracy in their city. These events would play an important role in the Ionian Revolt (lasting between 499 BC and 493 BC) centered on opposing Persian rule by tyranny.</p> <p>507 BC: The increasing strength of democracy in Athens took place when Greek reformer, Cleisthenes, became the new ruler of the city. Cleisthenes belonged to noble Athenian bloodlines. In history, he is given credit for reforming the constitution of ancient Athens and increasing the foundation of democracy. Sometimes, he is referred to as the “father of Athenian democracy.”</p> <p> <img loading="lazy" src="//ciwanekurd.net/img/hist-2022/10481/image_0xdJNe01hsRL3kc.jpg"></p> <p>490 BC: Darius was a powerful ruler, but he was not indestructible. In 490 BC, the Athenians were victorious in defeating the great ruler at Marathon. The milestone was made possible with the help of Themistocles and Miltiades. Making a name for himself during the early years of Athenian democracy, Themistocles represented the politician with a more forward-thinking approach to government. It was he who pushed for the Athenians to create a stronger naval presence, which would play an important role in defeating Persian forces. At his suggestion, the Athenians built a fleet comprised of 200 triremes.</p> <p>As for Miltiades the Younger, he established himself as the tyrant of the Greek colonies around 516 BC, taking land by force from his rivals and keeping the people as prisoners. Joining the Ionian Revolt in 499 BC against Persian rule, he made nice with Athens. He was responsible for capturing islands that he eventually allowed Athens to take over. When the revolt collapsed, Miltiades fled to Athens to avoid any repercussion from the Persians. He would later lead an Athenian expedition in 489 BC, which consisted of 70 ships, against the Greek-inhabited islands that supported Persia. In the end, the expedition was a failure.</p> <br> <h2>Battle of Marathon and the Olympics</h2> <p>In Ancient Greece , the <strong>Olympic Games</strong> were a series of athletic competitions held every four years in the city of <strong>Olympia</strong> . These were carried out in honor of Zeus and representatives of all the Greek polis could participate in them. The first Olympic Games of Antiquity were held in 776 BC. C., and the last ones, in 393 d. C.</p> <p>In 1896 the first modern Olympic Games were organized in Athens, during which a marathon, that is, a <strong>42-kilometer race</strong> , was <strong>run</strong> .</p> <p>It is often said that by incorporating this competition, the organizers of the 1896 Games wanted to pay tribute to <strong>Filípides</strong> , a soldier who <strong>would have traveled 40 kilometers to warn the Athenians of the victory of Marathon</strong> . However, Philipides did not run from Marathon to Athens, but from Athens to Sparta to ask the Spartans for help. Causes and consequences of Marathon Battle</p> <p>The 1896 tribute was actually collective, since it was intended to immortalize the seven-hour race carried out by the victors of the Battle of Marathon to <strong>prevent the Persians from landing at Falero and attacking Athens</strong> .</p> <center> <div class="addthis_inline_share_toolbox"></div> <center> <script async src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script><ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:inline-block;width:336px;height:280px" data-ad-client="ca-pub-7135854190016113" data-ad-slot="6327310442"></ins> <script> (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); </script> <div style="display: inline-block !important; vertical-align: top !important;"> <div id="no-mobile"> <script async src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script><ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:inline-block;width:336px;height:280px" data-ad-client="ca-pub-7135854190016113" data-ad-slot="6327310442"></ins> <script> (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); 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